Indonesian

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Context statement

The place of the Indonesian language and culture in Australia and in the world
The languages of the Indonesian archipelago have been used in Australia since contact several centuries ago between the peoples of the islands now known as Indonesia and the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples of northern Australia.

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PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Languages - Indonesian are available as PDF documents. 
Languages - Indonesian: Sequence of content
Languages - Indonesian: Sequence of Achievement - F-10 Sequence
Languages - Indonesian: …

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Years 9 and 10

Years 9 and 10 Band Description

The nature of the learners

Students have prior experience of learning Indonesian and bring a range of capabilities, strategies and knowledge that can be applied to new learning. They are expanding the range and nature of their learning experiences and of the contexts in which they communicate with others. They have a growing awareness of the wider world, including the diversity of languages, cultures and forms of intercultural communication. They are considering future pathways and prospects, including how Indonesian may feature in these.

Indonesian language learning and use

Learners engage with a range of texts in Indonesian. They need opportunities for both prepared and spontaneous language use, such as giving presentations, using captions and visual supports. Learners interact with others such as in conversations, interviews and correspondence, and in shared experiences such as games and excursions. They engage in individual and collaborative writing for public purposes, such as a debate or performance, and interact with Indonesian peers such as through information and communication technologies such as SMS, social networking sites and Skype. They create bilingual texts for peers and the wider school community, such as short stories, role-plays or skits, posters, articles or videos.

Learners need explicit instruction to understand new grammar such as embedded clauses and object-focus construction. They need opportunities to recognise patterns and rules, analyse texts, and make connections between language and culture. They consider the power of language to achieve particular effects and influence people, including themselves. They develop a metalanguage for comparing and contrasting aspects of language and culture, and reflecting on their own language and culture.

Contexts of interaction

The language class remains the main context of interaction for learning and using Indonesian, including interacting with a wide range of texts and people, such as teacher assistants and exchange students, and with peers in Indonesia using communication technologies. They may also encounter Indonesian in the wider community, such as in the media, film festivals, community events, guest speakers or in-country travel.

Texts and resources

Learners engage with language learning texts such as textbooks and online materials. They have increased exposure to authentic texts such as films, stories, songs, announcements, television programs, magazines, websites, blogs, video clips and social media texts.

Features of Indonesian language use

Students are learning to recognise differences in spoken and written Indonesian, as well as formal and informal language. They are developing understanding of the affixation system of Indonesian and learning to appreciate the importance of passive voice, religion, and a collectivist worldview that is evident in language use.

Level of support

Learners need opportunities for independent learning such as researching a topic of interest, and monitor their language learning needs and progress such as through a journal or folio. They analyse and reflect on texts and intercultural experiences, and may require models when constructing their own texts. While learners may seek teacher feedback, they also need to develop autonomous learning practices such as the use of dictionaries and mnemonic devices.

The role of English

Learners use Indonesian for daily interaction, discussion and exchanges with the teacher and peers. They may use English for debate, discussions and reflection on complex and abstract ideas that are beyond their linguistic range in Indonesian. English provides a reference point for comparing and contrasting their knowledge of Indonesian and understanding the nature of language and culture, including their own.


Years 9 and 10 Content Descriptions

Using language for communicative purposes in interpreting, creating and exchanging meaning.

Socialising

Interacting orally and in writing to exchange, ideas, opinions, experiences, thoughts and feelings; and participating in planning, negotiating, deciding and taking action.

Share personal opinions and experiences with peers, comparing aspects of teenage life such as relationships, events and aspirations

