Italian

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Context statement

The place of the Italian language and culture in Australia and the world
Italian, also known as Standard Italian or italiano standard, is the official language of Italy, the Vatican City, San Marino and parts of Switzerland.

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PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Languages - Italian are available as PDF documents. 
Languages - Italian: Sequence of content
Languages - Italian: Sequence of Achievement - F-10 Sequence
Languages - Italian: Sequence …

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Years 9 and 10

Years 9 and 10 Band Description

The nature of the learners

At this level, students bring existing knowledge of Italian language and culture and a range of language learning strategies to their learning. They are increasingly aware of the world beyond their own and are engaging with youth-related and social and environmental issues. They require continued guidance and mentoring, but are increasingly independent in terms of analysis, reflection and monitoring of their language learning and intercultural experiences. They are considering future pathways and options, including the possible role of Italian in these.

Italian language learning and use

This is a period of experimenting with a range of modes of communication (for example, digital and hypermedia, collaborative performance and group discussions). Through their greater control of language structures and growing understanding of the variability of language use, learners become more confident in communicating in a range of contexts. Learners use Italian to interact and communicate; to access, exchange and present information; to express feelings and opinions; to participate in imaginative and creative experiences; and to interpret, analyse and create a range of texts and experiences. They use Italian more fluently and monitor their accuracy and use against their knowledge of grammar and associated systems. They explore intercultural experience more deliberately, for example, noting the influence of technology, media and globalisation on language use and communication.

Contexts of interaction

Learners interact with peers and teachers in their immediate school context and with members of broader Italian communities and resources available through a range of actual and virtual environments.

Texts and resources

Learners extend their familiarity with text types and language functions by balancing attention to language forms with purposeful language use. Sequences of tasks provide opportunities for collaborative planning and performance, resource development, and increased use of different language and cultural resources. Learners strengthen their communication strategies and processes of interpreting, creating, evaluating and performing in relation to a widening range of texts. Media resources, fiction and nonfiction texts, performances and research projects allow for exploration of themes of personal and contemporary relevance (for example, global and environmental issues, identity and relationships, and linguistic and cultural diversity). Learners develop critical analysis skills to investigate texts and to identify how language choices shape perspectives and meaning, and how those choices are in turn shaped by context and intention. They learn to consider different viewpoints and experiences, and analyse their own linguistic and cultural stance, and beliefs and practices that influence communication and intercultural exchange.

Features of Italian language use

The focus of learning Italian shifts to expanding learners’ range and control of the linguistic systems to develop the sophistication of language use. They learn to choose appropriate tenses, to identify and create mood, and to use cohesive devices to create extended texts such as narratives, reports and dialogues. They continue to build a metalanguage, using specific terms to assist understanding and control of grammar and textual conventions (for example, adverbs, conditional, imperative, subjunctive, past tenses, reflexive verbs).

Level of support

Learners are encouraged to develop greater autonomy, to self-monitor, and to adjust language in response to their experience in different contexts. They develop independent skills to access resources such as textbooks, dictionaries and online translators, and to critically evaluate the effectiveness of such resources and their role in learning and communicating. Students continue to benefit from scaffolding and support to access and create increasingly complex texts, such as the provision of visual and contextual cues.

The role of English

Italian is used for interaction within and beyond the classroom, for task accomplishment and for some discussion of ideas in texts. English is used, as and when appropriate, to facilitate comparison, evaluation, reflection and substantive discussion.


Years 9 and 10 Content Descriptions

Socialising

Initiate, sustain and extend discussions related to aspirations, relationships and contemporary social issues

