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Context statement

The place of the Indonesian language and culture in Australia and in the world
The languages of the Indonesian archipelago have been used in Australia since contact several centuries ago between the peoples of the islands now known as Indonesia and the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples of northern Australia.


PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Languages - Indonesian are available as PDF documents. 
Languages - Indonesian: Sequence of content
Languages - Indonesian: Sequence of Achievement - F-10 Sequence
Languages - Indonesian: …


Years 3 and 4

Years 3 and 4 Band Description

The nature of the learners

At this level, children are developing awareness of their social world and memberships of various groups, including of the Indonesian class. They have developed initial literacy in English, and this assists to some degree in learning Indonesian, such as writing in the Roman alphabet. They benefit from varied, activity-based learning that builds on their interests and capabilities and makes connections with other areas of learning.

Indonesian language learning and use

Learners participate orally in classroom routines and tasks, and share ideas about how Indonesian works. They respond to teacher-generated questions about texts, participate in games and give brief presentations about topics such as family, pets, or a favourite game or object. Learners follow instructions, read stories and captions, and use computer games for word building and language exercises. They participate in shared reading and create texts such as descriptions, captions and simple reports using modelled language.

Contexts of interaction

The context in which learners use Indonesian is primarily the language classroom and the school environment, with some sharing of their language learning at home. They may also have some access to Indonesian speakers and resources through audiovisual and digital technologies.

Texts and resources

Learners typically interact with teacher-generated materials, games and songs, and materials produced for learning Indonesian, such as computer games, cards and readers. They may be exposed to texts developed for children in Indonesia, such as television programs, advertisements or web pages, as a way of developing their cultural awareness.

Features of Indonesian language use

Learners are increasingly aware that Indonesian is used by millions of speakers who do not have English as their first language. They notice and question aspects of Indonesian language and culture such as sounds, gestures and word order. They are developing a wide range of vocabulary and simple conjunctions to generate their own ideas in structured tasks. They explore cultural traditions and practices and the language associated with these.

Level of support

The primary support for learners is the teacher of Indonesian, who provides instruction, explanation, examples, repetition, reinforcement and feedback. Learners create their own texts based on modelled language and teacher guidance. Supports also include word lists, pictures, body language, realia and multimedia equipment.

The role of English

Learners use Indonesian for classroom routines and structured learning tasks, and listening to and viewing Indonesian texts. They are supported by the teacher to notice and discuss aspects of Indonesian language and culture, and compare Indonesian to other known languages and cultures. English is used for class discussions when noticing, comparing and reflecting on both English and Indonesian languages and cultures.

Years 3 and 4 Content Descriptions

Using language for communicative purposes in interpreting, creating and exchanging meaning.


Interacting orally and in writing to exchange, ideas, opinions, experiences, thoughts and feelings; and participating in planning, negotiating, deciding and taking action.

Share with peers and teacher information about aspects of personal world such as daily routines, home, and favourite objects and pastimes

[Key concepts: routine, occasion; Key processes: describing, sharing] (ACLINC018 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • sharing information about self related to daily routine, family and friends, pastimes and aspects of school and home, for example, Saya tinggal di Darwin dengan keluarga saya. Rumah saya besar, Saya bermain bola basket, Saya suka es krim
  • describing items and experiences of personal significance such as birthdays, for example, hari ulang tahun
  • interacting with others, such as through greeting cards and shared digital spaces, using language related to special occasions and well-wishing, for example, Selamat Hari Ulang Tahun, Selamat Hari Raya
  • recounting events and sharing feelings with others, using modelled language, for example, Waktu saya sakit; Saya senang bermain komputer
Contribute to class activities such as solving a problem, creating a display or conducting a role-play/scenario

[Key concept: collaboration; Key processes: problem solving, participating] (ACLINC019 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • participating in class routines such as taking the roll, saying the day and date, and describing the weather and the day’s schedule
  • working with others to take action, such as creating a model with captions, producing a poster or invitation for a special event, or designing an Indonesian garden, for example, following instructions, Tolong ambil itu, Mari ikut saya ke…, Minta air, Ayo tanam jagung/sayur
  • preparing, rehearsing and conducting public presentations and performances, such as an Indonesian item for assembly, or a presentation about significant event
  • interacting with the teacher and peers by asking and responding to questions and generating ‘small talk’, for example, Apa kabar? Siapa menonton film itu?
  • participating in group activities such as role-plays, asking and responding to questions and invitations (for example, Mau ke mana?; Mau ikut?), and negotiating with others to make decisions such as choosing ways to get around in Indonesia, for example, Mau naik apa? Saya mau naik becak. Berapa ongkosnya?
Respond to questions, instructions and requests, and participate in routine exchanges

[Key concepts: respect, sopan santun; Key processes: interacting, responding] (ACLINC020 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • initiating and responding to instructions and classroom routines and games, for example, Angkat tangan; Giliran saya
  • making and responding to requests (for example, Boleh pinjam…?, Permisi…), and asking for rephrasing, repetition and clarification, for example, Maaf Bu, apa artinya…? Mohon ulangi
  • contributing to preparing and displaying a set of class rules, for example, Jangan berlari di ruang kelas
  • using Indonesian for daily activities, such as creating and following Indonesian signs and instructions in the classroom and around the school


Obtaining, processing, interpreting and conveying information through a range of oral, written and multimodal texts; developing and applying knowledge.

