Indonesian

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Context statement

The place of the Indonesian language and culture in Australia and in the world
The languages of the Indonesian archipelago have been used in Australia since contact several centuries ago between the peoples of the islands now known as Indonesia and the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples of northern Australia.

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PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Languages - Indonesian are available as PDF documents. 
Languages - Indonesian: Sequence of content
Languages - Indonesian: Sequence of Achievement - F-10 Sequence
Languages - Indonesian: …

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Years 9 and 10

Years 9 and 10 Band Description

The nature of the learners

At this level, students bring to their learning prior knowledge of Indonesian language and culture, and a range of language learning strategies. They are increasingly aware of the world beyond their own and are engaging with youth, social and environmental issues. They require guidance in learning Indonesian; however, they are increasingly independent and capable of analysis and reflection, including in relation to intercultural experiences. They are considering their future pathways and choices, including how Indonesian could be part of these.

Indonesian language learning and use

Learners engage with a range of texts in Indonesian. They participate individually and in groups in tasks and experiences, such as corresponding with Indonesian peers, reviewing a video clip or planning an excursion. They participate in presentations, conversations, narration and interviews, sometimes with preparation and sometimes spontaneously. Learners acquire skills in analysing and translating increasingly complex texts, such as emails, recipes, poems, articles and songs. They use modelled language to write for personal and public purposes, such as journal entries, emails, blogs, scripts, and notes for a speech or debate.

Contexts of interaction

Learners interact with teachers and peers and may have access to members of the Indonesian-speaking community via online technologies. They may also encounter Indonesian in the wider community, such as in the media, film festivals, community events, guest speakers, exchange teachers/assistants or in-country travel.

Texts and resources

Learners use a wide range of texts designed for language learning, such as textbooks, teacher-generated materials and online resources. Their learning is enriched by exposure to a range of authentic texts from the Indonesian-speaking community, such as websites, films, stories, songs, television programs, advertisements and magazines.

Features of Indonesian language use

Learners extend their grammatical knowledge and metalanguage while beginning to explore important features of Indonesian such as register and object-focus construction. They consider connections between language and culture such as jamu, mudik, kewajiban and expressions such as Bhinneka Tunggal Ika, and make comparisons with their own language and culture. They consider language variation, including through exposure to colloquial language such as in teenage magazines and social networking sites.

Level of support

Learners are increasingly aware of and responsible for their own learning, working independently to address their needs such as by accessing technologies to memorise, learn, and expand their language repertoire. They continue to access word lists, graphic organisers, modelled texts, dictionaries and teacher feedback to interpret and create texts. They require explicit instruction of the grammatical system and opportunities to discuss, practise and apply their knowledge. They may keep records of their learning, such as through an e-journal or folio, and use these to reflect on their language learning and intercultural experiences.

The role of English

English provides a basis for linguistic and cultural comparison in learning Indonesian. English is also the medium for expressing experiences, abstract ideas and personal views at a level beyond learners’ range in Indonesian, such as justifying a position on a social issue or exploring linguistic and cultural practices. English may be used in conjunction with Indonesian to conduct research (such as investigating a social issue or cultural practice), in translating, and in communicating bilingually.


Years 9 and 10 Content Descriptions

Using language for communicative purposes in interpreting, creating and exchanging meaning.

Socialising

Interacting orally and in writing to exchange, ideas, opinions, experiences, thoughts and feelings; and participating in planning, negotiating, deciding and taking action.

Build relationships by sharing personal opinions, memories and feelings about aspects of childhood, teenage life and aspirations

[Key concepts: youth, memory; Key processes: developing relationships, building connections] (ACLINC069 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • corresponding with peers such as by using telephone/video calls, SMS or social media to build relationships and share views on aspects of teenage life such as friends, responsibilities, interests, aspirations and topical issues
  • creating an autobiographical account to share with others describing key milestones in own life, for example, a significant birthday, an overseas trip, a religious ceremony, a sporting event, music accreditation, getting a learner’s permit
  • sending (digital) greeting cards or messages to express feelings or attitudes towards people, events and interests, for example, expressing regret, sympathy, dissatisfaction, admiration or gratitude
  • participating in exchanges, using strategies to initiate and sustain interactions, such as showing agreement or surprise, or asking for clarification or confirmation, for example, Boleh saya bertanya…?, Apa maksudmu?, Maaf?, Oh, begitu
Take responsibility by initiating interactions, solving problems and encouraging others to act

