Indonesian

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Context statement

The place of the Indonesian language and culture in Australia and in the world
The languages of the Indonesian archipelago have been used in Australia since contact several centuries ago between the peoples of the islands now known as Indonesia and the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples of northern Australia.

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PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Languages - Indonesian are available as PDF documents. 
Languages - Indonesian: Sequence of content
Languages - Indonesian: Sequence of Achievement - F-10 Sequence
Languages - Indonesian: …

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Years 7 and 8

Years 7 and 8 Band Description

The nature of the learners

These years represent a transition to secondary school, and students in this pathway are continuing to study Indonesian, bringing with them a capability to communicate, with some assistance, about their immediate world and Indonesia. They have experience in analysing the major features of the language system and in considering intercultural exchanges, including their role in these.

Indonesian language learning and use

Learners interact using Indonesian in classroom routines and communicative tasks. They give presentations and participate in dialogues, with some preparation and support, such as cue cards. They respond to short texts in Indonesian, locating specific details and gist. Learners are extending the range and quality of their writing through increased vocabulary and grammar knowledge, and by drafting and editing their own work and that of their peers. They recognise text-type features and use models to create a range of texts, including descriptions, recounts and reflections.

Contexts of interaction

The primary context for learning remains the Indonesian language class; however, there may be opportunities for interacting with peers in Indonesia and with other learners of Indonesian, such as through technology and sister school relationships. Learners may be exposed to Indonesian speakers, media and community events.

Texts and resources

Learners engage with a range of increasingly complex texts specifically designed for learning Indonesian in schools, such as textbooks, videos, stories and online resources. Use of authentic texts created for the Indonesian-speaking community, such as songs, films (with subtitles), websites, advertisements, and excerpts from stories, provides opportunities to extend learners’ understanding of language and culture.

Features of Indonesian language use

Learners are extending their grammatical knowledge, such as how language structures and features are used in texts. They are increasingly aware of connections between language and culture, noticing, for example, degrees of formality in language use according to social relationships. Learners are exploring cultural concepts evident in Indonesian, such as gotong-royong, jam karet and selamatan, and comparing them to concepts in their own language and culture. They are learning to reflect on their own language and culture and how identity impacts on intercultural experiences.

Level of support

Learners require modelled language use, particularly at the paragraph and whole-text levels, and explicit instruction in grammatical knowledge, with comparison between English and Indonesian. They need support in using dictionaries, particularly in determining base words and choosing appropriate meanings for the context. Learners continue to access word lists, charts and examples to support their receptive and productive language use.

The role of English

Indonesian is used for classroom interaction, language learning tasks and experiences, and, with support, reflection on learning. Indonesian may be used for learning new content drawn from other learning areas. English is used for analysis, comparison and reflection in relation to abstract concepts.


Years 7 and 8 Content Descriptions

Using language for communicative purposes in interpreting, creating and exchanging meaning.

Socialising

Interacting orally and in writing to exchange, ideas, opinions, experiences, thoughts and feelings; and participating in planning, negotiating, deciding and taking action.

Engage with others to exchange ideas, experiences and interests

[Key concepts: milestone, experience; Key processes: exchanging, connecting] (ACLINC052 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • exchanging opinions about family, friends, teachers, subjects, entertainment, sport and leisure, for example, Saya rasa guru ideal pandai, rajin dan humoris, Saya pikir menonton kriket di televisi membosankan, Sudah pernah ke pulau Lombok
  • comparing aspects of personal world such as school or home life, for example, Tugas saya memelihara anjng, Setiap hari kami berdoa
  • recounting significant events, special occasions and milestones, for example, tahun lalu saya berlibur ke Bali dengan keluarga
  • interacting in class activities and (electronic) games, for example, playing sepak bola/takraw using menang, ke sini, curang
  • socialising with friends and family at events, including chatting about school or holidays, for example, Bersekolah di mana? Suka bermain olah raga?
Take action to make plans, solve problems and address needs such as through corresponding and transacting in real or simulated situations

