Hindi (Version 8.4)

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Context statement

The place of the Hindi language and associated cultures in Australia and the world
Hindi is an official language of India and Fiji. It is the most widely spoken language of the Indian subcontinent and is also widely spoken throughout the world in countries that include the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Mauritius, the Gulf countries and Australia.


PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Languages - Hindi are available as PDF documents. 
Languages - Hindi: Sequence of content
Languages - Hindi: Sequence of Achievement - F-10 Sequence
Languages - Hindi: Sequence of Achievement …


Years 9 and 10

Years 9 and 10 Band Description

The nature of the learners

This stage of learning coincides with social, physical and cognitive changes associated with adolescence. Increased cognitive maturity enables learners to work more deductively with language and culture systems, to apply more intentional learning strategies and to reflect productively on their learning. Motivation and engagement with language learning are influenced by peer–group dynamics, personal interests and values, and issues related to self-concept. This is particularly the case for bilingual learners for whom the duality of living between languages and cultural communities continuously impacts on the process of identity construction. The role of language is central to this process and is reflected in the degree to which learners self-define as members of language communities, how they position themselves in relation to peer groups, and the choices they make in relation to linguistic and social practices. These processes are fluid and context-responsive and impact on learners’ engagement with both Hindi and English language learning and use.

Hindi language learning and use

This is a stage of language exploration and of vocabulary expansion. Learners experiment with different modes of communication, such as digital and hypermedia, performance and discussion. Greater control of language structures and systems increases confidence and interest in communicating in wider contexts. Learners use Hindi to communicate and interact; to access and exchange information; to express feelings and opinions; to participate in imaginative and creative experiences; and to design, interpret and analyse a wide range of texts and experiences. They use language in different contexts more fluently, with a developing degree of self-correction and repair. They reference the accuracy of their written language use against a stronger frame of grammatical and systems knowledge. They demonstrate understanding of language variation and change, and of how intercultural experience, technology, media and globalisation influence language use and forms of communication.

Contexts of interaction

The language classroom is the main context of interaction for learning Hindi, involving interactions with peers, teachers and a wide range of texts and resources. Learners continue to interact with peers, family members and other Hindi speakers in immediate and local contexts, and with wider Hindi-speaking communities and cultural resources via virtual and online environments. They also encounter Hindi in wider contexts such as media, cultural or film festivals, community events or in-country travel.

Texts and resources

Learners engage with a range of language-learning texts and resources, such as textbooks, videos, media texts and online resources, including those developed for computer-supported collaborative learning. They engage with abridged versions of classic and contemporary Hindi literature and their film and TV adaptations. Learners may also access authentic materials designed for or generated by young Hindi speakers in a range of contexts, such as blogs, video clips, discussion forums, television programs or newspaper articles. Learners are encouraged to source additional materials to support their learning and to share with others, and to pursue personal interests in aspects of Hindi language and associated cultures.

Features of Hindi language use

Learners consolidate their understanding of the conventions of written script, applying these to their own language production in increasingly complex ways. They recognise the role of prefixes and suffixes and how these change the meaning of words, जीव, सजीव, जीवंत, and they understand the impact on written script and vocabulary of tatsam words and tadbhav words. They increasingly control both regular and irregular elements of spoken and written Hindi, such as the influence of accents and expression on pronunciation and their impact on spelling, for example, the use of वो in spoken Hindi in place of वह in written script. Learners use more complex elements of Hindi grammar, such as the passive voice, compound words and variations in register. They understand the function and use of case, for example, ने, को, से, के लिए, में, पर,and use a range of tenses in complex sentences to describe events and personal experiences, for example, पिछले वर्ष जैसे हमने होली का त्योहार मनाया था, उसी प्रकार इस वर्ष भी हम होली का त्योहार धूमधाम से मनाएंगे।.