[Key processes: discussing, persuading] (ACLINC070 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • negotiating arrangements, weighing up alternatives and reaching shared decisions, for example, Sudah ada acara besok malam?, Bagaimana kalau kita ke…, Lebih baik naik…atau…?, Kamu pilih yang mana?
  • solving problems by discussing ideas, suggesting a range of options, making concessions or finding ways to attain agreement/consensus, for example, Menurut pendapat saya…, Tentu lebih baik kalau…, Sesudah dipikirkan dengan serius…, Dilihat baik buruknya
  • transacting for goods and services, including persuading someone to sell them something or change an item (for example, Silakan lihat-lihat saja, Coba dulu) and evaluating quality, for example, harganya tidak mahal tapi mutunya tinggi
  • participating in real and simulated transactions and considering ethical and/or competitive dimensions, for example, bargaining over the price of a watch, the service of a pembantu, or the price of a bride in Dayak communities
Engage in language learning tasks and experiences through discussion, justifying opinions and reflecting on own language learning

[Key concept: metalanguage; Key processes: justifying, reflecting] (ACLINC071 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • interacting in class activities such as games or events, by taking turns, expressing agreement/disagreement or giving encouragement/praise or critique, for example, Giliran saya, Saya setuju, Memang, ide bagus
  • participating in discussions using language to express opinions, for example, Kamu merasa bagaimana?, dibandingkan, di satu pihak…di lain pihak, Saya tidak heran karena…, perspektif saya berubah, dari segi lain…
  • discussing language and language learning using metalanguage, for example, kata dasar, kata kerja, bentuk pasif, akronim, singkatan

Informing

Obtaining, processing, interpreting and conveying information through a range of oral, written and multimodal texts; developing and applying knowledge.

Investigate, synthesise and evaluate information from a range of perspectives in relation to topical issues and concepts from a range of learning areas

[Key concepts: representation, bias; Key processes: synthesising, evaluating] (ACLINC072 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • comparing and evaluating a range of perspectives on topics such as sport, health, music and religion, and considering why people may hold different perspectives
  • obtaining information in order to debate issues of interest such as the environment, expectations of teenagers, and the generation gap, and cultural practices such as marriage or rites of passage, using persuasive or evaluative language, for example, Saya percaya…, Ini pasti berguna bagi…, mau tidak mau
  • investigating aspects of Indonesian culture to choose a particular course of action, for example, determining a suitable placement for an Indonesian exchange student, a suitable menu for a group of Indonesian visitors, or an appropriate time of year to visit Indonesia
  • distinguishing between fact and opinion in texts such as articles and reports, and using critical literacy skills to recognise bias, for example, identifying the author, audience and purpose of the text
  • researching a concept or issue, including those drawn from other learning areas such as art, history, science, geography or health
  • identifying and evaluating ways in which values shape content and language in texts such as announcements, surveys, interviews, documentaries, recipes, advertisements, web pages or magazines
  • listening to, viewing and reading texts such as interviews, documentaries and speeches to obtain and synthesise information and use it in new forms, for example, creating a profile of a famous person from an interview
Construct and present a range of texts (such as presentations, reports and reviews) related to social issues and topics of interest

[Key concepts: society, environment, media; Key processes: constructing, persuading] (ACLINC073 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Sustainability
  • creating informative texts such as posters, brochures and web pages, for example, a brochure promoting a holiday destination, a poster for a doctor’s surgery encouraging healthy eating, a web page reviewing new music releases
  • giving presentations presenting different perspectives on an issue, for example, discussing mainstream medical treatments and alternatives such as jamu
  • presenting information on topics such as part-time work, balancing study and leisure, or recycling to conserve resources, explaining and justifying opinions using for example, alasannya begini, ternyata, tidak dapat disangkal, mau tak mau, sehingga, setidak-tidaknya, jangan-jangan, oleh karena itu
    • Sustainability
  • writing persuasive texts such as blogs, tweets and posts to persuade or convince others, for example, kita semua tahu, kalian tentu setuju, misalnya, keadaannya buruk sekali, bukan?