[Key processes: planning, inviting, transacting] (ACLINC053 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • organising class events, such as holding a lunch, party or performance (for example, Mau makan apa?, Kita pergi ke mana?, Hari apa yang paling baik?), and negotiating and making decisions, for example, Bagaimana kalau kita…?, mungkin kalau kita bisa…
  • corresponding with peers, including via technology, asking and responding to questions to seek information or clarification, for example, Jam berapa mengerjakan PR?, Bagaimana rumah kamu? Suka band yang mana?
  • expressing preferences for plans (for example, ide bagus, saya setuju), comparing and contrasting alternatives (for example, Kalau kita ke restoran Jawa lebih murah, Saya pikir lebih baik kalau kita pergi pada hari Rabu karena…, Sebaiknya kita…) and agreeing or disagreeing, for example, saya kurang suka…
  • responding to invitations to events by accepting (for example, Ya, mau ikut), declining (for example, sayang/maaf…), and giving excuses, for example, Saya harus ke rumah nenek
  • participating in collaborative projects, such as arranging an excursion or creating a short documentary, for example, Daerah setempat kami
  • participating in transactions and negotiations, such as to purchase food, clothing, souvenirs or transport (for example, Berapa harganya? Boleh tawar?), maintaining the interaction (for example, aduh, terlalu mahal, di toko lain lebih murah) and discussing issues such as relative cost and wages
Interact with others by making requests, seeking clarification, checking understanding and expressing opinions

[Key concept: interaction; Key processes: requesting, clarifying] (ACLINC054 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • asking for clarification, such as how to spell a word (for example, Bagaimana ejaannya, Pak?) or asking for meaning, for example, Apa arti kata itu?
  • apologising and making requests, for example, Maaf saya terlambat Bu, Boleh saya ke kantor?, Tolong jangan dihapus Pak, saya belum selesai
  • giving help and responding to instructions, for example, Giliran kamu, Klik di bawah, Bu
  • asking and responding to closed and open-ended questions, for example, Tanggal berapa tes Bahasa Indonesia?, Bagaimana sekolah di Indonesia?

Informing

Obtaining, processing, interpreting and conveying information through a range of oral, written and multimodal texts; developing and applying knowledge.

Identify, summarise and evaluate factual information related to topics of interest such as leisure, food and diet, entertainment and special occasions

[Key concept: data; Key processes: summarising, evaluating] (ACLINC055 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • gathering data from class surveys, social networking profiles, realia and charts to use in own texts, for example, synthesising information for a report or presentation
  • listening to, reading and viewing (digital) invitations, cards and messages, and responding to them
  • engaging with simple texts such as magazines, interviews, announcements and websites to gather facts about events or people, and reporting information to others, for example, using a timeline to show a sequence of events or create a profile of a famous Indonesian
  • analysing and summarising information from reports, posters, websites, itineraries and brochures, using tools such as concept maps and tables to organise and present information
  • comparing details from a range of texts about special occasions and ceremonies, and discussing culture-specific terms and representations
Give presentations to describe, compare and report on experiences and topics of interest

[Key concepts: leisure, travel; Key processes: summarising, reporting] (ACLINC056 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • creating texts such as notices, brochures and posters to inform others about issues and upcoming events, for example, Hari Selasa, Warung lumpia, di samping kantin, jam 1
  • organising information for an Indonesian audience, for example, creating a presentation to explain sport and leisure activities (Main ski air) or video recording a cooking demonstration
  • reporting on own and others’ experiences of events such as school camp, a holiday or concert, or playing a new computer game

Creating

Engaging with imaginative experience by participating in responding to and creating a range of texts, such as stories, songs, drama and music.

Respond to aspects of imaginative texts by expressing opinions and feelings about them and comparing these with imaginative texts in own language and culture

[Key concepts: moral, humour; Key processes: comparing, reviewing; Key text types: story, song, play] (ACLINC057 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • expressing personal opinions about ideas in texts such as traditional and contemporary stories and excerpts from films or video clips, for example, Menurut pendapat saya, Saya pikir (bahwa), Saya rasa, Saya suka/tidak suka…
  • stating personal preferences about characters, attitudes and events in texts (for example, Saya paling suka/lebih suka/kurang suka…), including commenting on reactions, for example, Dia ganteng tetapi kurang sopan, Saya kurang suka gurunya karena jahat, Bapak Mira sangat lucu karena sering bercanda
  • comparing key messages and beliefs from Indonesian and Australian texts such as creation and Dreaming stories, fables, myths and legends
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • exploring ideas and values represented in popular culture forms across cultures, such as game shows, soap operas, songs/music clips and computer games, and commenting on similarities and differences, for example, Isu-isu remaja sama di Indonesia; Lingkungan sangat penting di Indonesia dan Australia
Compose individual and shared texts about imagined people, places and experiences, in order to entertain others

