Indonesian

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Context statement

The place of the Indonesian language and culture in Australia and in the world
The languages of the Indonesian archipelago have been used in Australia since contact several centuries ago between the peoples of the islands now known as Indonesia and the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples of northern Australia.

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PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Languages - Indonesian are available as PDF documents. 
Languages - Indonesian: Sequence of content
Languages - Indonesian: Sequence of Achievement - F-10 Sequence
Languages - Indonesian: …

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Years 7 and 8

Years 7 and 8 Band Description

The nature of the learners

Students are beginning their study of Indonesian and typically have had little prior exposure to the language and associated cultures. Many will have learnt an additional language in primary school, some have proficiency in different home languages and bring existing language learning strategies and intercultural awareness to the new experience of learning Indonesian. Students’ textual knowledge developed through English literacy learning supports the development of literacy in Indonesian. Skills in analysing, comparing and reflecting on language and culture in both languages are mutually supportive. Students may need encouragement to take risks in learning a new language at this stage of social development and to consider issues of how the experience impacts on their sense of ‘norms’ associated with their first language and culture.

Indonesian language learning and use

Learners use Indonesian in a range of classroom interactions and experiences. They read and listen to texts, and apply modelled language in creating their own texts, such as scripts, messages and stories. Learners draw on their literacy in their first language and their understanding of features of a range of text types to predict meanings and create texts in Indonesian, for example, emails, advertisements and instructions. They develop grammatical knowledge and language awareness through paying close attention to texts, comparing languages, and applying their knowledge in language exercises and tasks.

Learners consider fundamental concepts associated with Indonesian such as the diversity of peoples, religions, geography and languages. They explore the notion of Australia and Indonesia being neighbours, and compare aspects of environment, lifestyle and practices in both cultures. Learners use a range of processes, such as observing, comparing and reflecting on language use. They develop a metalanguage for discussing language and culture. They may monitor and reflect on their language and culture learning through discussions, a journal or shared digital space.

Contexts of interaction

The Indonesian language class is the main context for learning, with use of Indonesian for routines and structured interactions with peers and teachers. With teacher guidance, learners may communicate with Indonesian peers through information and communication technologies. They may encounter ideas about Indonesia outside of the classroom, such as in the media that they bring to their learning.

Texts and resources

Learners will be exposed to a range of personal, informative and imaginative texts, both spoken and written. They will engage with commercial, teacher-generated and authentic texts such as advertisements, greeting cards, songs, stories and notices, including in digital form. Some authentic texts will be used to analyse language use, for example, recipes, conversations, comic strips, excerpts from films (with subtitles) and television programs. Learners may interact with Indonesian speakers such as peers, teacher assistants or community members, both face to face and through technologies.

Features of Indonesian language use

Learners are introduced to the written and spoken forms of Indonesian, noticing that it uses the same alphabet as English but with some differences in pronunciation. They become familiar with a base word system with prefixes. Learners are introduced to word order and simple sentence construction. They begin to develop a sound knowledge of vocabulary, particularly terms related to people, places and things in their immediate world.

Level of support

Learners rely on teacher talk, instruction, modelling, feedback, and structured opportunities for practising and understanding new language. Supports include word lists/dictionaries, visual organisers, images and gesture. Learners may collaborate with peers in structured pair and group tasks that have clear roles and expectations. Learners require regular opportunities to monitor and evaluate their language and culture learning.

The role of English

Learners’ repertoire in their first language far exceeds that in Indonesian and English is used as a scaffold and as a medium of instruction. It is likely that English will be used for explanations, discussions and analysis of the language system and cultural meanings in texts. Indonesian is used for routine exchanges and classroom interactions.


Years 7 and 8 Content Descriptions

Using language for communicative purposes in interpreting, creating and exchanging meaning.

Socialising

Interacting orally and in writing to exchange, ideas, opinions, experiences, thoughts and feelings; and participating in planning, negotiating, deciding and taking action.