Creating

Engaging with imaginative experience by participating in responding to and creating a range of texts, such as stories, songs, drama and music.

Engage with a variety of imaginative texts, analysing ideas and values, discussing responses and altering key aspects

[Key concept: values; Key processes: analysing, interpreting, modifying; Key text types: song, poetry, script] (ACLINC074 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • listening to, viewing and reading a range of texts such as video clips, computer games, comics, television drama or game shows, and expressing personal opinions about key aspects, for example, pada pendapat saya cerita ini…, saya lebih suka/kurang suka tema fantasi, karakter utamanya menarik sekali
  • reading texts such as extracts from a biography or diary for enjoyment and to gain insights into other people’s experiences and perspectives
  • modifying existing texts, for example, creating an alternative ending, introducing a new character, changing the setting or adding a major event, or providing a video clip to accompany and reinforce the meaning expressed in song lyrics
  • creating texts to parody existing texts and to explore a range of genres, for example, re-creating a music clip or advertisement
  • analysing language and techniques used in contemporary drama, television programs, poetry and film, such as hyperbole, imagery, humour, music and camera angles, for example, adegan, plesetan
  • identifying and responding to key messages and values in traditional texts such as dongeng, wayang and pantun, and considering their relevance in modern times
  • re-creating texts such as fairy tales, legends or myths from a different cultural perspective
  • discussing how texts such as films, plays and songs convey social issues (such as conflict in relationships or poverty) and values such as piety and humility
Create a variety of imaginative texts to express ideas, attitudes and values, for a range of audiences

[Key concept: entertainment; Key processes: expressing, adapting; Key text types: drama, poetry, rap, cartoon] (ACLINC075 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • creating texts such as a photo story, play, cartoon or movie with voiceovers or subtitles to entertain peers, including experimenting with humour
  • creating and performing texts such as songs and raps, including in multimedia form, to express emotions and attitudes towards a particular social issue or event
  • writing and performing a script or dramatic episode such as a detective story, mystery or adventure

Translating

Moving between languages and cultures orally and in writing, recognising different interpretations and explaining these to others.

Translate a range of informative, literary and personal texts, comparing interpretations and explaining how cultural perspectives and concepts have been represented

[Key concept: representation; Key processes: interpreting, comparing, explaining] (ACLINC076 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • translating short texts and excerpts from a range of informative and literary texts, and reflecting on aspects of culture embedded in idiomatic language and proverbs, for example, proverbs such as lain ladang lain belalang, Tak kan lari gunung dikejar or sayings such as ‘It’s raining cats and dogs’, ‘as tough as nails’
  • choosing how to best represent cultural concepts and expressions, for example, ‘best friend’ (teman baik), ‘better late than never’ (biar lambat asal selamat), ‘home sweet home’ (kampung halaman/tanah air), and those for special occasions such as Maaf lahir batin, panjang umurnya
  • translating signs and symbols such as public signs and emoticons, for example, ^_^ (senang), >^< (marah), O.O (heran)
Create parallel texts in Indonesian and in English for a range of purposes and audiences, for the wider community

[Key concept: bilinguality; Key processes: adjusting, interpreting, reflecting] (ACLINC077 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • creating bilingual texts such as video clips with subtitles explaining Australian cultural practices, for example, bushwalking, New Year’s Eve celebrations, the Melbourne Cup
  • providing captions or commentaries to accompany Indonesian texts such as song lyrics, video clips and film extracts, for parents and members of the school community
  • producing public texts such as signs, notices and posters in both Indonesian and English, for the school and wider community, and reflecting on the process of working in both languages

Reflecting

Participating in intercultural exchange, questioning reactions and assumptions; and considering how interaction shapes communication and identity.