Vocabulary knowledge expands to include more abstract words and specialised vocabulary drawn from other learning areas or areas of wider personal interest. Textual knowledge and capability are strengthened through maintaining a balance between activities which focus on language forms and structures and communicative tasks and performance. Learners recognise, analyse and construct different types of texts for different purposes and audiences. Task characteristics and conditions become more complex and challenging, involving collaborative as well as independent language planning and performance. Elements of learning experiences involve interpreting, creating, evaluating and performing. Genres such as media resources, fiction and non-fiction texts, performances and research projects allow for exploration of themes of personal and contemporary relevance (for example, global and environmental issues, identity and relationship issues, questions of diversity and inclusivity). Learners investigate texts through more critical analysis, identifying how language choices reflect perspectives and shape meaning, and how they are shaped in turn by context and intention.

Learners at this level understand the relationship between language, culture and identity. They explore in more depth and detail the processes involved in learning and using different languages, recognising them as involving cognitive, cultural and personal as well as linguistic resources. They identify how meaning-making and representation in different languages involve interpretation and personal response as well as literal translation and factual reporting. They explore the reciprocal nature of intercultural communication: how moving between different languages and cultural systems impacts on ways of thinking and behaving; how successful communication requires flexibility, awareness and openness to alternative ways. They develop the capacity to ‘decentre’ from normative ways of thinking and communicating, to consider their own cultural ways through the eyes of others, and to communicate in inter-culturally appropriate ways.

Level of support

At this level learners become less reliant on the teacher for support during communicative interactions and learning experiences, but provision of rich language input and modelled language are needed to continue to support and sustain language learning. The teacher provides both implicit and explicit modelling and scaffolding in relation to meaningful language use in context, and explicit instruction and explanation in relation to language structures, grammatical functions, abstract concepts and vocabulary knowledge. Provision of opportunities to discuss, clarify, rehearse and apply their knowledge is critical in consolidating knowledge and skills and in developing autonomy. Learners are encouraged to self-monitor, for example, by keeping records of feedback and contributing to peer support and self-review.

The role of English

Learners and teachers use Hindi as the primary medium of interaction in language-oriented and content-oriented learning experiences. English is used if appropriate for discussion, explanation or analysis that involves comparison between Hindi and English or concepts which may be better responded to in English. Learners are supported to reflect on the different roles English and Hindi play in their academic work and in their personal and community lives.

Years 9 and 10 Content Descriptions


Interact with peers and others in familiar and unfamiliar contexts to compare experiences and to express views on local and global issues, such as relationships, education and popular culture

[Key concepts: relationship, education, communication; Key processes: discussing, debating, responding, comparing] (ACLHIC109 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • exchanging views and experiences in relation to issues of shared relevance in the global context, for example, पारिवारिक सम्बन्ध या सामाजिक मीडिया का उपयोग – डिजिटल दुनिया
  • contributing to in-class discussions of social attitudes, for example, to gender roles, public or private education, arranged or love marriages, using active listening skills, asking for and providing elaboration and expressing agreement or disagreement
  • developing narrative and descriptive skills by exchanging accounts of significant events or influences in their lives, for example, पिछले साल मैं अपने माता पिता के साथ राष्ट्रीय संग्रहालय देखने गया और वहाँ स्वदेशी कलाकृतिओं को देख कर बहुत प्रभावित हुआ l कल एक कवि सम्मेलन का सफल मंचन करने के लिए मेरी काफी सराहना की गई।
  • participating in online or face-to-face debates, providing evidence to support a position, challenging opposing views and using expressive language to encourage feedback or indicate agreement, for example, बड़े दुख की बात है, मुझे आप से सहानुभूति है। आप बिलकुल सही कह रहे हैं। मैं आप से बिल्कुल सहमत हूँ।
  • exchanging views with young Hindi speakers in other contexts on local or global issues that they see impacting on their current or future lives, for example, शिक्षा, सम्बन्ध, प्राकृतिक स्थिरता, मानवाधिकार
  • participating in informal conversations and more structured debates to share and compare attitudes to social and cultural issues, for example, युवाओं का स्वास्थ्य; पारिवारिक रिश्ते; संयुक्त परिवार या एकल परिवार; विवाह या प्रेम विवाह
  • discussing their responsibilities at home, school and in part-time work, comparing with those of young people living in India and other Hindi-speaking contexts and noting the relative importance of concepts such as परिवार, समुदाय और सहयोग
Participate in individual and shared projects and activities that involve brainstorming, transacting, negotiating and problem-solving

