Hindi (Version 8.4)

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Context statement

The place of the Hindi language and associated cultures in Australia and the world
Hindi is an official language of India and Fiji. It is the most widely spoken language of the Indian subcontinent and is also widely spoken throughout the world in countries that include the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Mauritius, the Gulf countries and Australia.


PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Languages - Hindi are available as PDF documents. 
Languages - Hindi: Sequence of content
Languages - Hindi: Sequence of Achievement - F-10 Sequence
Languages - Hindi: Sequence of Achievement …


Years 9 and 10

Years 9 and 10 Band Description

The nature of the learners

This stage of learning coincides with social, physical and cognitive changes associated with adolescence. Increased cognitive maturity enables learners to work more deductively with language and culture systems, to apply more intentional learning strategies and to reflect productively on their learning. Motivation and engagement with language learning and use are influenced by peer group dynamics, personal interests and values and issues related to self-concept. This is particularly the case for bilingual learners for whom the duality of living between languages and cultural frames impacts continually on the process of identity construction. The role of language is central to this process and is reflected in the degree to which learners define themselves as members of language communities, how they position themselves in relation to peer groups, the choices they make in relation to linguistic and social practices. These processes are fluid and context-responsive and impact on learners’ engagement with both Hindi and English language learning.

Hindi language learning and use

This is a period of language exploration, vocabulary expansion and experimentation with different modes of communication (for example, digital and hypermedia, collaborative performance and group discussions). Greater control of language structures and systems increases confidence and interest in communicating in a wider range of contexts. Learners use Hindi to communicate and interact; to access and exchange information; to express feelings and opinions; to participate in imaginative and creative experiences; and to design, interpret and analyse a wider range of texts and experiences. They use language in different contexts more fluently, with a greater degree of self-correction and repair. They reference the accuracy of their written language against a stronger frame of grammatical and systems knowledge. They demonstrate understanding of language variation and change, and of how intercultural experience, technology, media and globalisation influence language use and forms of communication.

Contexts of interaction

Learners interact with peers, teachers and other Hindi speakers in immediate and local contexts, and with wider Hindi-speaking communities and cultural resources via virtual and online environments. They may participate in community events such as film or cultural festivals, intercultural forums or exchange travel opportunities.

Texts and resources

Learners use an extensive range of texts and materials designed for in-class learning of Hindi, such as textbooks, literary texts, teacher-generated materials and online resources. Learning is enriched by exposure to authentic materials designed for or generated by young Hindi speakers, such as blogs, video clips, discussion forums, television programs or newspaper features. Learners are encouraged to source additional materials to support their own learning and to pursue personal interests in aspects of Hindi language and associated cultures.

Features of Hindi language use

Learners extend and consolidate grammatical knowledge, including the use of compound sentences by using postpositions मैं पहले दिल्ली जाऊँगा और अपना काम पूरा करने के बाद कोलकता पहुँचूँगा। and of a range of tenses to describe events and personal experiences, पिछले वर्ष जैसे हमने होली का त्योहार मनाया था उसी प्रकार इस वर्ष भी हम होली का त्योहार धूमधाम से मनाएंगे।. They make passive and active voice distinctions, राम उर्दू लिख रहा ह, उर्दू लिखी जा रही है, understand the appropriate use of participles and the function and use of case, ने, को, से, के लिए, में, पर. Their vocabulary knowledge expands to include more abstract words and specialised vocabulary drawn from other learning areas or areas of wider personal interest. Textual knowledge and capability are strengthened through maintaining a balance between activities that focus on language forms and structures and communicative tasks and performance. Learners recognise, analyse and construct different types of texts for different purposes and audiences. Task characteristics and conditions at this level are more complex and challenging, involving collaborative as well as independent language planning and performance, and development and strategic use of language and cultural resources. Elements of tasks involve interpreting, creating, evaluating and performing. Working with media resources, fiction and non-fiction texts, performances and research projects allows for exploration of themes of personal and contemporary relevance (for example, global and environmental issues, identity and relationship issues, questions of diversity and inclusivity). Learners investigate texts through more critical analysis, identifying how language choices reflect perspectives and shape meaning, and how they in turn are shaped by context and intention.