Interact with peers and teacher to exchange information and opinions about self, friends and family, pastimes, special occasions and the immediate environment

[Key concepts: self, friendship, pastimes; Key processes: socialising, describing] (ACLINC086 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • exchanging personal details such as name, age, address, school, abilities and interests, ethnicity, religion and language(s) spoken
  • describing and comparing aspects of personal world such as home and family, teachers and school, interests and friends, for example, teman saya baik hati dan setia
  • recounting significant or special events and comparing these to similar events for Indonesian teenagers, for example, birthdays, holidays, celebrations or sporting events
  • interacting with peers to express likes, dislikes and preferences, and to exchange and explain opinions, for example, saya lebih suka bermain bola basket daripada sepak bola, saya paling suka sejarah karena menarik
  • participating in class activities such as games (sepak takraw/bola basket) using Indonesian to interact, for example, giliran saya, ke kiri/kanan, saya menang
Make plans and obtain goods or services in real or simulated situations, through corresponding and transacting with others using modelled texts

[Key concepts: negotiation, transaction; Key processes: planning, negotiating, role-playing] (ACLINC087 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • participating in scenarios such as being lost and asking for and giving directions (for example, Dari sini jalan ke timur sampai perempatan) or assistance, for example, Permisi Pak, boleh saya bertanya di mana…
  • negotiating and making decisions about goods and services such as transport, ordering goods such as food and drink (for example, Mau beli bakso? Mau menonton film atau bermain sepak bola nanti sore?), or purchasing goods, for example, bisa kurang, Wah! terlalu mahal, saya rugi
  • giving, accepting or declining invitations (for example, mau ikut; sayang saya tidak bisa, maaf, ya), including making excuses to avoid causing offence or embarassment, for example, maaf, saya harus ke rumah nenek pada hari Sabtu, lain kali saja
  • exchanging details such as time, place, activity and participants when organising events, using texts such as phone conversations, emails, text messages, notes and letters, for example, mau berbelanja di mal dengan saya?
Interact in class routines and exchanges by asking and responding to questions, following instructions, and seeking help and permission

[Key concept: routine; Key processes: questioning, interacting] (ACLINC088 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • following instructions to play a game, complete work or get organised, for example, dengarkanlah, bukalah laptop, berbarislah, sudah selesai?
  • asking and responding to questions to clarify meaning or instructions or request permission, for example, Maaf, saya tidak mengerti; Apa artinya?; Maaf, sekali lagi, Bu
  • interacting in classroom routines such as greeting and taking leave, for example, Selamat pagi, Pak; permisi Bu; selamat jalan; sampai besok
  • using language for comparison, opinion, reaction and reflection, for example, saya pikir…karena…, saya kira, saya heran, lebih…daripada, pertama-tama saya rasa…sekarang saya rasa…, saya setuju/tidak setuju, saya lebih suka…

Informing

Obtaining, processing, interpreting and conveying information through a range of oral, written and multimodal texts; developing and applying knowledge.

Identify gist and locate factual information (such as details about people and events) from a range of spoken and written texts, and use the information in new ways

[Key concepts: leisure, travel, geography, special occasions; Key processes: comprehending, classifying, sequencing] (ACLINC089 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • identifying key details, expressions and information in conversations, announcements and notes, and using obtained information to create own texts, for example, listening to a weather report and then cancelling an event due to bad weather
  • reading and viewing a range of texts (for example, promotional brochures and signs, websites and cards) to obtain and compile information about Indonesian places, lifestyle and practices
  • locating, classifying and summarising data such as results of class surveys, or factual information from notices, timetables and announcements, and presenting findings to others, for example, in a digital visual presentation, poster or wall chart
  • gathering information about people, time and activities, and using the information, for example, creating a timeline, diary or timetable to show a sequence of activities
Present factual information and ideas about aspects of language and culture in oral, written and multimodal form