[Key concepts: youth, relationship; Key processes: exchanging, comparing] (ACLINC103 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Sustainability
  • interacting with peers to share experiences of and opinions about teenage life, such as responsibilities, relationships and aspirations, for example, Tugas saya mencuci piring setiap malam; saya dilarang ke luar sesudah jam sepuluh malam, kami cuma makan makanan yang halal
  • exchanging with peers aspects of own identity and personal world, for example, describing significant events such as a recent party, childhood holidays, school highlights, influential figures or milestones
  • developing relationships with peers by exchanging views and expressing empathy and well-wishes, for example, describing views of particular people or events (Yang paling disukai…), wishing others well (harap segera sembuh, semoga sukses) and experimenting with informal language where appropriate, for example, cowok itu cakep banget
  • debating issues and discussing personal views on topics such as education, relationships, environment, sustainability, employment, self-image, health and music, for example, Pada pendapat saya…; Dari pihak saya; saya kurang setuju karena…; Walaupun demikian…
    • Sustainability
  • participating in conversations, using strategies to sustain interactions, such as asking for repetition, clarification or confirmation (for example, Bisa diulang Bu?, Saya kurang mengerti), and inviting further exchange, for example, Bagaimana pendapatmu terhadap…?
Interact with others to make decisions and solve problems when making plans or obtaining goods or services

[Key concept: consumption; Key processes: negotiating, collaborating] (ACLINC104 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • arranging social events by planning, negotiating and deciding with peers, and creating associated texts such as invitations and posters, for example, planning a class party, an Indonesian meal or activities for languages week
  • planning and completing tasks involving authentic or simulated transactions, such as planning a holiday, purchasing goods, making a recipe, or texting a friend to send photos of a recent event
  • participating in scenarios related to travelling or living in Indonesia, for example, living with a host family, seeking medical treatment, purchasing souvenirs or using transport
  • applying for services or opportunities such as such as student exchange programs, scholarships or fundraising, explaining reasons for doing so
Contribute to structured discussions and tasks by asking and responding to questions, clarifying understanding and expressing agreement or disagreement

[Key concept: mutual respect, negotiation; Key processes: discussing, clarifying] (ACLINC105 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • contributing to collaborative interactions such as creating a newsletter, setting up a display or hosting an event, negotiating roles and responsibilities
  • interacting in class routines by apologising, clarifying, requesting and advising, for example, maaf, saya belum mengerjakan PR, tanggal berapa tes?, Apa maksud Ibu?, Harap pelan-pelan, lebih baik kalau…, hati-hati ya
  • participating in class discussions (for example, mengapa kamu pikir begitu?, saya rasa, menurut pendapat saya, kalau saya tidak salah) and making connections with contributions from others, for example, saya setuju dengan….karena…, Pengalaman saya juga begitu…

Informing

Obtaining, processing, interpreting and conveying information through a range of oral, written and multimodal texts; developing and applying knowledge.

Engage with texts to locate information and infer meaning, state opinions on information obtained and present it in new forms

[Key concepts: perspective, representation, concepts from other learning areas; Key processes: analysing, inferring, researching] (ACLINC106 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • locating specific ideas and information about youth and environmental issues or ideas related to geography, history, health or science in texts such as advertisements, video clips, job vacancies, reports, magazine articles, reviews and graffiti, and presenting ideas and information to others
  • listening to texts such as advertisements, announcements, interviews and conversations to gather details and use these in own texts, for example, inviting a friend to an event based on a radio advertisement or creating a profile based on an interview with a celebrity
  • researching aspects of Indonesian society, history and culture (for example, religious beliefs and practices such as naik haji, Idul Fitri or ogah-ogah parade; sports such as bulu tangkis, pencak silat or lompat batu; or prominent historical figures such as Kartini or Sukarno) by gathering information from texts and exchanges with Indonesian peers and adults
  • critically analysing texts such as commercials, websites and brochures that show different representations of Indonesian culture, and reflecting on key messages, for example, mari kita, kita semua, kesatuan, masyarakat, gotong-royong, beraneka macam, Nusantara, keluarga besar, kerja sama
Convey factual information and opinions in texts such as reports and displays using graphics and multimedia tools

[Key concepts: fact, opinion; Key processes: constructing, presenting] (ACLINC107 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • conveying information to an Indonesian audience to describe aspects of Australian culture such as the physical environment, celebrations and cuisine, or to explain expressions such as ‘the bush’ or ‘fair go’
  • explaining to others a procedure or practice, for example, a recipe, the rules of a sport or board game, instructions on keeping a pet/animal, or fashion tips
  • presenting a report on an issue, recent event or public figure, using graphics to support meaning, for example, Film terbaru….; Olimpiade…; Gunung api meletus lagi
  • conveying information about topics of personal interest such as in health, technology or the arts, and aspects of Indonesian culture such as jamu, agama, sihir or pencak silat, by producing displays or (multimedia) presentations with commentary, subtitles or captions, for example, Menurut informasi ini…

Creating

Engaging with imaginative experience by participating in responding to and creating a range of texts, such as stories, songs, drama and music.