Obtain and share information from peers and texts related to family, home, routines and interests

[Key concepts: routine, pastimes; Key processes: selecting, tabulating, categorising] (ACLINC021 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • gathering information about activities of others, such as surveying peers about time spent on activities, for example, Berapa jam menonton televisi/membaca buku/bermain komputer/bermain olahraga/makan/belajar/tidur?
  • compiling information and reporting it to others, for example, making a shared class graph showing popular leisure activities during the year
  • comparing information about activities and practices across cultures, for example, reading, viewing or listening to texts related to aspects of school life such as timetables, canteen menus, extracurricular activities and sports
  • working in groups to obtain and use factual information from texts related to other learning areas, for example, completing a simple science experiment, naming countries and significant land features, or recording distances using geography skills
Present information about school and neighbourhood using tables, lists and descriptions

[Key concept: data; Key processes: informing, organising] (ACLINC022 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • gathering information from home, school and local environment to present to others, for example, a display or presentation on rumah saya, di sekolah kami…
  • reporting information obtained from public texts such as brochures, signs and lists
  • presenting information about aspects of culture such as lifestyle, diet or use of transport (for example, Naik apa ke sekolah? Saya naik…), using statistics and visual supports


Engaging with imaginative experience by participating in responding to and creating a range of texts, such as stories, songs, drama and music.

Listen to, read and view creative texts such as rhymes, songs and stories, identifying characters and acting out events

[Key concepts: character, plot; Key processes: performing, recounting; Key text types: fable, legend, song, children’s television] (ACLINC023 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • reading, listening to and viewing texts, through shared and guided reading, and responding to questions about characters, ideas and events, including by illustrating and captioning aspects of texts
  • expressing personal opinions about and reactions to creative texts using artefacts, for example, using a puppet or mask to give an opinion about a character in a story or song
  • using movement or actions to reinforce meaning in texts such as a television program, song or game
  • sequencing texts, such as by creating a storyboard using pictures and captions
Create texts such as dialogues and stories, using formulaic expressions and modelled language

[Key concepts: humour, imagination; Key processes: presenting, creating; Key text types: play, poem] (ACLINC024 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • creating texts with others for public display, such as participating in a mock talent show, performing a wayang scene or a rap, using both rehearsed and spontaneous language
  • creating texts to share with younger learners, such as big books, role-plays or comics, including digital texts such as vokis, DVDs and slideshows, for example, Harimau menangis; Kodok cari teman
  • producing individual imaginative texts such as comics, diary entries and stories using modelled language, to express own ideas and imagination


Moving between languages and cultures orally and in writing, recognising different interpretations and explaining these to others.

Translate using textual cues such as pictures, layout and key words to predict meaning, and comment on the non-equivalence of words due to cultural differences

[Key concepts: gist, meaning; Key processes: translating, predicting] (ACLINC025 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • translating Indonesian texts such as public signs to understand gist and noticing how meaning changes when translating into English such as sense of politeness
  • identifying and explaining expressions which do not easily translate into English, for example, Selamat siang, Sudah mandi?
  • comparing translations of Indonesian creative works (such as an advertisement, anthem or extract of a wayang script), noticing how words such as Tanah Air, sedikit-sedikit have more than a literal meaning
Produce texts such as descriptions and signs in both Indonesian and English for the school community

[Key concepts: similarity, difference; Key processes: describing, captioning] (ACLINC026 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • preparing descriptions in both Indonesian and English about familiar topics, using modelled language and choosing from word lists, and discussing differences in language with the teacher
  • creating bilingual texts for the classroom and the school community (for example, posters, songs and online newsletter items), discussing with others how to represent meaning in different languages for different audiences


Participating in intercultural exchange, questioning reactions and assumptions; and considering how interaction shapes communication and identity.