Learners at this level understand the relationship between language, culture and identity. They explore in more depth and detail the processes involved in learning and using different languages, recognising the role of cognitive, cultural and personal as well as linguistic resources. They identify how meaning-making and representation in different languages involve interpretation and personal response as well as literal translation and factual reporting. They explore the reciprocal nature of intercultural communication: how moving between different languages and cultural systems impacts on their ways of thinking and behaving; and how successful communication requires flexibility, awareness and openness to alternative ways. They develop the capacity to ‘decentre’ from normative ways of thinking and communicating, to consider their own cultural ways through the eyes of others, and to communicate in interculturally appropriate ways.

Level of support

While learners are increasingly less reliant on the teacher for support during communicative interactions, continued support, provision of rich language input and modelled language is needed to consolidate and sustain the learning of Hindi. The teacher provides both implicit and explicit modelling and scaffolding in relation to meaningful language use in a range of contexts, situations and learning experiences, and explicit instruction and explanation in relation to complex structures, grammatical functions and abstract concepts and vocabulary. Provision of opportunities to discuss, clarify, rehearse and apply their knowledge is critical in consolidating knowledge and skills and developing autonomy. Learners are encouraged to self-monitor, for example, by keeping records of feedback and through peer support and self-review.

The role of English

Learners and teachers use Hindi as the primary medium of interaction in language-oriented and most content-oriented learning experiences. English is used for comparative analysis and for elements of discussion or conceptual analysis which may be better responded to in English than in Hindi. Learners are supported to reflect on the different roles English and Hindi play in their academic work.

Years 9 and 10 Content Descriptions


Use formal and informal registers to discuss and compare young people’s interests, behaviours and values across different cultural contexts

[Key concepts: values, responsibility, social worlds, environment; Key processes: discussing, comparing] (ACLHIC073 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • interviewing each other and family members to compare views on cultural behaviours and values across different times and contexts, for example, तुम्हारे विचार में संयुक्त और एकल परिवार में से कौन सी पारिवारिक सरंचना आज के युग में ज़्यादा उपयुक्त है?
  • discussing responsibilities related to home, school and part-time work, comparing with those of young people living in India and other Hindi speaking contexts and noting the relative importance of concepts such as परिवार, समुदाय और सहयोग, for example, भारत में घर के कामकाज के लिए नौकर नौकरानियाँ होती हैं l ऑस्ट्रेलिया में रह रहे भारतीय बच्चे घर के कामों में अपने मातापिता का हाथ बँटाते हैंl
  • using formal and informal registers to discuss differences in language use between peers and adults at different social events, for example, क्या आप अगले सप्ताह शास्त्रीय संगीत का कार्यक्रम देखने जाना चाहेंगे? अपनी टीम को प्रोत्साहित करने के लिए तुम कल मैच देखने अवश्य आना l
  • participating in formal debates on social or educational issues with reference to Indian and Australian perspectives, values and frames of reference, for example, क्या विदेशी भाषा सीखना अनिवार्य होना चाहिए? क्या उच्चशिक्षा की प्राप्ति ही जीवन में सफलता की कुँजी है? क्या बालिग होने पर बच्चों को अपने माता पिता का घर छोड़ देना चाहिए?
Participate in activities that involve interactions, transactions, negotiations and management of different opinions and social/cultural behaviours