[Key concepts: relationship, youth, experience; Key processes: discussing, debating, explaining, corresponding] (ACLITC077 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • corresponding with peers throughout the year (for example, by phone, Skype, email or wikis) to build relationships and share views about home, school, lifestyle, leisure activities and interests
  • interacting in speaking or writing with an Italian contact to seek personal information about their past, current activities and future plans, and to ask about life in Italy and the possibility of visiting in future, for example, Questo è il dottor Bianchi. Le presento la dottoressa Russo. Piacere! Che lavoro fai? Cosa facevi tre anni fa, in Italia? Cosa bevi a tavola? Ben arrivato/a! Entri! Prego. Le dispiace inviarmi una copia di … Distinti saluti
  • sustaining exchanges with others by acknowledging, asking for repetition or clarification, or questioning further, for example, Scusi non ho capito, può ripetere, per favore? Potrebbe ascoltare, per favore? Può aiutarmi a … Mi sono dimenticato/a di
  • using contextual clues and gestures to assist in comprehending and expressing meanings during spoken conversations, such as responding to facial expressions showing emotion or confusion, for example, Ah, ora capisco! È davvero interessante. Come hai/ha detto? Eh sì! Ma scherzi!
  • interviewing class members to gauge views about aspects of daily life (such as school, pastimes, relationships and the local environment), and discussing as a class the major themes and concerns that emerge, for example, Come mai …? Perché …? Secondo te …? Forse ... pensi che …? È chiaro che
  • sharing opinions with peers about experiences, events and interests incorporating language to express emotions and opinions such as approval, gratitude, regret, appreciation or boredom, for example, Ti è piaciuto/a la puntata/il concerto di …? Cosa pensi di …? Preferisco … Penso che … Vorrei … Mi piace di più … Purtroppo ... Insomma!
  • debating pros and cons related to topics such as adolescenti a dieta or the l’uso dei social media, for example, Sono pro/contro ... perché ... Di pro/contro c’è
  • exchanging letters, emails and videos with peers in Italy, comparing aspects of youth lifestyle, school and environment, using comparisons when expressing thoughts and ideas, for example, Come trascorrerete le vacanze estive? Come voi, anche noi andiamo in Italia …
Contribute ideas, opinions and suggestions in interactions related to shared tasks and problem-solving, managing diverse views

[Key concepts: perspective, diversity, collaboration; Key processes: discussing, organising, planning, negotiating] (ACLITC078 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • contributing suggestions about purposes, processes and roles in collaborative planning such as creating an itinerary for a visiting Italian student, for example, Come? Vorresti vedere …? Che ne dici di …? Cosa ne pensi di …? Vogliamo …? Ti piacerebbe ...?
  • planning and making decisions with others (for example, about an event or visit), expressing preferences and asking questions to clarify intentions, for example, Bisogna/propongo di fare così Prima andiamo a …, poi ci fermiamo a … Torneremo a casa entro le nove. Cosa pensi se …? Sei d’accordo? Va bene?
  • participating in scenarios such as visiting friends or going on an outing to the city, including negotiating options and stating wants and needs (for example, Se viene …, vengo anch’ io. Secondo te, sarebbe meglio se …?); inviting peers to attend a celebration or party, and expressing agreement, disagreement, disappointment or enthusiasm when accepting and declining offers, requests and invitations, for example, Che bello! Non partire senza salutarmi … Non credere a queste cose. Conviene prendere l’autobus. T’interessa venire ...? Sei libero ...? Non mi va. Che delusione!
  • making shared decisions, solving problems and discussing alternative solutions
  • contributing suggestions in the context of undertaking a social project such as visiting a childcare centre or the local Italian aged-care home
Participate in spoken or written transactions to obtain goods and services, including expressing views on quality and making complaints and recommendations

[Key concepts: negotiation, value; Key processes: interacting, persuading, complaining] (ACLITC079 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • participating in face-to-face interactions with peers to persuade them to purchase items such as tickets, games or clothing, for example, Questa giacca è la più elegante di tutte; ma questa costa meno, pur essendo di un bel tessuto
  • exchanging a purchased item, for example, Mi dispiace, ma non funziona bene, c’è un difetto Vorrei cambiarlo/a
  • negotiating over price, for example, Costa un po’ troppo, mi può fare uno sconto? È se ne compro due paia?
Interact in discussions by questioning, making suggestions and expressing opinions, and reflect on experiences of classroom interactions

