Years 9 and 10 Band Description
The nature of the learners
This stage of learning coincides with social, physical and cognitive changes associated with adolescence. Increased cognitive maturity enables learners to work more deductively with language and culture systems, to apply more intentional learning strategies and to reflect productively on their learning. Motivation and engagement with language learning are influenced by peer–group dynamics, personal interests and values, and issues related to self-concept. This is particularly the case for bilingual learners for whom the duality of living between languages and cultural communities continuously impacts on the process of identity construction. The role of language is central to this process and is reflected in the degree to which learners self-define as members of language communities, how they position themselves in relation to peer groups, and the choices they make in relation to linguistic and social practices. These processes are fluid and context-responsive and impact on learners’ engagement with both Hindi and English language learning and use.
Hindi language learning and use
This is a stage of language exploration and of vocabulary expansion. Learners experiment with different modes of communication, such as digital and hypermedia, performance and discussion. Greater control of language structures and systems increases confidence and interest in communicating in wider contexts. Learners use Hindi to communicate and interact; to access and exchange information; to express feelings and opinions; to participate in imaginative and creative experiences; and to design, interpret and analyse a wide range of texts and experiences. They use language in different contexts more fluently, with a developing degree of self-correction and repair. They reference the accuracy of their written language use against a stronger frame of grammatical and systems knowledge. They demonstrate understanding of language variation and change, and of how intercultural experience, technology, media and globalisation influence language use and forms of communication.
Contexts of interaction
The language classroom is the main context of interaction for learning Hindi, involving interactions with peers, teachers and a wide range of texts and resources. Learners continue to interact with peers, family members and other Hindi speakers in immediate and local contexts, and with wider Hindi-speaking communities and cultural resources via virtual and online environments. They also encounter Hindi in wider contexts such as media, cultural or film festivals, community events or in-country travel.
Texts and resources
Learners engage with a range of language-learning texts and resources, such as textbooks, videos, media texts and online resources, including those developed for computer-supported collaborative learning. They engage with abridged versions of classic and contemporary Hindi literature and their film and TV adaptations. Learners may also access authentic materials designed for or generated by young Hindi speakers in a range of contexts, such as blogs, video clips, discussion forums, television programs or newspaper articles. Learners are encouraged to source additional materials to support their learning and to share with others, and to pursue personal interests in aspects of Hindi language and associated cultures.
Features of Hindi language use
Learners consolidate their understanding of the conventions of written script, applying these to their own language production in increasingly complex ways. They recognise the role of prefixes and suffixes and how these change the meaning of words, जीव, सजीव, जीवंत, and they understand the impact on written script and vocabulary of tatsam words and tadbhav words. They increasingly control both regular and irregular elements of spoken and written Hindi, such as the influence of accents and expression on pronunciation and their impact on spelling, for example, the use of वो in spoken Hindi in place of वह in written script. Learners use more complex elements of Hindi grammar, such as the passive voice, compound words and variations in register. They understand the function and use of case, for example, ने, को, से, के लिए, में, पर,and use a range of tenses in complex sentences to describe events and personal experiences, for example, पिछले वर्ष जैसे हमने होली का त्योहार मनाया था, उसी प्रकार इस वर्ष भी हम होली का त्योहार धूमधाम से मनाएंगे।.
Vocabulary knowledge expands to include more abstract words and specialised vocabulary drawn from other learning areas or areas of wider personal interest. Textual knowledge and capability are strengthened through maintaining a balance between activities which focus on language forms and structures and communicative tasks and performance. Learners recognise, analyse and construct different types of texts for different purposes and audiences. Task characteristics and conditions become more complex and challenging, involving collaborative as well as independent language planning and performance. Elements of learning experiences involve interpreting, creating, evaluating and performing. Genres such as media resources, fiction and non-fiction texts, performances and research projects allow for exploration of themes of personal and contemporary relevance (for example, global and environmental issues, identity and relationship issues, questions of diversity and inclusivity). Learners investigate texts through more critical analysis, identifying how language choices reflect perspectives and shape meaning, and how they are shaped in turn by context and intention.
Learners at this level understand the relationship between language, culture and identity. They explore in more depth and detail the processes involved in learning and using different languages, recognising them as involving cognitive, cultural and personal as well as linguistic resources. They identify how meaning-making and representation in different languages involve interpretation and personal response as well as literal translation and factual reporting. They explore the reciprocal nature of intercultural communication: how moving between different languages and cultural systems impacts on ways of thinking and behaving; how successful communication requires flexibility, awareness and openness to alternative ways. They develop the capacity to ‘decentre’ from normative ways of thinking and communicating, to consider their own cultural ways through the eyes of others, and to communicate in inter-culturally appropriate ways.
Level of support
At this level learners become less reliant on the teacher for support during communicative interactions and learning experiences, but provision of rich language input and modelled language are needed to continue to support and sustain language learning. The teacher provides both implicit and explicit modelling and scaffolding in relation to meaningful language use in context, and explicit instruction and explanation in relation to language structures, grammatical functions, abstract concepts and vocabulary knowledge. Provision of opportunities to discuss, clarify, rehearse and apply their knowledge is critical in consolidating knowledge and skills and in developing autonomy. Learners are encouraged to self-monitor, for example, by keeping records of feedback and contributing to peer support and self-review.
The role of English
Learners and teachers use Hindi as the primary medium of interaction in language-oriented and content-oriented learning experiences. English is used if appropriate for discussion, explanation or analysis that involves comparison between Hindi and English or concepts which may be better responded to in English. Learners are supported to reflect on the different roles English and Hindi play in their academic work and in their personal and community lives.