[Key concepts: social/cultural behaviours, community, environment; Key processes: planning, inviting, presenting opinions] (ACLHIC074 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • negotiating arrangements, weighing up alternatives and reaching shared decisions when planning performances or presentations to showcase Hindi language learning, for example, हमें इस में कुछ चित्र भी सम्मलित करने चाहिये?; क्यों न हम सब ...; यही उचित रहेगा; आपको इसमें से एक चुनना है।
  • issuing, accepting and declining invitations, using culturally appropriate expressions and protocols, for example, अपनी पुत्री के शुभ विवाह पर मैं आपको आमंत्रित करना चाहता हूँ । मैं नेहा बेटी को आशीर्वाद देने ज़रूर आऊँगा। यह मेरा सौभाग्य है कि आप ने मुझे इतने महत्त्वपूर्ण अवसर में सम्मिलित होने का अवसर दिया, किन्तु मैं किसी कारण वश नहीं आ पाऊँगा।
  • comparing opinions on social and cultural behaviours and values associated with Hindi-speaking communities via online forms of communication such as emails, school chat forums and community websites, for example, भारतीय जीवन शैली में रंगों का विशेष महत्व है। बिंदी का महत्त्व केवल सौंदर्य और श्रंगार तक ही सीमित नहीं है। भारतीय संस्कृति की परम्परा है कि हम अपने अतिथियों का अपनी सामर्थ्य के अनुसार स्वागत सत्कार करने में कोई कसर नहीं छोड़ते। भारत में विवाह न केवल एक महिला और पुरुष को आपस में जोड़ता है बल्कि दो परिवारों को आपसी सहयोग और प्रेम की भावना में भी बाँधता है।
  • organising an event such as a campaign or social media forum to raise awareness of community, environmental or ethical issues, for example, महिलाओं की सुरक्षा; स्वच्छ स्थानीय पर्यावरण, पुनर्चक्रण का महत्त्व
  • transacting for goods and services, considering concepts such as value, availability, competition and ethics
  • building vocabulary to support commercial and technological exchange between English- and Hindi-speaking communities, for example, मुद्रा विनिमय दर, भारत में आस्ट्रेलियाई निवेश, अंतर्राष्ट्रीय व्यापार, प्रौद्योगिकी का आदान-प्रदान
Use communicative strategies such as asking open questions and providing elaborated responses to extend discussion, justify views and to reflect on the experience of learning and using Hindi in and out of school

[Key concepts: discussion, language learning, language domains; Key processes: elaborating, responding, designing, identifying] (ACLHIC075 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • extending discussion on topics of shared interest by inviting opinions or further elaboration and by clarifying or justifying statements, for example, इसका क्या प्रभाव पड़ेगा, मुझे विस्तार से बताओ। मेरे कहने का तात्पर्य है कि …; तुम यह कहना चाहते हो कि …; मुझे लगता है कि …
  • designing websites, posters or presentations that reflect on challenges and benefits associated with the experience of learning and using Hindi in the classroom context, for example, मैं बहुत अच्छी हिंदी बोल लेता हूँ, मगर लिखते समय लिंग को लेकर अनेक गलतियाँ होती हैं l हिंदी सीख जाने से मैं अपने दादा-दादी के साथ अच्छी तरह से बातचीत कर पाऊँगी। हिंदी सीखना मुश्किल लग रहा है मगर दिलचस्प बात यह है कि अब मैं हिन्दी फ़िल्मों का पहले से अधिक आनंद ले रही हूँl
  • reflecting on differences between forms of Hindi spoken at home and in the classroom, such as the use of more words influenced by English in the home context, for example, स्कूल compared to विद्यालय, मम्मी-पापा compared to माता-पिता
  • identifying and comparing learning strategies that support their formal study of Hindi in the school context, for example, learning grammar and textual conventions associated with different domains of language use and using purer forms of the language
  • identifying and discussing Hindi idioms and proverbs that may be applied to the experience of learning languages, for example, आकाश से तारे तोड़ लाना; कमर कसना, अब पछताए होत क्या जब चिड़िया चुग गई खेत


Research, interpret and evaluate information presented from different perspectives in relation to youth-related interests, identifying how culture and context affect how information is presented