[Key concept: culture; Key process: informing] (ACLINC090 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • reporting, orally and in writing, on events in their immediate environment or personal world, for example, a school/community event, celebration or excursion, or a new student
  • creating texts to present information or ideas to an audience, for example, advertise an event, create a virtual tour of the school, report on a favourite band or type of music
  • describing an aspect of Australian culture for an Indonesian audience, for example, food/diet, daily life, a significant place or cultural practice
  • preparing presentations about aspects of daily life and practices in Indonesia, such as school, leisure, entertainment, diet or education

Creating

Engaging with imaginative experience by participating in responding to and creating a range of texts, such as stories, songs, drama and music.

Engage with imaginative texts such as cartoons, songs and stories, and respond by describing aspects such as characters, events and ideas

[Key concepts: plot, character; Key processes: comprehending, describing; Key text types: cartoon, song, story] (ACLINC091 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • listening to and viewing texts such as television shows (for example, Sinetron, Indonesian idol), video clips, jingles and online greeting cards, and creating a new version or adding a new element to the plot
  • reading and viewing cartoons, comics and stories (for example, si Kancil), and expressing opinions about characters, events and ideas in texts, for example, saya suka/tidak suka, saya pikir, pada pendapat saya
  • listening to and viewing dramatic performances such as wayang or barong or extracts from films, sharing reactions with peers, and noticing ideas and comparing aspects that may be similar or different across cultures
  • inventing a new aspect of a text, such as a new character, plot, object or perspective, or an alternative ending
Create individual and shared texts with imagined scenarios, characters and events, using modelled language

[Key concept: creativity; Key processes: creating, performing; Key text types: (graphic) story, play, cartoon] (ACLINC092 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • composing and participating in dialogues between characters in a short drama or skit, rap or poem
  • creating stories using digital forms such as a video clip or photo story based on imaginary characters, places and events
  • creating texts to entertain others, for example, a comic strip or big book for younger students, a role-play or dialogue to present to parents, or a poem for an online newsletter
  • designing texts for special occasions (real and imagined) and imaginative play, such as greeting cards (for example, using Selamat…; semoga…), or board or electronic games, for example, using ideas such as Pulau Hutan; Tersesat

Translating

Moving between languages and cultures orally and in writing, recognising different interpretations and explaining these to others.

Translate and interpret texts such as descriptions, emails, signs and notices, from Indonesian to English and vice versa, using contextual cues and textual features, and noticing non-equivalence of meaning

[Key concepts: equivalence, representation; Key processes: translating, considering] (ACLINC093 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • collaborating with peers and teacher to translate and interpret personal texts, such as correspondence and conversations, noticing similarities and differences in language use and considering why these might exist
  • translating public signs or notices from Indonesian to English and vice versa, comparing meanings and considering how effective the translations are and why
  • experimenting with translating, both literally and for meaning, by using strategies such as explaining rather than word-for-word translation, for example, describing Australian Rules football or kaki lima
  • learning to use bilingual dictionaries and electronic translation tools, identifying issues such as multiple meanings of words and the need to consider context and understand that meaning goes beyond the literal, for example, jam karet
Create bilingual texts such as signs, posters, games and descriptions for the classroom and the school community

[Key concepts: audience, comprehensibility; Key processes: interpreting, comparing] (ACLINC094 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • creating bilingual resources for language learning, such as glossaries or a personal English–Indonesian dictionary with examples and explanations of language use
  • creating bilingual texts for specific audiences (for example, a big book or game for young learners of Indonesian, invitations to a class event or posters for a performance), noticing how meanings need to be tailored for audience and cultural perspectives
  • preparing bilingual captions for texts such as a display, newsletter or web page for parents and Indonesian peers, exploring how to convey ideas in the different languages
  • noticing culture-specific expressions and idioms, for example, cuci mata (window-shopping/sightseeing) or ‘sick as a dog’, and considering how these might be expressed for audiences with a different cultural perspective

Reflecting

Participating in intercultural exchange, questioning reactions and assumptions; and considering how interaction shapes communication and identity.