Respond to aspects of imaginative texts such as character, ideas, events and setting by expressing reactions and opinions, and by modifying aspects

[Key concept: imagination; Key processes: adapting, comparing and contrasting; Key text types: script, song/poem, story, video] (ACLINC108 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • listening to, reading and viewing songs, stories, television programs and films with subtitles, and responding by expressing views, for example, saya rasa, yang sangat menakutkan…
  • responding to texts by modifying key aspects, for example, creating a new scene, continuing the story, acting out a scene, or re-creating a video clip using parody
  • comparing and contrasting different creative forms such as pantun, wayang orang/kulit/golek, ketoprak or sinetron, and considering how ideas and cultural values are represented, for example, Semar bersifat cerdas
  • reading stories such as folktales and discussing ideas and values conveyed (for example, attitudes towards greed, jealousy or loyalty), and considering how these relate to contemporary society and own culture
Create a variety of texts to express imaginary people, places and experiences, drawing on aspects of personal and social world

[Key concepts: journey, adventure, emotion; Key processes: narrating, sequencing; Key text types: story, game/show, comic] (ACLINC109 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • composing own texts such as film posters, comics or short stories with imaginary people, places or experiences , for example, setting a story in the past or future, creating a new species, space travel, inventing a superhero, detective or alter ego
  • creating a range of texts to entertain others, such as songs and video clips, skits, graphic stories, children’s books and cartoons
  • composing, performing and recording creative works, including experimenting with Indonesian forms, such as a wayang performance about a recent event, a rap song about a celebrity or famous person, a sinetron or talent/game show, or a dongeng about morals

Translating

Moving between languages and cultures orally and in writing, recognising different interpretations and explaining these to others.

Translate informative and imaginative texts from Indonesian to English and vice versa, comparing own interpretations with others and discussing what differs and why

[Key concepts: equivalence, representation; Key processes: translating, comparing] (ACLINC110 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • translating texts such as signs, announcements, notices, songs, advertisements, or extracts from stories and films, and then comparing own translation with peers’, discussing differences between versions and considering reasons for these
  • analysing texts for culture-specific terms and expressions (for example, masuk angin, kerok, nasi sudah menjadi bubur) and considering how best to represent these in another language
  • analysing a familiar text in its translated form (for example, a nursery rhyme, children’s story, advertisement or web page translated into Indonesian), noticing what has or has not been effectively translated, and considering what the challenges are and how the text could be improved
  • finding ways to represent culture-specific expressions — for example, geography (‘suburb’, RW/RT, tanah air), food (‘wheat/dairy free’, halal, gurih), and values (‘equality’, gotong royong) — such as by adding a brief description or explanation, for example, ‘pendopo, a kind of outdoor meeting area or pavilion’
  • using print dictionaries and electronic translators to support the translation process, including doing ‘back translations’, noticing when a word or expression does or does not translate readily and considering why
Create bilingual texts for the wider community, such as notices and instructions, promotional material, performances and announcements

[Key concepts: interpretation, bilinguality; Key processes: constructing, composing, explaining] (ACLINC111 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • interacting with Indonesian peers (such as in shared digital spaces, sometimes using Indonesian and sometimes English, to create bilingual texts about particular topics or issues
  • composing and presenting a performance in Indonesian (for example, a wayang play or song) for members of the school community, and adding English captions or narration
  • creating bilingual texts to inform others in the local community, for example, a poster to announce a lunchtime concert or fundraising food stall, a display for a local venue such as a library or gallery
  • creating bilingual texts to convey information and instructions to others, for example, a car park ticket, a health brochure/announcement, or instructions for a computer game

Reflecting

Participating in intercultural exchange, questioning reactions and assumptions; and considering how interaction shapes communication and identity.