[Key concepts: amusement, imagination, admiration, journey; Key processes: composing, collaborating, performing; Key text types: recount, advertisement, cartoon] (ACLINC058 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • creating texts to entertain peers and younger audiences, for example, digital big books, short films with subtitles, comics, wayang plays, posters for a film or websites for a fan club
  • creating the next scene, a new character or an alternative ending for Indonesian fiction texts such as a story, drama or film script
  • participating in spontaneous plays based on scenarios such as meeting a favourite celebrity, appearing on a television show or living in a past era
  • composing simple songs, jingles, posters and advertisements for real and imaginary situations or products, such as advertising an Australian product for the Indonesian market

Translating

Moving between languages and cultures orally and in writing, recognising different interpretations and explaining these to others.

Translate and analyse a range of texts, comparing language choices and exploring differences in meanings

[Key concept: equivalence; Key processes: approximating, comparing] (ACLINC059 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • translating texts, identifying culture-specific vocabulary (for example, peci, kebaya) and expressions (for example, makan angin, pulang kampung), discussing the translation process (such as possible reasons for equivalence/non-equivalence), and choosing ‘best fit’ words or omitting words
  • comparing interpretations of texts such as advertisements, songs or film extracts, noticing similarities and differences, and reflecting on why interpretations may vary
Create bilingual texts in collaboration with others for the wider community

[Key concept: interpretation; Key processes: designing, explaining] (ACLINC060 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • creating bilingual texts, using subtitles and captions, to inform school community about aspects of Indonesian culture, (such as visiting an Indonesian home, shopping at a market, attending a ceremony, giving a gift)
  • producing public information texts in both Indonesian and English, such as promoting a concert, or an interview with a celebrity for a teen radio station
  • creating digital texts such as songs or dialogues with options for displaying in either Indonesian or English

Reflecting

Participating in intercultural exchange, questioning reactions and assumptions; and considering how interaction shapes communication and identity.

Participate in intercultural interactions with peers, comparing aspects of culture, monitoring how own culture impacts on language use and how this may enhance or inhibit understanding

[Key concept: comfort/discomfort; Key processes: monitoring, adjusting] (ACLINC061 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • experimenting with Indonesian gestures and body language, and considering which will or will not be incorporated into own interactions, for example, not putting hands on hips, use of ‘soft’ handshakes, pointing with the thumb, beckoning downwards, not always queuing
  • noticing the use of Indonesian expressions such as fillers (anu) and exclamations (Aduh!, Astaga!) and deciding whether or not to adopt them in own language use
  • making language choices with awareness of how these might be interpreted by Indonesian speakers, for example, using Pak not kamu when communicating with an older male to show respect, or seldom using terima kasih
  • recognising how others’ perceptions will influence the language used in an interaction, for example, being a ‘foreigner’ means language is often slowed and Bahasa baku is used, and people may invite them to their home or ask to correspond with them
  • reflecting on how own cultural etiquette and behaviour may be interpreted when interacting with Indonesians, for example, noticing own body language and modifying gestures such as pointing, shouting, laughing with mouth open
  • developing language for monitoring, describing and reflecting on using Indonesian in intercultural experiences such as in journals, portfolios, blogs and correspondence, for example, Saya merasa bingung karena belum tahu kata itu…; Saya kaget karena dia tidak setuju…; Dia tertawa waktu saya…
Consider how own biography, including family origins, traditions and beliefs, impacts on identity and shapes own intercultural experiences

[Key concepts: perspective, biography; Key processes: analysing, reflecting] (ACLINC062 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • noticing that aspects of personal identity such as family, religion and marital status are important in interacting with Indonesians and in how one may be perceived, for example, Saya orang Australia, Saya berasal dari Sri Lanka, Nenek saya dari Inggris, Saya orang Kristen
  • identifying formative events and experiences in own and others’ upbringing and how these shape identity, for example, rites of passage such as potong gigi, and events such as graduation or achieving a goal (Saya bangga waktu saya lulus ujian saxofon)
  • reflecting on how learning Indonesian may have impacted on own identity and understanding of the world, such as increased awareness of representations of Indonesia in the Australian media
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia

Analysing and understanding language and culture as resources for interpreting and shaping meaning in intercultural exchange.

