By the end of Year 10, students interact with peers and adults using written and spoken Indonesian to communicate about personal interests and relationships, practices and experiences, and about broader issues such as health and the environment, including as these relate to Indonesia. They respond to and create personal, descriptive, informative and imaginative texts for a range of purposes. When participating in presentations, correspondence and dialogues, students use both rehearsed and spontaneous language, and exchange facts, ideas and opinions, using questions such as Bagaimana, Mengapa and Untuk apa? In speaking, they apply conventions of pronunciation, stress and rhythm to a range of sentence structures. Students use a variety of me- verbs, pronouns, and noun forms such as ke-an, pe- and pe-an. They apply knowledge of textual features such as salutations, sequencing, and persuasive and emotive language to comprehend and create public texts. Students use embedded clauses with yang to expand ideas, and create cohesion and interest by using conjunctions such as misalnya, seperti, termasuk and yaitu. They refer to the past (for example, yang lalu, dulu), present (for example, sedang, sedangkan, sambil, sementara) and future (for example, akan, mau, kalau, besok, masa depan). Students engage with others using formulaic expressions and verbal fillers to sustain and extend interactions, for example, maaf, mohon diulang, saya kurang memahami, oh, begitu! dan kamu?, dengan siapa? Maksud saya, anu. They translate texts and create bilingual texts, comparing different interpretations and deciding how to deal with instances of non-equivalence, such as proverbs, idioms, proper nouns, and culture-specific terms and expressions. They describe their own reactions in intercultural encounters and reflect on how these may relate to their own assumptions and identity, and how they may be perceived by others.
Students know that Indonesian is a national, standardised language used for education, media and government, and that it is one of many languages in Indonesia. They know that language use varies according to context, purpose, audience and mode, and that languages change over time. They identify colloquial forms (for example, banget, cowok) and make connections between these and their formal counterparts (for example, gimana?/Bagaimana?; kalo/kalau; nggak/tidak). They use metalanguage to discuss features of language, texts and grammar such as object-focus construction. They know affixation rules for forming verbs (for example, me-kan, me-i) and nouns (for example, pe-, pe-an, ke-an) and apply this to predict and decipher meanings, including using bilingual dictionaries effectively. Students know that Indonesian borrows from other languages, including local and foreign languages. They make connections between aspects of culture in language use such as terms for artefacts (for example, kris, andong), practices (for example, minum jamu, batik/ikat), ideas (for example, halus/kasar) and values (for example, sopan/tidak sopan, rendah hati).