[Key concepts: perspective, context, culture; Key processes: comparing, analysing, explaining] (ACLHIC076 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • identifying different perspectives on selected social issues featured on television, radio or online forums, using the material as stimulus for debates or presentations, for example, जनसँख्या; भेदभाव; बेरोज़गारी, वैश्वीकरण, मानव अधिकार
  • comparing information published in different media on topical issues or well-known personalities in order to demonstrate the relationship between texts and cultural contexts, for example, by analysing language used in commentaries on क्रिकेट or reflections on Bhagat Singh, Subhash Chandra Bose, Rabindranath Tagore
  • conducting face-to-face or online interviews or surveys with peers, family or community members to compare experiences such as migration to Australia, living ‘across’ cultures or relationships with technology
  • critically analysing texts such as blogs, letters or newspaper announcements, distinguishing between facts and opinions, and identifying author intent, for example, by reading and discussing letters by Jawahar Lal Nehru, पिता के पत्र पुत्री के नाम
  • comparing representations in texts such as advertisements for mobile phones, beauty products or fast food in Hindi and English, considering why particular language or images have been selected
  • listening to interviews with celebrities from fields such as entertainment, sport or politics, identifying expressions or cultural references that convey a sense of culture or context
Present information related to social and cultural issues of interest to their peer group using different modes and formats to take positions and to capture different perspectives

[Key concepts: environment, lifestyle, inclusivity; Key processes: reviewing, commenting, arguing] (ACLHIC077 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • writing a review or creating a commentary of an event such as an India-Australia cricket match, music festival or street fashion show, incorporating expressions and style that characterise these text genres and reflect the writer’s perspective
  • creating texts such as blog posts or items in school newsletters that address social and environmental issues such as पर्यावरण परिवर्तन; बेरोजगारी
  • producing a segment for a local radio station to report on a charity fund raising activity
  • presenting information in the form of promotional or persuasive letters or speeches for audiences such as peers, parents or authorities in order to argue a case or establish a position on an issue, for example, प्रदूषण के प्रभाव, पढ़ाई और मनोरंजन में तालमेल, पौष्टिक आहार और स्वास्थ्य़
  • using data collected via online research or recorded/published interviews to create a digital profile of a significant member of their local community or of the wider Hindi-speaking world, such as a musician, chef, artist or sporting figure
  • presenting an overview of traditional games and sports played in different Hindi-speaking regions, such as कबड्डी or खो-खो, for example, by watching video clips and then writing up the rules


Explore how expressive and imaginative texts create aesthetic, humorous or emotional effects in ways that reflect cultural influence

[Key concepts: humour, effect, mood, composition; Key processes: analysing, comparing, identifying; Key text types: film, TV shows, poetry, drama] (ACLHIC078 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • comparing how elements such as humour, compassion or suspense are created in different forms of popular culture in Hindi and English, for example, in folk/fairy tales, game shows, advertisements, commercial films or talent/reality shows
  • identifying how imaginative texts from different eras use structure, expression and mood to build action, convey emotion and reflect cultural values, for example, by comparing the pre-Independence story बड़े भाई साहब by प्रेमचंद with a contemporary text such as 3 इडियट्स
  • analysing how techniques such as the use of rhythm, imagery and metaphor in Hindi poetry create humorous, emotional or dramatic effects that reflect cultural traditions and styles, for example, in poetry by रवीन्द्रनाथ टैगोर; हरिवंश राय बच्चन; नीरज, गुलज़ार, महादेवी वर्मा or in texts by writers such as भीष्म साहनी; जयशंकर प्रसाद; मुँशी प्रेमचंद, मन्नू भंडारी
  • identifying and explaining characteristic elements of traditional forms of Hindi literature, for example, verse celebrating bravery/warriors such as वीर गाथाएँ और गीत, जैसे पुष्प की अभिलाषा, devotional verse such as मीराबाई और सूरदास के भक्ति गीत or children’s poems that celebrate nature such as आया बसन्त
  • using evaluative and expressive language to compare responses to visual texts such as paintings, sculptures and relief art, for example, Rajasthani miniature paintings, Patachitra from Bengal, Madhubani paintings, Warli from Maharashtra, discussing the relationship between representation and culture
Create imaginative or expressive texts that draw from and reflect elements of their own tastes and experience