Systems of language

Understanding the language system, including sound, writing, grammar and text.

Notice how stress works in polysyllabic words and the use of intonation in subject-focus sentences

[Key concepts: stress, intonation; Key process: noticing emphasis] (ACLINU063 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • using raised penultimate syllable in multisyllabic words such as mendengarkan, melakukan, pekerjaan, perumahan, dibandingkan, kemauan, kesamaan
  • recognising where to place stress in complex sentences, for example, Walaupun saya tidak suka berenang, lebih suka daripada bermain tenis yang membosankan
Develop knowledge of me- verb rules and how to link and extend ideas such as by using adverbs and cohesive devices

[Key concept: system, affixation; Key processes: applying rules, understanding] (ACLINU064 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • identifying people (for example, teman, teman gaul, kenalan) and their occupations, for example, pembantu, penyanyi, tukang kayu, dokter gigi
  • naming a range of animals, for example, binatang peliharaan, kelinci
  • describing qualities of people using adjectives of character and appearance, for example, setia, keren, sabar, optimis
  • describing qualities of things using adjectives, for example, bertingkat dua, lama
  • indicating quantity using juta
  • identifying things using concrete nouns, for example, sawah, gunung api, hutan
  • creating nouns, for example, makan-an, minum-an, masak-an, baca-an
  • describing actions using me- verbs, for example, Saya selalu menikmati cerita horor
  • creating distance between actor, action and objects using object-focus construction, for example, Mobil barunya dicuri tadi malam
  • indicating negation, for example, jangan, tidak sama sekali
  • referring to past and future using time indicators, for example, tadi pagi, nanti malam, sebelum, sesudah, kemudian, lalu
  • seeking information using a range of questions, for example, bagaimana, dari mana, apakah, kapan, mengapa, sudah pernah?
  • describing frequency using adverbs, for example, jarang, setiap, pernah, selalu
  • creating cohesion using conjunctions, for example, supaya, walaupun
  • adding further information using embedded clauses with yang
  • accepting or declining invitations, for example, mau ikut, maaf, sayang
  • well-wishing, for example, mudah-mudahan, semoga
  • comparing and contrasting, for example, paling, ter-, dibandingkan dengan…
  • expressing opinions, for example, dari pihak saya…
  • expressing emotions, for example, -wah, sayang, asyik, hebat, siip, seru
  • describing state of actions, for example, sudah, belum, pernah
Expand understanding of textual conventions, particularly related to social and informational media

[Key concept: convention; Key processes: comparing, experimenting] (ACLINU065 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • experimenting with language appropriate to particular text types, such as descriptive language in documentaries, reflective language in diary and journal entries, and persuasive language in advertisements
  • analysing the informal style of language associated with social media texts and texting, such as the use of emoticons and abbreviated forms of words, for example, brngkt (berangkat), dng (dengan), kmn (ke mana)
  • analysing the forms, features and purpose of texts, such as how texts are organised in terms of layout, sequencing of ideas, headings and stylistic devices

Language variation and change

Understanding how languages vary in use (register, style, standard and non-standard varieties) and change over time and place.

Recognise that Indonesian has formal and informal forms and that their style and use depend on the context, purpose and audience

[Key concept: register; Key processes: identifying, connecting, analysing] (ACLINU066 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • recognising variations between formal and informal language, such as dropping the prefixes ber- and me-, for example, belanja, selancar, nonton, beli
  • examining differences in language use according to mode, for example, the variations of ‘no’: nggak (spoken), tak (written poetry/song lyrics), tdk (abbreviation used in text messages)
  • recognising that the use of different terms of address reflects varying levels of politeness and familiarity, such as referring to others in the third person by using Ibu, Bapak or first name
  • comparing language structures in Indonesian and English and how these are used to create intimacy or distance, for example, the use of colloquial language or object-focus construction
  • using intonation to shift meaning, such as to show surprise, to downplay or to exaggerate, for example, Aduh, mahal sekali! (in bargaining), Aduh, perut saya sakit (to gain sympathy), Aduh, jelek (to downplay)
Understand that Indonesian, like other languages, continues to change over time due to influences such as globalisation and technology

[Key concept: evolution; Key processes: researching, recording] (ACLINU067 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • analysing the influence of other languages on Indonesian, such as in advertising and technology, food, administration, religion and everyday life, for example, modern, handphone, satelit (English); mie (Chinese); sepatu (Portuguese); kantor (Dutch); guru (Sanskrit); mahal (Arabic), raja (Hindi)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • recording a range of borrowed words and examining their structure and rules of use, for example, meng-upload, ber-AC
  • investigating the origins of borrowed words to discover when, how and by whom new words and expressions were introduced into Indonesian and which languages have borrowed from languages of Indonesia, for example, Makassan terms in Yolngu (balanda, rupiah)

Role of language and culture

Analysing and understanding the role of language and culture in the exchange of meaning.