Engage with Indonesian peers and texts, recognising how own cultural assumptions, practices and beliefs influence language and content, and choosing whether and how to make adjustments

[Key concept: intraculturality; Key processes: questioning assumptions, reflecting] (ACLINC112 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • interacting with Indonesians, noticing social norms and practices such as personal space, gender roles, having a boyfriend or girlfriend, same-sex hand-holding, religious artefacts (jilbab and kerudung for women, taqiyah (skullcap) and peci/kopiah for men), and acceptable topics of conversation (for example, Kamu sudah mandi?), and considering own reactions to these
  • sharing experiences with Indonesian peers through shared digital spaces, text messages and conversations, modifying own language when meaning is not understood, such as explaining an idea or expression that may be culturally specific, for example, canang sari (Balinese daily offerings) or ‘outback’
  • recognising that social values such as politeness can be expressed differently in different cultures, and understanding features of Indonesian etiquette such as avoiding direct refusal; aiming to please by answering a question even if they don’t know the answer; expressing gratitude through actions, not necessarily language (for example, limited use of terima kasih); and waiting to be invited to eat or drink, for example, silakan makan/minum
  • monitoring, recording and reflecting on intercultural experiences, examining aspects that were unexpected, comfortable or uncomfortable, successful or unsuccessful, and considering possible reasons for this
Interact with others, monitoring how identity influences intercultural exchange, and reflect on own identity and the diversity of Indonesian identities

[Key concepts: identity, diversity; Key processes: monitoring, comparing, reflecting] (ACLINC113 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • analysing language choices and gestures used by Indonesian speakers and considering whether or not and how to use these in own communication, for example, using Muslim prayer times to refer to times of the day such as waktu subuh (at dawn), waktu maghrib (at sunset)
  • reflecting on choices made to reveal or conceal aspects of identity when interacting with different people across cultures (for example, Ibu dan bapak saya sudah bercerai, Ini adik tiri saya, saya tidak beragama)
  • gathering examples of language/s used by various people in different contexts, including the range of languages spoken by Indonesians, and discussing how the examples reveal aspects of identity
  • monitoring own language use and identity across a range of intercultural interactions, such as by using a blog or journal, and considering own views about being a learner and user of Indonesian

Analysing and understanding language and culture as resources for interpreting and shaping meaning in intercultural exchange.

Systems of language

Understanding the language system, including sound, writing, grammar and text.

Recognise pronunciation of compound words and polysyllabic words, and use of rhythm and stress in complex sentences

[Key concepts: fluency, rhythm; Key processes: reproducing, experimenting] (ACLINU114 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • recognising sounds such as the glottal stop k and unexploded t at end of words, and sound combinations such as kh and sy, in words such as khatulistiwa, masyarakat
  • understanding rising intonation in polysyllabic words (for example, membersihkan) and compound words, for example, kerajinan tangan
  • recognising and reproducing the rhythm of extended sentences, such as the correct pausing for clauses in a complex sentence, for example,…yang sudah diterimanya,…
Develop knowledge of vocabulary and structure to extend meanings, such as complex verbs, affixation, a range of cohesive devices and object-focus construction