Communicate in Indonesian using routine phrases and expressions, recognising that such language reflects cultural practices and norms

[Key concepts: politeness, etiquette; Key processes: experimenting, connecting] (ACLINC027 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • recognising differences between Indonesian and English ways of showing politeness, for example, making requests and expressing gratitude (Tolong…, Terima kasih, Boleh saya…?), and recognising what may be viewed as impolite, such as pointing with the forefinger, folding arms, touching someone’s head, or blowing nose with handkerchief and keeping it in your pocket
  • trying out respectful gestures such as bending when passing between people, nodding while greeting others, and using a soft handshake when meeting others
  • participating in interactions associated with particular Indonesian practices, for example, etiquette associated with eating such as waiting to be invited to eat (Silahkan makan) and not eating with left hand
  • noticing how own language influences expectations about Indonesian language, for example, perceiving word order as ‘back to front’ compared to English, wanting to use one word for ‘you’, feeling the need to say ‘thank you’ often
  • discussing how Australian terms and expressions might be understood from an Indonesian perspective, for example, ‘bushwalking’, ‘kick a footy’ or ‘lamington’
Interact with others and noticing how identity matters, such as in use of terms of address, who and what is included, and what language is used

[Key concept: membership; Key processes: interacting, noticing] (ACLINC028 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • sharing personal details with others and making choices about what aspects of identity to include, for example, Saya berasal dariSaya berumur…, tahun, Saya anggota klub…, Saya anak kedi keluarga saya
  • designing visual representations of relationships to others and memberships of groups, for example, using a concept map, poster or slide presentation with captions to show friendships, family, teams and interest groups
  • comparing own ‘family culture’ with that of peers and considering how family can impact on identity, offering reasons for similarities and differences, for example, Bapak saya suka sepeda motor. Saya juga!
  • interacting in Indonesian with others beyond the classroom, for example, using it as a secret code with friends, showing off their language skills to teachers, and teaching parents and siblings words, phrases and songs
  • creating a self profile such as an avatar or montage with self-introduction, and making choices about the design, content and language used

Analysing and understanding language and culture as resources for interpreting and shaping meaning in intercultural exchange.

Systems of language

Understanding the language system, including sound, writing, grammar and text.

Recognise and reproduce pronunciation conventions, including loan words from English and intonation for questions, statements and commands.

[Key concept: intonation; Key processes: imitating, discriminating sounds] (ACLINU029 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • making connections between Indonesian and English sounds, for example, c is the ch sound in ‘cheese’; g is the hard g in ‘gun’ but never soft as in ‘germ’; k is a soft sound if it appears at the end of a word as in tidak, kakak
  • knowing that using the imperative form -lah with appropriate intonation softens its force and shows consideration, for example, Berbarislah, Angkatlah tangan
  • recognising different intonation for statements and questions, for example, Kamu suka apel (with falling intonation) and Kamu suka apel? (with rising intonation)
  • identifying onomatopoeic words such as those related to transport, for example, tut-tut (car horn), brum-brum (bus), jes-jes (puffing train), kring-kring (bike bell)
Develop understanding of ways to express possession and describe qualities of people and objects, and expand vocabulary related to personal and social world

[Key concepts: action, sequence; Key processes: describing, relating, predicting] (ACLINU030 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • describing people and animals using pronouns, gender and adjectives of character, for example, dia, mereka, teman, kakak laki-laki, adik perempuan, kakek, nenek; kaki, tangan, mata; kucing, marmot, burung; gemuk, kurus, tinggi, senang, sedih, marah; and describing weather using adjectives such as panas, dingin, hujan, mendung, cerah
  • describing places (for example, kolam renang, taman, toko, pantai, sekolah, rumah, desa, gereja, pura, mesjid) and movement using prepositions (for example, dari, ke, dengan, pada) and adjectives, for example, kiri, kanan
  • describing objects using concrete nouns related to home, school and local environment, for example, forms of transport (sepeda, mobil, bis, kereta api, becak, delman, dokar, bendi) and items such as foods (semangka, kelapa)
  • describing quantity using cardinal numbers (puluh, ratus) and ordinal numbers using ke- prefix, and making plurals by duplicating, for example, buku-buku
  • describing actions using simple base verbs (for example, tinggal, bangun, mandi, naik) and ber- verbs, for example, bermain, berjalan, bersepeda, berenang
  • recognising imperatives, for example, Angkat tangan, Buka bukumu, Ayo cepat!
  • seeking information using questions, for example, kapan, dari mana, ke mana?
  • linking ideas using conjunctions, for example, karena, tetapi
  • locating events in time (for example, hari ini, kemarin, besok, sudah, belum) and using days of the week and months, for example, Pada hari…
  • understanding the rules for subject-verb-object sentence construction (for example, Saya tinggi, Saya bermain…, Saya makan…) and possessive word order, for example, Adik laki-laki saya…, Tas teman Herman
  • giving praise, gratitude and encouragement, for example, coba, Bagus sekali!, terima kasih banyak
  • recognising that the same rules of punctuation apply as in English, for example, using capital letters and full stops for sentences
Recognise that texts such as stories, games and conversations have particular features

[Key concept: genre; Key processes: observing patterns, distinguishing] (ACLINU031 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • recognising language features typically associated with texts, for example, the use of imperatives in games and time markers in stories
  • comparing features of different text types, for example, differences in purpose or in the amount and kinds of language between a conversation and a story
  • noticing differences between written and spoken texts (for example, comparing a written story with a spoken version), or comparing how texts within the same mode can differ, for example, a birthday card and an email message

Language variation and change

Understanding how languages vary in use (register, style, standard and non-standard varieties) and change over time and place.