[Key concepts: interaction, relationship, perspective; Key processes: expressing, questioning, reflecting] (ACLITC080 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • interviewing class members, asking them, for example, to review an experience or to make suggestions for future study topics in areas of interest, for example, A mio parere Forse … Un’ idea sarebbe; Si potrebbe ampliare la seconda parte. Sei d'accordo di/se ...?
  • participating in classroom discussions about how meanings can be interpreted or misinterpreted by others, for example, keeping a classroom journal with examples of language used in contexts within and outside the classroom as a basis for group discussion, for example, fare feste, fare il filo a …, a mani vuote, perdersi, spalmare, rendere pan per focaccia

Informing

Analyse, synthesise and evaluate ideas and information from multiple sources on a range of contemporary issues

[Key concepts: perspectives, representation, bias; Key processes: interpreting, evaluating, summarising, connecting, analysing] (ACLITC081 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • listening to, viewing and reading authentic texts and asking critical literacy questions such as Chi è l’autore?; Di cosa si tratta?; Per chi è stato scritto?; Qual è il tema?; Da quale/i punto/i di vista è presentato? Qual è lo scopo?
  • gathering information on an issue from different sources and reporting on it to others, using tools such as tables, graphic organisers and charts, and discussing whether the information is similar or different in different sources and why
  • extracting details and main ideas, making judgements about their relevance and discussing contrasting points of view, for example, selecting the main events from an article, identifying core data from interviews, identifying gist and main point/s of a spoken interaction, or analysing different interpretations of meaning in a conversation

  • summarising the message or argument of a text such as an advertisement, poster or article, and using evidence from the text to consider how claims are supported
  • comparing different perspectives on the same event or on a topical issue such as i rapporti intergenerazionali, l’ambiente, le scelte alimentari, il consumo del grano transgenico, i rapporti genitori-figli
  • using dictionaries effectively and accessing reference materials such as word lists and grammar references in print and online resources to assist and refine understanding of content
Give information in different forms, offering own views in relation to the content and considering the significance for particular audiences

[Key concepts: media, message, opinion; Key processes: designing, evaluating, persuading] (ACLITC082 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • using models of media texts such as television reports, video clips and social media to create informative texts in spoken and written form, to achieve different purposes, for example, to persuade, to entertain or to inspire, such as a weather report, a sports report, a magazine article about an issue or event, or a travel brochure promoting a local region or product, for example, Il tempo previsto per domani è L’aspetto più interessante da capire è … Venite in Liguria! Vi aspettiamo! Cosa aspettate? Insomma gli immigrati possono essere una grande risorsa. Le olive siciliane sono le più gustose.
  • designing texts such as an advertisement or magazine cover for a particular audience, making choices about images, cultural references, music and colour, and explaining reasons for choices
  • conveying ideas drawn from different areas of learning (such as health and nutrition, design, or biological science) to inform others, for example, Venite! Ascoltate e provate …! Usalo/a due volte al giorno e non te ne pentirai!

Creating

Read, discuss and review a range of imaginative texts and respond by expressing opinions, explaining the themes, discussing characters, and considering language use and cultural meanings

[Key concepts: imagination, emotion, voice; Key processes: interpreting, comparing; Key text types: short story, biography, film, poem, song] (ACLITC083 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • analysing and discussing emotional impact of text features such as use of hyperbole and metaphors to express emotions and convey attitudes, for example, Mi piace da matti/da morire! ... È una vita che aspetto! Sei una volpe! ... La Divinia Commedia è lo specchio della società medievale italiana
  • investigating the social context in which a text was created and how these factors influenced the ideas and expression of the text, for example, considering the author’s background, prior or related events and figures of importance, for example, Mi piace da morire!
  • interpreting the use of images, sounds, gesture and language choices to convey cultural concepts and ideals in Italian texts, for example, the didactic nature of Italian pop songs, the neorealism of Italian film, social issues captured in graffiti
  • listening to, viewing or reading traditional and contemporary texts such as stories, fables, films and songs to understand how moral values and characteristics are portrayed, such as being respectful, caring, clever and honest
  • expressing thoughts and ideas about how texts convey implicit and explicit values and beliefs which are associated with Italian culture across generations, for example, viewing and discussing excerpts from La vita è bella, Pane e tulipani, Pane e cioccolato or America, or discussing the historical setting of the film Caterina va in città and the main character's attitude to life
  • reading contemporary texts such as poetry or song lyrics to explore and discuss aspects of Italian society and culture that are addressed, for example, current social themes such as youth, unemployment, immigration to Italy, asylum seekers, education, university
Create a range of imaginative texts, considering how to represent ideas, characters and events