[Key concept: grammatical systems; Key processes: experimenting, applying] (ACLINU115 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • identifying people by pronouns or titles, for example, Kepala Sekolah, si (diminutive) and nicknames
  • describing the qualities of people using adjectives of character, for example, murah hati, bertanggung-jawab
  • indicating possibility, for example, mungkin, mudah-mudahan, semoga
  • specifying what is being referred to, for example, yang ini, yang itu
  • understanding embedded clauses using yang, for example, Saya belum berkenalan dengan murid yang baru datang dari Australia
  • indicating equivalence using adalah
  • indicating action using transitive verbs, me- verb system (-kan or -i suffix) and their object-focus di- forms
  • showing lack of purpose, for example, jalan-jalan, duduk-duduk, melihat-lihat
  • relating people and position using prepositions, for example, kepada
  • comparing things using comparatives and superlatives, for example, ter-, makin lama…, makin + adjective
  • seeking information using interrogatives and question forms, for example, mengapa, bagaimana, yang mana, untuk apa/siapa, dengan apa/siapa
  • requesting that others do something for own benefit (minta, harap, mohon, tolong); for others’ benefit (silakan)
  • excusing and apologising, for example, permisi dulu, minta maaf, maafkan saya
  • giving advice with suffix -lah, for example, beristirahatlah, tunggulah, nasehat saya, sebaiknya, seharusnya, jangan
  • showing empathy and well-wishing, for example, kasihan, harap cepat sembuh, semoga sukses
  • giving opinion, for example, saya berpendapat bahwa, saya percaya
  • contrasting two ideas using conjunctions, for example, namun, namun demikian, walaupun begitu, meskipun
  • referring to abstract ideas using affixation and nominalisation, for example, belajar/pelajar/pelajaran, kerja/mengerjakan/pekerjaan, sakit/penyakit/kesakitan
  • referring to events and time using frequency markers (for example, sering kali, sekali-sekali, belum pernah, hampir tidak pernah) and time indicators, for example, tadi malam, nanti, nanti sore, sekarang, pada masa depan, yang akan datang, waktu liburan yang lalu
  • referring back to something specific using tersebut
Develop understanding of textual conventions and how they shape meaning and influence responses

[Key concepts: power, influence, emotion; Key processes: analysing, evaluating] (ACLINU116 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • analysing how texts are constructed, including cohesive devices such as conjunctions and coherence devices such as time markers
  • examining language structures and features used in a range of texts for communicative effect, for example, to persuade, amuse, ridicule, sympathise, challenge, include or exclude, offend or forgive
  • using literary devices to enhance ideas and expression in imaginative texts, for example, metaphor (adalah) and simile (sama dengan, seperti, bagai)
  • analysing and comparing textual features across cultures, for example, the convention of apologising at the opening and closing of formal Indonesian speeches, and showing humility in an Indonesian job application
  • understanding the prevalence of acronyms (for example, ultah, penjaskes, narkoba), and their use for convenience

Language variation and change

Understanding how languages vary in use (register, style, standard and non-standard varieties) and change over time and place.

Develop awareness of register, comparing language choices and considering how and why language varies in formality

[Key concepts: formality, register; Key processes: observing, analysing] (ACLINU117 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • observing that Indonesians are typically multilingual and regularly shift between languages according to context, for example, use of Bahasa gaul among teenagers, bahasa daerah with local community, and bahasa baku in formal communication
  • identifying levels of formality or register of language used in texts and explaining reasons for this, for example, the use of formal language when talking to people in authority to show respect, the use of informal language in commercials to create a sense of familiarity
  • examining variations in language used in face-to-face and written/online communication, particularly noticing colloquial language and how it differs from standard forms, for example, kasih aku coklat, dong; boleh minta coklat, Bu
  • making connections between aspects of language use and the identity of participants, for example, Muslim expressions such as Insya’ Allah, Puji Tuhan, Syukur, Alhamdullillah
Recognise how Indonesian impacts and is impacted by social, political and cultural changes, such as new information and communication technologies

[Key concepts: impact, power, technology; Key processes: analysing, discussing] (ACLINU118 - Scootle )

  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • recognising how and why a language may borrow vocabulary and expressions from other languages, particularly when adopting new products and practices, for example, English terms for technology adapted to Indonesian grammar (nge-lunch, meng-upload, ngopi, memfotokopi), and the use of texting language for convenience and humour
  • analysing word borrowings in Indonesian, such as from Arabic (Assalam alaikum), English (teknis, format), Dutch (rekening, wortel, kantor), Sanskrit (bahasa, belanja), Tamil (roti, mangga) and Javanese (alon-alon asal kelakon), and exploring borrowings in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages from languages in Indonesia, such as the use of Makassan terms in Yolngu (balanda, rupiah)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • understanding that cultures are constantly changing and consist of multiple subcultures with distinctive language practices such as family sayings and teenage slang, for example, nongkrong, gebetan, cowok/cewek
  • investigating how the language of texts in public spaces, such as signs and graffiti, can reflect opinions, values and beliefs, including controversial or political ideas, for example, reformasi

Role of language and culture

Analysing and understanding the role of language and culture in the exchange of meaning.