[Key concepts: action, transaction, negotiation, environment, community; Key processes: planning, transacting, brainstorming] (ACLHIC110 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Sustainability
  • participating in real or simulated transactions and negotiations, for example, bidding for an item online, ordering food for a class celebration or negotiating purchases of learning resources, for example, आपकी पसंद क्या है? हम कितना खर्च कर सकते हैं? हम में से कितने लोग इसे चुनेगें?
  • compiling a glossary of key terms required to engage in commercial exchanges between English- and Hindi-speaking communities, using language associated with business and communication, such as निवेश, व्यापार, मुद्रा-विनिमय, प्रौद्योगिकी
  • designing resources such as website posts, press releases or flyers to promote action on social or environmental issues, for example, आवासहीनता, पशु क्रूरता, आपातकालीन सहायता
  • participating in imagined scenarios that involve buying and selling, bidding, transacting and negotiating, such as online shopping or conducting a market stall, discussing issues of value, availability and popularity
  • participating in virtual excursions to cultural sites or exhibitions, for example, प्रसिद्ध संग्रहालय, पूजा स्थल, sharing responsibility for different elements of a multimodal report on the experience
  • negotiating roles and responsibilities for the planning, filming and editing of a short documentary on aspects of their shared school experience, for example, मेरा समुदाय, श्रमिक दिवस, स्वतंत्रता दिवस, बैसाखी, भारत का शास्त्रीय संगीत, बॉलीवुड फिल्मों का इतिहास, ऑस्ट्रेलिया के दर्शनीय स्थान
  • organising a campaign or social media forum to raise awareness of a community, environmental or ethical issue, for example, पर्यावरण परिवर्तन, आप्रवासन, प्रौद्योगिकी और बेरोज़गारी, discussing strategies for responding to possible challenges
Participate in structured discussions, reflections and learning activities by managing contributions, asking and responding respectfully to questions, clarifying statements, elaborating opinions and expressing agreement or disagreement in culturally-appropriate ways

[Key concepts: debate, response, dialogue; Key processes: expressing, responding, evaluating, reflecting] (ACLHIC111 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • using elaborated sentences and interactional cues to support debate and maintain cohesion and focus of discussion, for example, तो, उदाहरण के लिए, तदनुसार, आम तौर पर, दूसरे शब्दों में, विशेष रूप से, इस प्रकार, इसलिये, आप इस विषय में क्या सोचते हैं? क्या आप इसे विस्तार में समझाने की कृपा करेँगे? तुम समझ रहे हो न मैं क्या कह रहा हूँ l मेरी राय में…… मेरे कहने का अर्थ है ... आपको नहीं लगता कि… मेरा सुझाव तो यही है कि…
  • observing conversational protocols such as signalling the end of a contribution, listening without interrupting, using pauses or silence to indicate consideration of what has been said and responding respectfully to different views, for example, मेरे विचार में…..; ऐसा लगता है कि…; गौर तलब है कि…; हमें ध्यान रखना चाहिए…; यह विवादास्पद है; लेकिन वास्तव में; मेरा विश्वास है…; मैं आश्वस्त हूँ ….
  • using evaluative language to acknowledge strengths in others’ arguments and to justify or challenge views in a courteous manner, for example, आप का कहना एकदम स्पष्ट और उचित है। वास्तविकता यह है कि इस बात पर मैं आप से बिलकुल सहमत नहीं हूँ l आप ठीक कह रहे हैं ... लेकिन मेरा मत यह है कि...
  • using reflective language to evaluate the usefulness of learning experiences and to compare their language and literacy development in Hindi and English, for example, ध्यान से विचार करने के बाद मेरी राय है कि......; मुझे लगता है कि … मुझे एहसास हुआ....; मुझे यही समझ आया कि … मेरा मानना है....l
  • exchanging opinions on their experience of learning Hindi in school, describing personal learning strategies and identifying preferred learning modes, using statements such as लिखित अभ्यास से मेरी हिन्दी में सुधार हुआ है।


Organise information from different sources and in different modes of presentation for re-presentation in formats suitable for specific audiences and purposes