Interact with Indonesian peers and texts, noticing what and how language is being used, and considering own reactions and how these relate to own language and culture

[Key concepts: norms, assumptions; Key processes: monitoring, relating] (ACLINC095 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • participating in intercultural experiences, including viewing (online) videos or television programs, noticing what is confusing, surprising or ‘strange’, for example, use of left hand for ‘unclean’ tasks, ‘soft’ handshake, how to say ‘please’
  • corresponding with peers in Indonesia, such as through email, shared digital spaces or video, comparing topics of interest, language choices and expressions
  • observing interactions between Indonesian speakers, noticing similarities and differences in politeness and etiquette, for example, use of permisi dulu; mandi dulu; mari; minta maaf
  • recording features of language use, such as by keeping a journal about how language reflects cultural concepts and values, for example, bersama, kita (to show community); jam karet (showing fluidity of time); elision of pronouns (not foregrounding self; Mau ikut?, Mau ke mana?); and use of gender-neutral terms (dia, pacar)
  • developing a language for describing personal reactions to and feelings about intercultural experiences, for example, suka/kurang suka/tidak suka, heran, bingung, benci, ikut/tidak ikut, sopan/tidak sopan
Participate in learning and using Indonesian, noticing how aspects of identity such as family background, age, school and interests impact on intercultural exchange

[Key concepts: self, profile; Key process: noticing] (ACLINC096 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • interacting with Indonesian peers, considering own reactions to topics raised that may not usually be discussed in own culture, for example, religious beliefs (Kamu beragama apa?)
  • comparing aspects of identity that may be important across cultures, such as island, ethnic group, language, religion, age, gender, and position in family, for example, Nama saya Wayan. Saya dari Bali. Saya orang Hindu. Saya berbahasa Bali dan Indonesia
  • creating texts such as a profile, montage or avatar, choosing what aspects to reveal to different people in another cultural context, for example, nama saya Emily; Saya dari Broome, Australia; Saya siswa sekolah menengah
  • sharing reactions to intercultural experiences, noting how own background, age and interests may contribute to stereotypes or assumptions that impact on the experience

Analysing and understanding language and culture as resources for interpreting and shaping meaning in intercultural exchange.

Systems of language

Understanding the language system, including sound, writing, grammar and text.

Develop understanding of pronunciation related to single and combined sounds and the use of intonation in statements and questions, noticing Indonesian spelling and pronunciation conventions

[Key concept: sound system; Key processes: recognising, comparing] (ACLINU097 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • recognising that Indonesian is written using the Roman alphabet but with distinctive sounds and sound combinations, for example, a, e, i, o, u, c, r, ng, ngg, ny, au, aa, ai
  • noticing raised penultimate syllable in words, for example, membosankan, berbelanja and silakan
  • recognising intonation for questions (with or without question words), statements, commands and interjections, for example, wah, aduh
Develop knowledge of structures and vocabulary for describing people, places and things, such as pronouns, ber- and me- verbs, adjectives, prepositions and word order