Understand the role of language and culture in shaping and conveying cultural identity, including the multiple languages and cultures both in Indonesia and in Australia

[Key concepts: multiplicity, language ecology; Key processes: exploring, reflecting, explaining] (ACLINU119 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • examining the link between language and cultural values in Indonesia, for example, concepts of community (komunitas, keluarga besar [company name], rakyat, masyarakat) and working together/reciprocating (saling membantu, saling mengerti, gotong royong, bertenggang rasa)
  • understanding how language reflects specific cultural ideas, such as social organisation (for example, kelurahan, bapak camat, bupati, kabupaten, propinsi), as well as values, such as deference and humility, for example, numpang tanya Pak, minta maaf, kalau saya tidak salah
  • recognising that cultural values, customs and practices are constantly changing and are evident in language use, for example, the use of kinship terms to refer to people who are not blood relations (Saudara, Paman, Tante, Mas, Mbak)
  • appreciating that language use can reflect and express cultural identity; that multiple languages exist in both Indonesia and Australia, including Indigenous languages; and that many people are multilingual and value this capability as an integral part of their identity
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures

Years 9 and 10 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 10, students interact with peers and adults using written and spoken Indonesian to communicate about personal interests and relationships, practices and experiences, and about broader issues such as health and the environment, including as these relate to Indonesia. They respond to and create personal, descriptive, informative and imaginative texts for a range of purposes. When participating in presentations, correspondence and dialogues, students use both rehearsed and spontaneous language, and exchange facts, ideas and opinions, using questions such as Bagaimana, Mengapa and Untuk apa? In speaking, they apply conventions of pronunciation, stress and rhythm to a range of sentence structures. Students use a variety of me- verbs, pronouns, and noun forms such as ke-an, pe- and pe-an. They apply knowledge of textual features such as salutations, sequencing, and persuasive and emotive language to comprehend and create public texts. Students use embedded clauses with yang to expand ideas, and create cohesion and interest by using conjunctions such as misalnya, seperti, termasuk and yaitu. They refer to the past (for example, yang lalu, dulu), present (for example, sedang, sedangkan, sambil, sementara) and future (for example, akan, mau, kalau, besok, masa depan). Students engage with others using formulaic expressions and verbal fillers to sustain and extend interactions, for example, maaf, mohon diulang, saya kurang memahami, oh, begitu! dan kamu?, dengan siapa? Maksud saya, anu. They translate texts and create bilingual texts, comparing different interpretations and deciding how to deal with instances of non-equivalence, such as proverbs, idioms, proper nouns, and culture-specific terms and expressions. They describe their own reactions in intercultural encounters and reflect on how these may relate to their own assumptions and identity, and how they may be perceived by others.

Students know that Indonesian is a national, standardised language used for education, media and government, and that it is one of many languages in Indonesia. They know that language use varies according to context, purpose, audience and mode, and that languages change over time. They identify colloquial forms (for example, banget, cowok) and make connections between these and their formal counterparts (for example, gimana?/Bagaimana?; kalo/kalau; nggak/tidak). They use metalanguage to discuss features of language, texts and grammar such as object-focus construction. They know affixation rules for forming verbs (for example, me-kan, me-i) and nouns (for example, pe-, pe-an, ke-an) and apply this to predict and decipher meanings, including using bilingual dictionaries effectively. Students know that Indonesian borrows from other languages, including local and foreign languages. They make connections between aspects of culture in language use such as terms for artefacts (for example, kris, andong), practices (for example, minum jamu, batik/ikat), ideas (for example, halus/kasar) and values (for example, sopan/tidak sopan, rendah hati).


Years 9 and 10 Work Sample Portfolios