[Key concepts: emotion, expression, choice, voice, stance; Key processes: composing, reviewing, considering impact; Key text types: song, poem, story, drama] (ACLITC084 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • creating stories with various settings, characters and events, using, for example, video, cartoon, games
  • creating texts to entertain others by expressing ideas such as romance, danger and excitement, for example, Sei bella come il sole! Attenti! Mamma mia! Acqua azzurra, acqua Chiara. Sei matto!
  • creating reflective texts to present feelings about themes of personal or social relevance, such as friendships/relationships and contemporary issues, Mi fa paura. Mi fa arrabbiare. Mi sorprende. Mi dà coraggio. Non sopporto la violenza dell’uomo sulla donna. Ho un sogno … Mi piacerebbe … Condivido le opinioni/le idee di … perché …

Translating

Translate a range of texts and discuss how to convey concepts across different linguistic and cultural contexts

[Key concepts: representation, sensitivity, equivalence; Key processes: translating, reviewing, comparing] (ACLITC085 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • analysing texts such as signs and considering the lack of equivalence in translation, for example, le maschere della Commedia dell’Arte, l’abito bianco nel matrimonio, il vestito nero, i riti del funerale, la visita domenicale al cimitero, I “fiori dei morti”
  • reading and listening to multiple interpretations of the same text and to different perspectives within texts in Italian (for example, reading messages on a particular theme on social media sites, emails, blogs and wikis), and sharing understanding of cultural meanings and opinions
  • reflecting on their own experiences of the process of translating
  • using strategies to maintain the integrity of meaning of original texts when translating and interpreting for different audiences, for example, considering the use of register, colloquialisms and idioms, and explaining culture-specific concepts such as ‘the outback’ or ‘slip, slop, slap’
Create bilingual texts that reveal aspects of Australian culture for Italian-speaking audiences and vice versa

[Key concepts: cultural positioning, sensitivity; Key processes: translating, captioning] (ACLITC086 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • creating bilingual texts for Italian speakers in Australia, for example, leaflets about recommended goods and services for students, businesspeople, a sports team or senior citizens arriving from Italy
  • creating bilingual signage for an event, bilingual captions for a display, or bilingual text for a discussion board

Reflecting

Reflect on participation in intercultural exchange, taking responsibility for contributing to mutual understanding

[Key concepts: meaning, representation, history/origin, understanding; Key processes: comparing, reflecting] (ACLITC087 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • exchanging correspondence with peers, reviewing and adapting own contribution when meaning is not clear, for example, providing further explanation or an alternative way of expressing an idea, for example, Intendo dire che … Sottolineo l’importanza di …
  • considering own and others’ responses and reactions in Italian–English intercultural exchange, questioning assumptions and values
  • creating texts to share with Italian peers, considering how own cultural practices and values may be interpreted, for example, ways of showing respect, family taboos, or involvement in religious, sport or community organisations
  • reflecting on and explaining practices that need to be considered when communicating across Italian- and English-speaking languages and cultures
  • considering how their own behaviour may be interpreted by Italians in Italy and in the diaspora
  • analysing correspondence with Italian peers to notice what questions are asked about lifestyle and practices in Australia, and reflecting on own questions and the assumptions these reveal
Investigate and share family and cultural traditions and experiences, considering how these have shaped and continue to shape personal identity