Understand that language varies according to age, gender and social position, such as place in the family

[Key concept: status; Key processes: observing, comparing] (ACLINU032 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • noticing differences between formal and informal language such as greetings (Hai for friends and Selamat pagi… for adults), or that Ibu/Bapak replaces ‘you’ when speaking to adults and that kamu is not appropriate
  • comparing advertisements, such as for games or toys, for different age groups and genders
  • recognising appropriateness of gestures to accompany language when addressing teachers, friends or visitors to school
  • analysing how the language of texts such as invitations and greeting cards can vary depending on the occasion and the degree of closeness of the relationship between people
Recognise that Indonesian is the official language of Indonesia and is one of many languages in the Asia-Pacific region

[Key concept: official language; Key process: understanding] (ACLINU033 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • understanding that Indonesian is a standardised language and is used in official contexts such as for government, the media and education and that it also borrows from other languages, often with modified spelling (for example, televisi, komputer, kursi, topi, telepon, kecap)
  • identifying examples of how Indonesian has influenced Australian English (for example, ‘sarong’, ‘gong’, ‘satay’, ‘batik’, ‘orangutan’)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • showing awareness of Indonesian as a ‘real’ language in use in the world, one of multiple languages in the Asia-Pacific region and in the Australian community
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia

Role of language and culture

Analysing and understanding the role of language and culture in the exchange of meaning.

Make connections between cultural practices and language use, such as specific vocabulary and expressions

[Key concept: diversity; Key processes: comparing, connecting] (ACLINU034 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • noticing how gestures differ between cultures, for example, Indonesian people beckon with palm down and moving all fingers
  • understanding that meanings of facial expressions can vary across cultures and that the same expression can convey various emotions, for example, in Indonesia smiling may also reflect confusion, shyness, nervousness, embarrassment or offence
  • showing awareness that language carries cultural ideas, for example, upacara compared to ‘assembly’; padi/beras/nasi compared to ‘cooked/uncooked rice’; and kaki lima, becak, and warung and congklak, which have no equivalent in English
  • recognising character traits and values in Indonesian stories, for example, animal heroes in fables are native animals in Indonesia, Si Kancil and Harimau, and comparing these to familiar Australian stories
  • analysing which aspects of own language use might seem ‘strange’ from an Indonesian perspective and why, for example, practices such as barbecuing and Australian Rules football, and names for native animals, currency and foods

Years 3 and 4 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 4, students interact in classroom routines and structured interactions with teachers and peers. They reproduce the sounds of au (for example, mau) and g (for example, gemuk) and the final sound k (for example, tidak). Students follow instructions (such as Duduklah or Bukalah bukumu), make requests and respond with actions. They respond to questions such as Di mana? Kapan? Apakah?, by using simple phrases. They engage with texts, relying on graphics, key words and examples to support understanding, and respond using formulaic language. Students present factual information in texts through, for example, describing, listing and using tables. They work with modelled language to create their own texts, such as sequencing pictures and statements to create a comic and using word lists to complete a paragraph or simple story. Students use vocabulary related to school (such as buku, pensil, kursi), home (such as rumah, kamar, mobil) and some interests (such as suka main komputer, berenang, naik sepeda) to create simple informative and descriptive texts. They describe amounts using cardinal numbers with belas and puluh, and create plurals by doubling nouns. Students state preferences using Saya [tidak] suka…, and use adjectives, including adjectives of size and colour (for example, besar, merah, tinggi, lucu), following the noun. They create subject-focus sentences, and use simple possessive word order such as teman saya or rumahnya, the prepositions di and ke, and the conjunction dan. Students translate texts using word lists and dictionaries, identifying words and expressions that do not have word-to-word equivalence, such as ‘footy’ or becak. They observe how language use, including their own, is influenced by culture and notice how it can influence intercultural experiences.

Students differentiate statements from questions according to intonation. They state that possessive word order in Indonesian differs from English. Students know that language use varies according to who is using it and with whom such as kamu for friends and Bu/Pak for teachers, and that some terms have specific cultural meanings, such as pronouns derived from family terms (for example, Bapak/Pak, Ibu/Bu). They make comparisons between Indonesian and English, particularly identifying similarities and differences in cultural practices related to daily routines and special occasions.

Years 3 and 4 Work Sample Portfolios