[Key concepts: grammatical system; Key process: understanding] (ACLINU098 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • identifying people using, for example, terms of address (Ibu/Bapak), pronouns (saya, kamu/Anda, dia, mereka, family members) and some pe- nouns, for example, pemain, pedagang, penjual
  • identifying things and animals using concrete nouns, for example, school (ruang kelas, aula, tas sekolah), objects (tempat tidur, bak mandi, sepeda), places (taman, desa, hutan, pantai, mesjid) and animals (anjing, kucing, orang utan), and some nouns with
    -an suffix, for example, makanan, rambutan, lingkaran
  • describing the qualities of people, for example, adjectives of character and appearance (gemuk, tinggi, baik hati, lucu, sopan)
  • describing qualities, of objects and animals using adjectives (besar, kecil, panas, manis, hijau, kuning ,jinak, lucu, galak)
  • indicating quantity using plurals, for example, buku-buku, tiga buku, banyak
  • referring to numbers of things using cardinal numbers (puluh, belas, ratus, ribu, juta), and things in a sequence using ordinal numbers (pertama, ke-)
  • greeting and farewelling, for example, Selamat…, Sampai jumpa
  • telling others to do something using imperatives, for example, Duduklah, Diamlah, Ayo, Mulai
  • indicating possession, placing possessive pronouns (saya, Anda/kamu/-mu, dia/nya, mereka) after the noun, and using ber- and mempunyai
  • describing simple actions using base word (for example, tahu, suka naik, tidur), and ber- and me- verbs
  • negating using tidak, bukan and belum
  • specifying place and location, for example, di sini, di sana, di atas, di bawah
  • describing actor, action and object using subject-verb-object construction
  • referring to existence/presence, for example, ada, tidak ada
  • giving directions and information about place using prepositions (di/ke, dari), and about people using the prepositions dengan, kepada
  • locating events in time, for example, days, dates and months (hari Sabtu, bulan Juli, Hari Ulang Tahun, hari Natal, pada akhir minggu, Idul Fitri, bulan puasa), and referring to the past and future using time indicators (sebelum, sesudah, kemarin, besok)
  • seeking information and assistance using interrogatives, for example, siapa, apa, bagaimana, berapa, dari mana, di mana, ke mana, apakah, kapan, berapa lama, jam berapa?, permisi boleh saya…
  • joining ideas using conjunctions, for example, dan, karena, tetapi, atau
  • expressing emotion, for example, wah, aduh, asyik, sayang, hebat
  • expressing modality, for example, bisa, harus, boleh, mau
  • comparing things using comparatives and superlatives, for example, lebih…daripada, paling
Recognise grammatical structures and features in a range of personal, informative and imaginative texts, and notice how these contribute to meaning

[Key concept: genre; Key process: analysing] (ACLINU099 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • analysing the key features of texts such as advertisements, stories, songs and conversations, and comparing these with texts in own language and culture
  • identifying how texts are constructed, such as textual features (for example, salutations in correspondence), grammatical structures (for example, time markers in narratives) and visual cues, for example, images in brochures
  • comparing Indonesian and English grammar, identifying similarities, for example, subject-verb-object sentence construction and differences, for example, word order of nouns and adjectives, absence of the verb ‘to be’ with adjectives and verbs
  • applying knowledge of grammatical rules and context when using dictionaries to support comprehension and creation of texts (for example, locating base words by dropping the ber- prefix), or to recognise a word type, for example, ‘saw’ = ‘see’ (melihat) and not ‘saw’ (noun; gergaji)

Language variation and change

Understanding how languages vary in use (register, style, standard and non-standard varieties) and change over time and place.

Understand that Indonesian, like all languages, varies according to participants, roles and relationships, situations and cultures

[Key concept: variation; Key process: noticing] (ACLINU100 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • recognising that register shifts according to familiarity and social position, for example, using kamu and aku for friends, and Anda, Ibu/Bapak for teachers and adults
  • examining how language varies according to ethnicity and age, for example, Indonesian professionals may use Bahasa baku or English with each other, Javanese neighbours may use Bahasa Jawa, and young people may use Bahasa gaul
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • understanding that language may change according to people’s roles and situation and that people may choose to use different languages to show, for example, familiarity or superiority, such as a politician or movie star using some English to show sophistication, or someone using a regional language to show membership of a particular ethnic group
Understand that Indonesian is a national language that has been and continues to be changed through interaction with other languages and cultures

[Key concepts: dynamism, communication; Key process: discussing] (ACLINU101 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • identifying loan words in Indonesian and English, such as ‘cockatoo’ (kakaktua), ‘bamboo’ (bambu), ‘orangutan’, ‘satay’ (sate), ‘rattan’ (rotan), komputer, apartemen, televisi, pilot and modern, and understanding that borrowings are part of the nature of language
  • analysing texts as a class, recording loan words and investigating their origins, and comparing these with borrowings in English and other known languages
  • understanding the importance of Indonesian as a national language, for example, by discussing its origins and observing when and why it is used in contemporary society, such as by comparing versions of the national anthem

Role of language and culture

Analysing and understanding the role of language and culture in the exchange of meaning.