[Key concepts: information, perspective, representation, media; Key processes: researching, processing, evaluating, analysing] (ACLHIC112 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • identifying different perspectives on selected issues presented in different media outlets, such as news sites or specialty magazines such as प्रदूषण, जनसँख्या, भेदभाव, and using the material as stimulus for in-class or online debates or opinion pieces
  • listening to interviews with celebrities from fields such as sport, the arts, entertainment or politics, identifying and classifying words, expressions or cultural references that convey information about culture or context
  • presenting information collected from print and digital sources on a topic such as regional food specialities, for example, by creating a glossary of terms by categories, for example, herbs and spices मसाले, हल्दी, धनिया, फल, सब्जियाँ, सूखे
  • evaluating information retrieved from online discussion forums and social media outlets on issues relevant to their peer group, for example, family relationships, youth identity or generational change, selecting and editing content to include in a summary statement or report
  • analysing coverage of issues relating to Hindi-speaking communities from a range of news media, classifying and recording in a shared data base the most commonly addressed issues or perspectives
  • researching aspects of a selected activity or business operating in their community, for example, restaurants, boutiques, youth centres, presenting their findings in the form of digital displays or posters for a community information evening
Convey information on selected people, issues, places or interests, using appropriate modes of presentation to represent different perspectives and contexts

[Key concepts: argument, opinion, preference; Key processes: selecting, presenting, reporting] (ACLHIC113 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • presenting information in the form of promotional or persuasive texts for audiences such as peers, younger children, parents or authorities in order to argue a case or establish a position on an issue, for example, प्रदूषण के प्रभाव, पढ़ाई और मनोरंजन में तालमेल, पौष्टिक आहार और स्वास्थ्य
  • creating a digital profile of a significant member of their community, for example, by featuring achievements and challenges of an older migrant to Australia, or by recording commentaries and impressions of a celebrity visitor to the country
  • presenting an overview of traditional games and sports played in different Hindi-speaking regions, such as कबड्डी or खो-खो, for example, by watching video clips and writing up rules for the game
  • reporting on survey data collected from each other in relation to preferred leisure activities or favourite foods, using PowerPoint presentations to represent key findings
  • creating a multimodal resource to introduce prospective overseas visitors to different features of Australia, for example, its cultural diversity, city attractions and outback exploration
  • creating a portfolio representation of a particular group or community, for example, a collection of mini-biographies of class members, family or friendship groups, including details such as personal achievements and music/food/sports preferences
  • using data collected via online research or personal or published interviews to create a digital profile of a significant member of their local community or of the wider Hindi-speaking world, for example, a musician, chef, artist or sporting figure


Respond to a range of traditional and contemporary creative and literary texts, describing settings, identifying key themes, values and concepts, discussing representation of characters and events and the stylistic effects of different genres

[Key concepts: expression, themes, values, creativity; Key processes: comparing, analysing, responding; Key text types: stories, films, poetry, myths, cartoons] (ACLHIC114 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • comparing themes and values represented in contemporary texts such as cartoons or video games with those conveyed in traditional fables, epic poems and legends, for example, एकलव्य की गुरुदक्षिणा
  • discussing the enduring influence of classical fables and legends in passing on cultural values through allegory and storying, for example, by identifying classical references to describe personal traits or qualities, as in सत्यवादी हरिश्चन्द्र, श्रवण कुमार
  • identifying the use of English words and expressions by contemporary poets or songwriters writing in Hindi, considering possible reasons for this
  • analysing how the use of rhythm, rhyme, imagery and metaphor by poets such as कबीर, रवीन्द्रनाथ टैगोर; हरिवंश राय बच्चन; नीरज, गुलज़ार, महादेवी वर्मा and writers such as भीष्म साहनी; जयशंकर प्रसाद; मुँशी प्रेमचंद, मन्नू भंडारी create emotional, dramatic or humorous effects that reflect cultural traditions and literary genres
  • identifying characteristic elements of traditional forms of Hindi literature, such as verse celebrating bravery/warriors, for example, वीर गाथाएँ और गीत, जैसे पुष्प की अभिलाषा, devotional verse such as मीराबाई और सूरदास के भक्ति गीत, or children’s poems that celebrate nature, such as आया बसन्त
  • comparing the style, themes and language associated with different musical genres, for example, patriotic music such as राष्ट्रीय गान and सारे जहाँ से अच्छा, film songs or advertising jingles
  • exploring the playfulness, creativity and competitiveness of riddles, comparing their function as traditional entertainment in village communities with that of language play among young children today
Create individual and collaborative imaginative texts in a range of modes and formats to entertain, convey ideas, express emotions and explore the creativity of language