Understand that language is not neutral and that its use reflects cultural ideas, assumptions and perspectives

[Key concept: interdependence; Key processes: analysing, interpreting, reflecting] (ACLINU068 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • analysing culture-specific values reflected in Indonesian language such as respect for diversity, social justice and social responsibility (for example, Bhinneka Tunggal Ika, gotong-royong, budi pekerti, selamatan), and comparing these values to those evident in own language and culture
  • analysing the meaning and nuances of culture-specific descriptions such as ramai, sepi, gemuk, rendah hati
  • recognising that there are culture-specific meanings associated with body language, for example, hands on hips suggests arrogance and aggression; the use of words like kita shows inclusiveness while kalau saya tidak salah shows humility
  • examining cultural representation in the Indonesian language system, such as the gender-neutral terms (for example, dia, pacar), the omission of personal pronouns, particularly saya (for example, Bisa datang ke rumah?), and the use of cardinal directions, for example, utara, selatan, timur, barat
  • recognising that language and cultural practices are interconnected, and that expressions with religious origins or connotations are commonplace, for example, selamat, Salam, Astaga, OMG, Asslam Walaikum, Insyah Allah
  • investigating and using language associated with significant cultural practices and events such as celebrations, for example, Selamat Hari Kemerdekaaan (Indonesian Independence Day), Maaf lahir batin (Ramadan), Panjang umurnya (birthdays), Selamat Hari Raya Nyepi (Balinese New Year)

Years 7 and 8 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 8, students use Indonesian to interact and exchange ideas, experiences and interests with teachers, peers and others. They pronounce familiar polysyllabic words such as mendengarkan, pekerjaan and mengerjakan, stressing the penultimate syllable. When interacting, they ask questions using for example Apakah?, Di mana?, Kapan?, Berapa?, and respond to questions using, for example, Setuju tidak? Benar/Salah, and asking follow up questions using, for example, Kapan? Bagaimana? Mengapa? They explain and clarify their answers using, for example, karena, or supaya. Students give opinions using for example Pada pendapat saya…, saya kira…, setuju/tidak setuju, make comparisons using lebih… daripada…, and state preferences using saya lebih suka…, yang paling baik… They locate and evaluate factual information in texts, and use models to create their own informative and imaginative texts in order to narrate, correspond with and report to others. . They vary their sentence construction (for example, rambut saya hitam/Ibu berambut cokelat/Bapak mempunyai rambut pirang) to create interest for the audience. Students use cohesive devices such as time markers (for example, Besok, sebelum), adverbs of frequency (for example, biasanya, jarang, belum pernah) and conjunctions (for example, lalu, untuk). They use a range of personal pronouns such as dia, mereka, kami, kita, ber- verbs such as bersekolah, berselancar and simple me- verbs such as memasak, memakai, menjadi, mengunjungi. Students use prepositions of time using pada and place, using di (including with, for example, belakang, samping, antara). They describe qualities using colours (for example, biru tua, merah muda) and adjectives (for example, sombong, murah hati). They translate across languages, identifying where equivalence is not possible, for example, gotong royong, jam karet or ‘daylight saving’. They describe their reactions to intercultural experiences, describing aspects that do or do not fit with their own identity and considering why.

Students know that Indonesian has a base word system that works with prefixes and suffixes to create verbs and nouns, such as -an, ber- and me- words. They differentiate between similar-sounding words and how they are written (such as suka/sukar, muda/mudah), and apply spelling conventions such as ngg (tinggal) and final h (terima kasih). They describe how possessive word order differs from English and have a metalanguage to identify common features such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, and subject-verb-object construction. Students identify and reproduce features of familiar text types such as salutations, narrative sequence and cohesive devices. They know that languages and cultures influence and borrow from each other. Students know that cultural values and ideas are embedded in language use, including their own, and consider where these may have come from and how they may be seen from another cultural perspective.