Notice connections between language and culture in intercultural language use, recognising how words and expressions may be culture-specific

[Key concept: interdependence; Key processes: analysing, making connections] (ACLINU102 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • noticing that some words are culture-specific, such as language associated with particular artefacts and the physical environment, for example, desa, sawah, durian, becak
  • recognising that some expressions are related to cultural practices such as eating, for example, sudah mandi, makan dulu, selamat makan, silakan makan
  • comparing how languages reflect values such as those related to personal attributes, physical appearance and behaviour, for example, halus, kasar, sopan, setia, baik hati, si berani, si kecil, sawo matang, gemuk
  • investigating the language associated with significant cultural practices such as celebrations, for example, Selamat Hari Raya, maaf lahir batin, panjang umurnya
  • recognising interconnections between own language and culture such as vocabulary and expressions related to people, lifestyle and environment, for example, ‘barbecue’, ‘thongs’, ‘bathers/togs/swimmers’, ‘no worries’

Years 7 and 8 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 8, students share factual information and opinions about their personal and immediate worlds, including personal details, family, pets, friends, pastimes, school and neighbourhood. They interact with others orally and in writing, asking and responding to questions using Siapa, Apakah, Berapa, Bagaimana, Apa, Di/Ke/Dari mana…?, and expressing preferences using saya suka, kurang/tidak suka, mau/tidak mau. They pronounce the vowels and consonants such as c (ch) and r (trilled) and combined sounds such as ng, au. They use formulaic expressions (for example, saya tidak tahu, maaf, saya tidak mengerti, sekali lagi) to sustain interactions. Students describe qualities of appearance, colour, character and condition (such as tinggi, merah muda, lucu, panas), and identify quantities using numbers and fractions. They respond to and create texts to describe real and imagined events and characters. Students create personal, informative and imaginative texts incorporating textual features such as salutations and using cohesive devices such as conjunctions for example, dan, tetapi, karena and untuk. They form sentences with subject-verb-object construction (for example, Saya mau bermain sepak bola), typically using simple base words (for example, makan, minum, naik, bangun), ber- verbs (for example, bermain, belajar, berenang, berdansa, berlari) and formulaic me- verbs (for example, menonton, mendengarkan). Students refer to others using pronouns such as saya, kamu, dia, mereka, Bu/Pak, and use these in possessive form, including using -nya (for example, sepatunya trendi). They refer to events in time and place using the prepositions pada, di and ke as well as time markers such as sebelum/sesudah, yang lalu, and depan. Students predict meaning based on knowledge of their first language, text features and key words, including loan words from English. They translate texts, identifying culture-specific language such as vocabulary related to cultural artefacts (for example, gayung, becak, warung), environment (for example, sawah, desa, cicak), and practices (for example, Idul Fitri). Students describe their experiences of using Indonesian and views about how it fits with their sense of self.

Students know that Indonesian is a language used by millions of Indonesians in daily life and that it is constantly changing. They know that Indonesian uses a base word and affix system and they use metalanguage to describe and compare features and rules of sentence construction including the use of possessives and adjectives. Students identify textual features such as salutations, conversation markers and sequencing devices. They know that spoken and written forms of Indonesian can vary, for example, the elision of pronouns and some verbs in speech. They identify when language changes according to people and their relationships, such as informal language with friends (for example, kamu, nggak, hebat) and formal language with teachers and adults (for example, Anda, tidak, baik sekali). Students make connections between aspects of their own language and culture, such as particular expressions or practices, and compare these with Indonesian language and culture.


Years 7 and 8 Work Sample Portfolios