[Key concepts: membership, self/other, identity, multiplicity; Key processes: reflecting, explaining] (ACLITC088 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • sharing ideas about themselves (for example, describing memberships and special talents, explaining family traditions, writing an autobiographical text), and reflecting on themselves as an interactant in Italian/English intercultural exchanges and how they want to be perceived
  • considering how their identity has changed over time, based on experiences recorded in a journal throughout the school year
  • expressing to others how Italian is part of their identity, and reflecting on when, how and why they use Italian (and other known languages)
  • reflecting on how language and culture shape their identity, history and understanding

Systems of language

Use appropriate Italian pronunciation, stress and intonation in increasingly complex sentences and texts (ACLITU089 - Scootle )
  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • developing control of consonant and vowel combinations, double consonants, intonation, stress and accents when reading aloud
  • recognising that pronunciation, intonation, rhythm and pace assist in making meaning in interactions and applying this knowledge to own communication, for example, in reading stories to young children, asking questions, expressing emotion, exclamations and commands
Extend grammatical knowledge, including present, past and future tenses, and the conditional and subjunctive mood, to interpret and create meaning in texts (ACLITU090 - Scootle )
  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • introducing additional information when describing actions, people and objects by using a range of prepositions, including articulated prepositions and special uses of a, di and da, for example, Pratico il nuoto da 6 anni. Hai una faccia da schiaffi! Fatto a mano!
  • using pronouns to refer to the person carrying out an action or to refer to somebody or something, including personal pronouns (use, position and elusion), reflexive pronouns, direct and indirect object pronouns, relative pronouns, demonstrative pronouns, possessive pronouns, and the use of the impersonal si, ci/vi, ne
  • using adverbs and adverbial phrases of manner, place and time to modify the meaning of verbs and adjectives, for example, proprio, troppo, abbastanza, specialmente, soprattutto, spesso, quasi mai, nemmeno, neanche
  • describing events across different times, choosing appropriate tenses, including present, present perfect, imperfect and future tenses, conditional and the subjunctive mood
  • connecting or elaborating clauses by using conjunctions, including siccome, invece, sebbene, nonostante, anche, dunque, quindi, cioè
  • using cohesive devices to link, clarify, contrast, relate or sequence ideas and modify meaning in written and spoken texts, for example, Non avevo più soldi, quindi sono tornato a casa
  • developing metalanguage to extend discussions of word order, tenses and verb moods, using terms such as ‘adverbs’, ‘pronouns’, ‘conditional’ and ‘subjunctive’, for example, How do we form the present perfect tense of a reflexive verb? What is meant by the subjunctive and when is it used?
Analyse and apply linguistic, cultural and textual features of specific text types (ACLITU091 - Scootle )
  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • using knowledge of text types in Italian to analyse different texts, for example, a narrative, letter, recipe, message or report
  • comparing Italian and English versions of particular text types, noticing any differences
  • using knowledge of text types to create texts that respect the conventions