Make choices while using Indonesian, recognising own assumptions and taking responsibility for modifying language for different cultural perspectives

[Key concept: mutual understanding; Key processes: adapting, taking responsibility] (ACLINC078 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • reflecting on how own language use might be perceived by Indonesian speakers and making adjustments, such as being self-effacing rather than boastful (Kalau saya tidak salah); being indirect such as, terserahlah and lain kali, ya; using passive rather than active construction such as Silahkan diminum tehnya; and avoiding negative expressions, for example, kalau kurang jelas…
  • noticing tensions and gains that might arise during interactions and considering how to respond appropriately, for example, knowing that Indonesians like to please and therefore may give an inaccurate answer rather than show lack of knowledge, or recognising the importance of waiting until invited to drink or eat
  • interacting with Indonesian peers, considering how to engage with or respond to topics that may not be commonly discussed in Australia , such as involvement in religion, for example, berpuasa, naik haji or matters such as menstruation
  • sharing reactions to intercultural experiences and building on comments in discussions with peers, for example, Saya setuju dengan….; sama sekali tidak senang….; kejadian itu kurang enak…; Pengalaman ini membuka mata saya…
Engage in intercultural experiences, reflecting on how aspects of identity such as ethnicity and religion influence language use and understanding of the experience

[Key concepts: image, identity; Key processes: explaining, reflecting] (ACLINC079 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • sharing personal information with Indonesian peers, in conversations and correspondence, choosing which aspects of own identity to convey and noticing how language use reflects aspects of identity such as family background and religion
  • analysing how own cultural norms impact on interpretations of Indonesian texts, for example, noticing reactions to an article about cultural practices such as upacara mengikir gigi, an advice column about having a boyfriend or girlfriend, or a fashion blog about ways to wear a hijab
  • reflecting on the role of language in expressing own identity, considering when, with whom and why different languages are used and reflecting on whether own identity changes in different languages, for example, use of gesture and register
  • describing impressions and reactions while reflecting on intercultural learning, for example, saya rasa, lebih daripada… dibandingkan..., sekarang saya paham/mengerti, mata saya terbuka (…membuka mata saya)
  • monitoring and recording own reactions when communicating in Indonesian, for example, keeping a journal of key moments and considering how own perspective may have changed over time

Analysing and understanding language and culture as resources for interpreting and shaping meaning in intercultural exchange.

Systems of language

Understanding the language system, including sound, writing, grammar and text.

Understand pronunciation and intonation conventions, and apply to new words with affixation and a range of complex sentences

[Key concept: fluency; Key processes: prioritising, emphasising] (ACLINU080 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • recognising the role of stress and rhythm in creating emphasis, for example, recurring patterns, chorus, rhymes and onomatopoeia
  • noticing how tone can convey emotion, such as in colloquial language, for example, kasihan deh, bagi dong, aku dikasih nggak
  • using elision in informal communication, for example, mau [atau] nggak?, mahal s[e]kali, [bara]ngkali
  • recognising that Indonesian may allow more than one spelling of loan words, for example, bis/bus, system/sistim, propinsi/provinsi, moderen/modern
  • knowing when to pause in complex sentences with embedded clauses
Analyse complex noun and verb forms, and recognise when and how to use object-focus construction