[Key concepts: expression, emotion, experience, culture; Key processes: creating, performing, expressing; Key text types: poetry, song, report] (ACLHIC079 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • collaborating with peers to create dramatic or humorous representations of people, situations or events encountered in their own lives
  • creating riddles to compete with and entertain each other, imitating the use of meter, rhythm, rhyme and metaphor exemplified in riddles from Hindi literature and folklore
  • composing and performing poems or songs that incorporate elements of traditional or contemporary literary and musical forms and reflect their own experiences, for example, भक्ति or वीर गाथा verse, nonsense songs, raps
  • creating and performing texts that exaggerate characteristic elements of a selected genre for comic effect, such as a biased commentary on a sporting event
  • creating an imaginative text such as a diary entry or song lyric that expresses either positive or negative responses to the experience of living across different languages and cultures
  • creating an English-language commentary to an observed Hindi-language sitcom, discussing how to transfer or explain the humour or dramatic effects of the original text
  • using digital resources to create imaginary characters and situations associated with school or home contexts to entertain younger learners


Compare translations and interpretations of literary, community and social media texts, including those that mix Hindi and English words, expressions and sentence structures

[Key concepts: code-mixing, code-switching, hybridity, recast; Key processes: analysing, exemplifying, discussing] (ACLHIC080 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • identifying and translating texts produced within the media and entertainment industry that use ‘Hinglish’ for different purposes, for example, Life ho to aisi!, Youngistaan ka wow!
  • exploring the language of Bollywood by translating short excerpts that include code-mixing and code-switching between languages and dialects
  • critically evaluating the accuracy and effectiveness of subtitles used in movies, video clips and documentaries, identifying examples of ‘meaning lost in translation’
  • translating parts of conversations recorded between family and friends that involve the mixing of Hindi and English, discussing the relationship between code switching and domains of use
  • considering challenges involved in translating texts by contemporary poets and songwriters who incorporate English words or stylistic features into their texts
  • identifying how translation sometimes involves literal exchange of word-for-word meaning, sometimes involves interpreting and expressing meaning in appropriate forms, and sometimes involves cultural meaning that cannot be translated
Create texts that draw on bilingual resources to explore and reflect the multicultural nature of their personal, school and community experience

[Key concepts: expression, bilingualism, multilingualism, code-mixing; Key processes: composing, reviewing, analysing, reflecting] (ACLHIC081 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • interviewing community members about their life stories and experiences to create digital/multimodal profiles that include the use of voice-overs in Hindi, images, music and English subtitles
  • creating raps or jingles that mix English and Hindi words/expressions, rhythms and gestures to capture elements of their own communicative behaviours
  • creating a bilingual information pack in print and/or digital form about their school and local community to present to a visiting school
  • creating glossaries and annotations in English that provide explanations for cultural and contextual references in contemporary Hindi texts


Reflect on the nature of bilingual/multilingual communication and experience

[Key concepts: mutual understanding, miscommunication, intercultural exchange, language domains; Key processes: reflecting, monitoring, explaining, analysing] (ACLHIC082 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • exploring the concept of translanguage in relation to mediating thought, action and communication in situations that involve two or more languages
  • reflecting on how speakers of more than one language draw strategically on a wide range of linguistic and cultural resources to make meaning of experience and to communicate with others
  • considering whether thinking or communicating in one language rather than another affects the ways ideas or attitudes are understood or expressed
  • identifying benefits associated with bilingualism/multilingualism, drawing examples from their personal experience
  • comparing assumptions sometimes made when communicating with speakers of different languages, identifying instances when they consciously adjust how they communicate due to personal assumptions or attitudes
  • identifying cultural cues in intercultural interactions that signal variations in expectations, values or traditions that may complicate communication
  • monitoring their use of Hindi and English in different domains, for example, by keeping a record of when they use each language, for which language functions and in which contexts
  • considering how their language and interactional behaviour might be interpreted or responded to by people from different language backgrounds
Reflect on the relationship between language, culture and identity and on how this shapes and reflects ways of communicating and thinking

[Key concepts: identity formation, culture, intercultural experience; Key processes: reflecting, describing, analysing] (ACLHIC083 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • discussing whether being bilingual/multilingual allows for a more flexible sense of identity in ways that involve culture as well as language
  • reflecting on the nature of intercultural learning in school and on intercultural experience in and out of school, discussing how different domains of language use present opportunities for the development of intercultural capabilities
  • reflecting on how their perspectives and ways of communicating may be perceived by others, for example, in relation to language choice or code-switching/mixing and to behaviours that may be perceived as ‘cultural’
  • reflecting on their own and each other’s ways of communicating when interacting with people from different cultural backgrounds, for example, when joking or speaking formally, describing adjustments they make in different languages, contexts and relationships