Language variation and change

Investigate how language varies according to context and speakers (ACLITU092 - Scootle )
  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • comparing texts created for different audiences, such as advertisements, brochures and signs for urban and rural communities or different regions, noticing how the language reflects ideas and concerns that are important to different communities
  • analysing differences in lexis and syntax between regional uses of Standard Italian and dialect
  • exploring texts associated with particular subgroups in Italian communities (for example, children, youth, women, the elderly, rappers, police, athletes) to understand how groups develop their own language and how this influences membership
  • analysing degrees of formality in correspondence and dialogue to discover features of language that affect formality, for example, the use of the subjunctive (Qualunque cosa vuoi, non fare complimenti. Qualunque cosa Lei voglia, non faccia complimenti)
Recognise how Italian language and culture have evolved and how they continue to change over time due to influences such as changing contexts and intercultural contact (ACLITU093 - Scootle )
  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • develop awareness of the ecology of languages in local settings by collecting examples of Italian used in the local landscape, such as in particular parts of the city or at markets, and discussing how phenomena might be explained, for example, by noticing the demographics of a particular suburb or noticing the use of Australo-Italian
  • investigating trends in the use of dialects and Standard Italian (for example, by interviewing members of Italian communities to discuss contexts in which dialects and/or Standard Italian are used) and reflecting on hybrid language use, particularly in the context of the diaspora
  • exploring the dynamic nature of language, such as the influence of English in Italian, to express concepts and practices in areas such as music, technology and popular culture, for example, cliccare, digitare, formattare, autostop, autogrill, il manager, la leader
  • analysing samples of Italian language captured in different contexts in which Italian is used, and identifying influences of other languages and cultures
Understand that language use has the power to influence social relationships, beliefs and values (ACLITU094 - Scootle )
  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • examining the language of texts such as protest songs, posters and graffiti to identify ways in which language is used for social commentary
  • identifying features of language such as lexical choices and idiomatic expressions used to achieve different purposes, for example, Chiamaci — ti aspettiamo (advertising). Batti un colpo
  • investigating the impact of media and technology on Italian, including blended forms used to express new concepts, for example, the influence of English in Italian media (Fra le iniziative che vale la pena ricordare, c'è la campagna di sensibilizzazione online ‘Stop Cyberbullismo’, avviata nel 2008 dal Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione)
  • analysing Italian vocabulary related to art, music and cuisine and the impact this has had on other languages, for example, the use of terms such as opera, chiaroscuro, allegro con brio, le lasagne verdi
  • reflecting on own experiences of the influence of language and culture, identifying experiences of inclusion or exclusion, or the marking of respect, values and attitudes

Role of language and culture

Analyse how linguistic choices construct and reflect ideas, practices and values, and consider how these influence the exchange of meaning (ACLITU095 - Scootle )
  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • identifying specific expressions that reflect cultural concepts in different experiences and texts, for example, sono in pausa pranzo, faccio il pisolino, Andiamo a prendere un aperitivo
  • reflecting on how linguistic choices of different language users might be interpreted by speakers of Italian
  • explaining how certain sentence structures reveal differences in social status, cultural background and generation, for example, use of voi form instead of Lei in Nonno, cosa pensate di questo?
  • keeping a journal to record perceptions of how using and learning Italian has impacted on their own assumptions about Italian language and culture
  • noticing that people’s choice of language in interactions reflects their cultural situatedness/positioning

Years 9 and 10 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 10, students use written and spoken Italian to interact with others in a range of contexts and for a range of purposes. They discuss topics such as education, work, the environment and youth issues as well as concepts from a range of learning areas. They recount experiences, and express feelings and opinions, agreement and disagreement, using present, past and future tenses, and linking statements with both coordinating and subordinating conjunctions, for example, Era stanca, così non è uscita. Non mi piace quel romanzo perché è triste! Prima siamo andati al cinema, poi siamo andati a prendere un gelato. They demonstrate grammatical control when using complex sentences. They create a range of connected texts and interact with some degree of personalisation on a variety of subjects related to their own interests. In classroom discussions, they present and communicate personal thoughts and opinions, and account for and sustain a particular point of view, for example, Non c’ è dubbio che … Credo che questi articoli offrano solo un punto di vista. They identify key ideas in different text types dealing with both concrete and abstract topics. They follow the development and relationship of ideas, identifying, for example, identifying sequencing, cause and effect, and consequences. They compare and evaluate ideas across languages and cultures, for example, Secondo me … dal mio punto di vista … per quanto mi riguarda. I giovani italiani sono più interessati nella politica. They discuss future plans and aspirations. Students develop and defend interpretations of texts and diverse points of view, and elaborate, clarify and qualify ideas using supporting evidence and argument. They present real or imaginary events and experiences in narratives, descriptions and recounts. They translate texts and produce bilingual texts, recognising that not all concepts can necessarily be rendered fully in another language.

Students reflect on their experience of learning Italian language and culture. They exchange opinions and responses, noting how these may have changed over time. They identify ways in which writers and speakers make choices when using language, and make connections between language used, cultural concepts expressed and their own experiences or views. They reflect on their own and others’ use of language, the language choices made, and the cultural assumptions or understandings which shape them. They analyse how culture affects communication and the making and interpreting of meaning, and how languages reflect cultures.