[Key concept: passive voice, transitivity; Key processes: analysing, manipulating] (ACLINU081 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • describing people and things using, for example:
    • compound nouns (sayur-mayur, merah darah)
    • acronyms (puskesmas) and abbreviations (SMU, hp)
    • indicators of groups or plurals (kaum, para, kalian)
    • terms of address (Kak, Dik, Mas, Mbak, bang) and particles (diminutive Si and honorific Sang)
    • classifiers (buah, helai, potong, ikat)
  • expressing possession using word order, for example, siswa pertukaran, kartu telepon
  • describing the qualities of people and things using, for example:
    • adjectives using me-/me-kan (menarik, menakjubkan, mengesankan)
    • adjectives using the prefix pe- (to describe enduring attributes of behaviour or character: pemalu, pendiam, pemarah, pemalas)
    • comparatives (kurang, tidak begitu, agak, se-) and superlatives (ter-)
  • referring to abstract ideas by nominalising using prefixes and suffixes, for example, pe-an, per-an (pendidikan, pelajaran, pertandingan, pengetahuan), ke-an (kebersihan, kesehatan, kedatangan, kecantikan)
  • indicating action using, for example:
    • transitive verbs, me- verb system (-kan or -i suffix) in subject- and object-focus form (with di- prefix)
    • duplication of verbs (duduk-duduk, jalan-jalan, lihat-lihat)
    • adverbs as modifiers (kurang, cukup, cuma, agak, hanya, makin…makin, baik…maupun…)
  • recognising syntactic differences between subject- and object-focus construction, for example, Dia menjual minuman itu di toko-toko, Minuman itu dijual di toko-toko
  • referring to the past, present and future, and relating events in time using adverbs, for example, dulu, yang lalu, yang akan datang, dua minggu lagi
  • contrasting ideas using conjunctions, for example, sehingga, sementara, sedangkan, sambil, oleh karena itu, andaikata, jika, bila
  • indicating register using colloquial (for example, nggak, gimana, kok, deh, lho/lo) and formal language, for example, yang terhormat, sekian
  • expressing opinions, for example, yang saya rasa, saya lebih suka, lebih…dibandingkan…, pertama-tama…sekarang…
  • influencing others by persuading using superlatives (paling…, ter-), encouraging (cobalah, mari, ayo) and advising (sebaiknya, seharusnya, mesti)
  • evaluating by using, for example, pada pendapat saya, menurut saya, di satu pihak…di pihak lain…, sebaliknya
  • expressing imagination by using imagery (angin bertiup kencang, bunga-bunga berwarna-warni), metaphor (adalah; burung bernyanyi di pohon) and simile (Matanya seperti bintang kejora, Kata-katanya bagai air mengalir)
  • using idiomatic language, for example, idioms (masuk angin, panjang tangan) and proverbs (Datang sahabat, pulang saudara; Tak kenal maka tak saying; Ada gula ada semut)
  • maintaining interaction using rhetorical devices (for example, betul?, bukan?) and verbal fillers such as kalah saya tidak salah, omong-omong, begini…
  • expressing emphasis, for example, bukan main [adjective] nya
Recognise the purpose and features of a range of texts such as persuasive, argumentative and expository texts

[Key concepts: perspective, nuance; Key processes: analysing, correlating] (ACLINU082 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • recognising features of spoken texts such as conversations and speeches, for example, the use of back channels (begitu, ya), discourse markers (nah, sekian), hesitations (anu) and non-standard expressions (Mau nggak?)
  • analysing linguistic structures and features associated with particular texts, for example, showing humility and deference in a job application, wishing longevity in birthday cards, using data to support an argument, using emotive language to persuade, and creating tension in drama
  • understanding conventions in some Indonesian texts such as apologising at the beginning or end of a speech (Maafkan saya atas semua kesalahan saya) , or including religious expressions such as thanking God for good health or fortune (Alhamdulilah)

Language variation and change

Understanding how languages vary in use (register, style, standard and non-standard varieties) and change over time and place.

Analyse the ways in which Indonesian varies according to spoken and written forms, cultural context and subcultures

[Key concepts: norms, variation; Key processes: analysing, explaining] (ACLINU083 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • comparing spoken and written texts (for example, spoken and print advertisements, face-to-face conversations and emails) to understand how mode relates to linguistic structures and features, and how this affects meaning
  • analysing examples of colloquial language, such as that used by sub-groups (for example, Bahasa gaul, Bahasa SMS), and comparing these to formal forms
  • understanding how body language varies across cultures, for example, lowering body position when speaking to someone in authority to show respect; not raising voice or laughing loudly; smiling and nodding while listening to people, even when hearing bad news
  • understanding that many Indonesians are familiar with a range of languages (for example, Bahasa baku, Bahasa daerah, Bahasa gaul and English) and can shift between these depending on the context, and considering how this compares to those who are monolingual
Understand the power of language to influence people’s actions, values and beliefs, and appreciate the value of linguistic diversity