Systems of language

Recognise regular and variable elements of spoken Hindi, such as social and regional variations in the pronunciation of diphthongs, or inconsistencies between Hindi pronunciation and spelling and variations from Sanskrit and Perso-Arabic conventions

[Key concepts: language variation, accent, register; Key processes: understanding, identifying, responding] (ACLHIU084 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • increasing control of regular and irregular elements of spoken and written Hindi, such as the influence of accents and expression on pronunciation and spelling, for example, the use of वो in spoken Hindi in place of वह in written Hindi
  • recognising ways in which genres of written literary Hindi may differ from everyday speech registers, for example, the use of Sanskrit words in official Hindi, with terms like विनिर्माण क्षेत्र for the manufacturing sector, demonstrating understanding of how such terms are written and spoken
  • understanding that the appreciation of film song lyrics and verse forms can be enhanced by understanding how compound words are formed in Arabic and Persian and used in Hindi, for example, in the film title मुग़ल- ए- आज़म
  • recognising the impermanent and fluid nature of spoken language and how it is influenced by local customs, cultures and regional languages, for example, the addition of honorifics such as sister, ताई, to women’s names by Marathi speakers and देवी to married women’s names by Biharis
  • identifying features of spoken language, such as the use of repetition, pauses, interruptions, incomplete sentences and non-verbal expression, which are not represented in written Hindi but are important elements of ‘live’ interactions
  • recognising and responding to challenges associated with clarity and pace in audio texts such as airport announcements or recorded phone messages
Investigate, demonstrate and explain how elements of grammar and word formation allow for complex expression of ideas and meaning

[Key concepts: cohesion, voice, compound words; Key processes: identifying, applying understanding] (ACLHIU085 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • expanding vocabulary related to more complex concepts to compose richer descriptions and expression of ideas
  • using conjunctions to create more complex and elaborated sentences, for example, मैं पहले दिल्ली जाऊँगा और अपना काम पूरा करने के बाद कोलकता पहुँचूँगा।
  • extending knowledge of text cohesion and basic joining (सन्धि) rules, for example, word ending in plus word starting in becomes the सन्धि sound as in पूर्वोत्तर. आ+ओ=औ, क्+द्=ग्
  • using the active and passive voice to establish distinctions of agency, for example, राम उर्दू लिख रहा है।, उर्दू लिखी जा रही है ।
  • understanding the function and use of case (कारक), for example, ने, को, से, के लिए, में, पर
  • using participles (पदबंध): imperfect – डूबती हुई नाव, perfect – डूबी हुई नाव, adverbial present – रोते हुए, लिखते हुए, adverbial past – वह लड़की का हाथ पकड़े हुए था, वाला as participle – सब्जी वाला, डिब्बे वाला
  • expanding metalanguage to describe additional grammatical concepts and the relationship between form, function and meaning
  • using a range of tenses in complex sentences to move between events and personal experiences across time, for example, पिछले वर्ष जैसे हमने होली का त्योहार मनाया था, उसी प्रकार इस वर्ष भी हम होली का त्योहार धूमधाम से मनाएंगे।
Analyse and compose different types of texts for specific purposes and audiences that involve different cultural, textual and contextual features