[Key concept: power; Key processes: critical analysis, appreciating] (ACLINU084 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • analysing texts to understand how language can limit, promote or change actions, for example, use of mohon, harap, tolong, jangan, dilarang
  • recognising the purpose of particular texts to impact emotionally on others such as by influencing opinions and reactions, for example, in persuasive texts such as advertisements or reviews of a film, concert or fashion
  • analysing the language of social and political messages to explore attitudes, values and beliefs, for example, mohon jangan merokok, dua anak lebih baik, jangan pakai narkoba, persatuan dan kesatuan bangsa Indonesia, anak bangsa, sebangsa dan setanah air
  • noticing how jargon or specific terms may be used to express membership and identity, for example, within the religious groups Insya Allah, Puji Tuhan, Syukur, Alhamdulilah
  • examining how words, expressions and actions reflect relationships and social hierarchies (for example, use of the terms of address Bapak/Ibu, Anda and kamu), and showing respect by introducing oneself to the most senior or eldest person first
  • appreciating the social and cultural functions performed by language, and recognising the importance of diverse languages to convey alternative perspectives and ideas

Role of language and culture

Analysing and understanding the role of language and culture in the exchange of meaning.

Understand that Indonesian language and culture, like all languages and cultures, are interrelated; they shape and are shaped by each other, in a given moment and over time

[Key concept: interdependence; Key processes: investigating, reflecting] (ACLINU085 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • recognising that texts are instances of language and culture working together to convey cultural perspectives, values and concepts
  • analysing how the Indonesian language may reflect cultural perspectives such as collectivism, harmony, fate and humility; norms such as showing deference and saving face; and values such as patience, humility and selflessness, for example, setahu saya, kalau saya tidak salah, numpang tanya, permisi dulu
  • investigating the origins of particular expressions or words, developing awareness of the origins of meanings and how these may or may not change over time
  • recognising the historical, political and cultural functions and value of language, such as the origins of Bahasa Indonesia, and its historical and contemporary uses
  • developing awareness that the linguistic diversity of Indonesia reflects cultural diversity, and comparing this to linguistic and cultural diversity in Australia, including Aboriginal languages and Torres Strait Islander languages, Asian languages and world languages
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia

Years 9 and 10 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 10, students use Indonesian to communicate with teachers, peers and others in a range of settings and for a range of purposes. They pronounce the sounds ngg and ng, as well as sy (for example, masyarakat) and kh (for example, akhir), and use stress to create fluency in sentences. Students use and respond to open-ended questions such as Berapa lama? Dulu, apakah…, Kapan Anda…? Yang mana? Sudah pernah? and use strategies for initiating, sustaining and concluding oral and written exchanges. They locate, synthesise and evaluate specific details and gist from a range of texts. Students create a range of personal, informative and imaginative texts with some evidence of self-correction strategies. They include time markers such as Pada suatu hari, Keesokan harinya, Kemudian, and conjunctions such as namun, supaya, karena itu, to extend meanings such as in stories, comics, and written and oral reports. Students use yang to expand descriptions and ideas, and incorporate some object-focus construction to vary expression. They express opinions such as using Dari pihak saya, make comparisons such as using dibandingkan dengan, and incorporate emotions and humour. Students describe possibilities using terms such as kalau-kalau and andaikata, and express aspirations such as using Pada masa depan, mudah-mudahan, saya berharap. They translate texts and create bilingual texts, relying on textual features, patterns and grammatical knowledge, and comment on how meaning can vary across languages and cultures, such as the use of idioms and culture-specific terms. Students state reactions to intercultural experiences, and discuss their assumptions, interpretations, and any adjustments to their language use.

Students know that spoken and written Indonesian vary, identifying informal usage such as nggak and aja, exclamations such as kok and dong, and the dropping of prefixes, for example, Dia (mem) beli mobil baru. They show awareness of contractions (for example, ortu, angkot), acronyms such as SMU and hp, and abbreviations such as texting language (for example, jln, skolah and mkn). Students use metalanguage to discuss possessive and nounadjective word order, and use knowledge of the base word and affixation system to predict meaning and decode new words using dictionaries. They know that language is used to create particular effects and influence others, such as through the use of imperatives and rhetorical devices. Students know that Indonesian is a national language that, for the majority of Indonesians, may be one of a number of known languages. They explain aspects of Indonesian language and culture, including concepts of diversity and nasib, and the importance of language, religion and ethnicity as identity markers. Students make connections between language use and cultural practices, values and assumptions, both in Indonesian and in their own language use.