[Key concepts: genre, language features, context; Key processes: comparing, composing, identifying] (ACLHIU086 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • composing and comparing texts such as emails, songs, slogans or public signs, noticing how the choice of vocabulary, structure and tenor combine to achieve each text’s purpose
  • comparing Hindi and English versions of texts such as invitations or newspaper announcements, noticing forms of expression that are culturally significant, such as जय के विवाह का शुभ मुहुर्त ... के दिन ... बजे से.. बजे तक तय हुआ है। आपकी उपस्थिति और आशीर्वाद की प्रतीक्षा रहेगी or रमेश और लीला के पुत्र के नामकरण पर आपको सादर आमंत्रित करते हैं।
  • demonstrating the different organisation of elements, such as introductions, ordering of content and expression of wishes or greetings within different forms of communication, for example, formal letters, emails or web posts
  • composing spoken and written versions of texts such as advertisements, invitations or personal messages, identifying key differences in syntax, register and language choice
  • comparing the textual features of different kinds of Hindi verse, identifying differences in rhythm, meter and cultural framing
  • composing formal and informal versions of selected text genres, such as a written invitation and an invitation by text message, मोहन और गीताकी सगाई के शुभ अवसर पर आपकी परिवार सहित उपस्थिति प्रार्थनीय है; क्या तुम... के दिन.. समय मुझे मिल सकते हो?

Language variation and change

Analyse variations in Hindi language use that relate to social roles, values and contexts and to the nature of the interaction

[Key concepts: variation, adaptation, register, values; Key processes: identifying, explaining, evaluating] (ACLHIU087 - Scootle )

  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • classifying forms of address in terms of social, cultural or family relationships, for example, बड़ी दीदी, मुन्ना-मुन्नी, भैया, बाबाजी and discussing the relationship between language, culture and context
  • evaluating how language choices reflect social values and attitudes, such as family loyalty, status or peer group identity
  • finding examples of colloquial and contemporary forms of language used by young people of their age, such as using words and expressions from other languages when talking about popular culture, अरे यार, कल क्या कमाल मैच देखा
  • observing non-verbal elements of communication such as gestures, facial expressions or use of space and silence, discussing their importance in communication and how they vary in formal and informal contexts
  • noticing and explaining differences in text structure and grammar between formal and informal Hindi, for example, between the structure of a business letter and an informal email आपको सूचित किया जाता है..., मैं तुम्हें बताता हूँ....
Categorise observed changes to Hindi in domains of use such as education, media, popular culture and intercultural communication

[Key concepts: influence, exchange, language contact; Key processes: investigating, demonstrating, identifying] (ACLHIU088 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • identifying changes in Hindi language forms and communicative styles in domains of use such as IT, diplomacy and commerce
  • classifying words and expressions from other languages that they use in different curriculum areas such as science, visual arts, economics, social studies
  • creating glossaries of terms that originated in other languages that they use in different areas of their own lives, for example, Persian सरकार, Arabic अदालत, Turkish क़ुली and Japanese रिक्शा
  • talking with older members of their families or communities about changes to Hindi across their lifetime, such as the blending of English and Hindi in language used in entertainment, news and sports commentary or advertising
  • analysing the language of the internet in terms of inter-language influences, for example, by identifying examples of Hindi words that have been adapted to accommodate concepts expressed in other languages
Explore how using different languages to make meaning affects how they and their peers think, behave and communicate

[Key concepts: identity formation, intercultural communication; Key processes: reflecting, identifying, explaining] (ACLHIU089 - Scootle )

  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • reflecting on the relationship between their use of Hindi, English and other languages/dialects and their sense of identity
  • discussing whether ideas and values are expressed differently in different languages, for example, in relation to family relationships or peer group interests
  • reflecting on concepts such as global citizenship, national identity and intercultural communication, discussing the relationship between these concepts and languages and cultures
  • discussing the effects of using either Hindi or English on how they express feelings, debate ideas or construct arguments

Role of language and culture

Understand that Hindi language and associated cultures are inter-related, that they shape and are shaped by each other and that their relationship changes over time and across contexts

[Key concepts: interdependence, meaning, change; Key processes: investigating, identifying, classifying] (ACLHIU090 - Scootle )

  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • identifying words such as अहिंसा, धर्म-कर्म that carry cultural connotations and may be differently used and understood by people in different cultural contexts
  • tracking changes in Hindi language forms and usage over different times and contexts, for example, मोटरगाड़-कार
  • identifying compound words used in contemporary Hindi that fuse Hindi and English to capture trends, convey concepts and engage with intercultural experience, for example, tension mat lo, accent maarna
  • identifying changes in Hindi that reflect the impact of globalisation and transcultural experience, such as the mixing of languages and the adoption of practices associated with different communities and cultures
  • analysing the relationship between language and culture by examining a concept such as that of शुभमुहुर्त, for example, मोहन और गीता की सगाई के शुभ अवसर पर आपकी परिवार सहित उपस्थिति प्रार्थनीय है

Years 9 and 10 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 10, students initiate, sustain and extend a range of spoken and written formal and informal interactions about young people’s interests, behaviours and values, for example, आप कब वापस आये?, आप के जीवन में सुखी जीवन को व्यतीत करने के क्या उपाय हैं?तुम्हारे विचार में संयुक्त और एकल परिवार में से कौन सी पारिवारिक सरंचना आज के युग में ज़्यादा उपयुक्त है? आप के विचार में आज की युवा पीढ़ी पर किस का प्रभाव पड़ रहा है? तुम अपने दोस्तों के बारे में कुछ बताओ. They participate in activities that involve interactions, transactions, negotiations and managing different opinions and social/cultural behaviours, for example, यह ठीक है, हम सब मिल कर करेंगे, हमें इस में कुछ चित्र भी सम्मिलित करने चाहिये?, क्यों न हम सब ..., यही उचित रहेगा। आपको इसमें से एक चुनना है. When interacting, they use culturally appropriate expressions and protocols, for example, धन्यवाद, आप का बहुत बधाई हो ।अपनी पुत्री के शुभ विवाह पर मैं आपको आमंत्रित करना चाहता हूँ । मैं नेहा बेटी को आशीर्वाद देने ज़रूर आऊँगा। यह मेरा सौभाग्य है कि आप ने मुझे इतने महत्त्वपूर्ण अवसर में सम्मिलित होने का अवसर दिया, किन्तु मैं किसी कारणवश नहीं आ पाऊँगा।. They extend discussions and justify their views by asking open-ended questions and providing elaborated responses, for example, इस विषय पर आपके क्या विचार हैं, आप क्या सोचते हैं?, इसका क्या प्रभाव पड़ेगा मुझे विस्तार से बताओ। मेरे कहने का तात्पर्य है कि …, तुम यह कहना चाहते हो कि…, मुझे लगता है कि …. When speaking, they apply pronunciation rules and rhythm, including social and regional variations, to complex sentences. They research, interpret and evaluate information and perspectives on social issues or issues of interest to young people, and identify how culture and context influence the way information is presented. They convey information and perspectives using different text types and modes of presentation. They respond to different expressive and imaginative texts by analysing techniques and cultural influences used for aesthetic, humorous or emotional effects. Students create imaginative texts to express ideas, attitudes and emotions through characters, events and settings relating to bilingual and bicultural experiences. When creating texts, they use a variety of grammatical elements, such as joining rules, for example, आ+ओ=औ, क्+अ+ल= कल, कारक ; case, for example, ने, को, से, के लिए, में, पर; and a range of tenses and participles, for example, आ, ई, ऐ, जाना, वाला, रहा, सकना, पहुँचना, दिल्ली जाने वाले लोग, साइकिल पर लड़की चल रही है to produce complex sentences such as मैं पहले दिल्ली जाऊँगा फिर वहाँ से बम्बई जाऊँगा; कल मैं काम खत्म कर के आपने साथियो के साथ खेलने जाऊँगा. Students compare translations and interpretations of literary, community and social media texts, including those that use both Hindi and English. They create a range of bilingual texts that reflect the nature of their own and each other’s intercultural experience. They describe their experience of being bilingual or multilingual and explain the relationship between language, culture and identity.

Students apply their understanding of complex pronunciation rules and writing conventions, such as variations between spoken and written Hindi and between Sanskrit and Perso-Arabic script. They explain how elements of grammar and word formation allow for the expression of ideas and meaning. They analyse and construct a range of texts for different purpose and audiences and identify cultural, textual and contextual features. They explain how and why variations in Hindi language use relate to roles, relationships and contexts of interaction. Students identify and categorise changes to Hindi and to other languages in different domains of use such as education and popular culture. They explain how being bilingual or multilingual affects the ways they and their peers think, behave and communicate.