[Key concepts: cultural identity, stereotype, humour, emotion; Key processes: creating, performing, adapting; Key text types: poems, songs, sitcoms, cartoons] (ACLHIC115 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • using different modes of presentation such as skits or cartoons to develop storylines and characters that explore bicultural experiences, for example, responding to stereotypes, negotiating intergenerational relationships, expressing identity in different languages
  • adapting an existing resource such as a traditional story or fable such as दुष्यन्त और शकुन्तला की कहानी to suit a different kind of audience, for example, young people in today’s society
  • creating texts for specific age or interest groups, selecting appropriate vocabulary, structure and content for the intended audience, for example, युवाओं के लिए स्वास्थ्य जानकारी, जंगल बचाओ, प्रवासी भारतीयों के लिए जानकारी
  • creating texts that incorporate humorous and expressive language to entertain younger audiences, for example, puppet plays, short video clips or voki animations, selecting language and images that enhance the visual or listening experience
  • creating riddles to entertain each other, imitating the use of meter, rhythm, rhyme and metaphor exemplified in riddles from Hindi literature and folklore
  • creating an English-language commentary to an observed Hindi-language sitcom, discussing how to transfer or explain the humour or dramatic effects of the original text into English
  • using descriptive and evocative language to create an imagined scene or interaction between two characters designed to create a strong emotional response, such as fear, anticipation or amazement
  • designing, illustrating and captioning texts such as cartoons or photo-stories, using expressive and imaginative language to capture character and emotion
  • using digital resources to create imaginary characters and situations associated with school or home contexts to entertain younger learners
  • providing a live commentary of a dance performance, interpreting movements, commenting on the significance of costume and adornments and interpreting key messages conveyed through the performance


Translate and interpret familiar social and community texts such as emails/text messages, informal conversations with friends or family, proverbs or quotations, considering the nature of translation and the role of culture when transferring meaning from one language to another

[Key concepts: code-mixing, code-switching, translating, interpreting; Key processes: analysing, monitoring, explaining] (ACLHIC116 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • translating and glossing words, symbols or expressions commonly used in emails and sms messages, for example, हे हेLOL
  • recording, transcribing and translating short conversations between family members or friends from English into Hindi or vice versa, recording words or phrases that either do not translate or require no translation
  • translating proverbs such as दूर के ढोल सुहावने, examining literal translations for cultural information and identifying English-language proverbs that approximate the ideas behind the words (The grass is always greener on the other side of the fence)
  • identifying the need to sometimes recast language, considering why one language may use more words than another to communicate a particular meaning
  • discussing how translation sometimes involves literal decoding of word-for-word meaning, sometimes involves interpreting meaning and finding equivalent forms in the other language, and sometimes involves cultural meaning that cannot be translated
  • interpreting the significance of terms or phrases that carry specific cultural connotations which might be unfamiliar when translated into English, for example, साला, बहु, दलाल
Compose bilingual texts such as digital stories, comics, blogs or contributions to websites that capture the experience of ‘living between languages’

[Key concepts: interculturality, multiculturalism, identity, fluidity; Key processes: reflecting, analysing, describing, comparing] (ACLHIC117 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Sustainability
  • creating texts such as blogs or posts on online forums that draw on their personal bilingual resources to explore the dynamic nature of intercultural experience
  • corresponding with young Hindi speakers in different contexts, using Hindi and English to describe and explain aspects of life in Australia
  • creating bilingual digital stories for younger learners that capture elements of their own experiences of using two languages and living in a multilingual society
  • creating glossaries in English to explain cultural references in contemporary Hindi texts that relate to trans-cultural experience
  • creating a bilingual virtual tour of the school for new or intending students, noticing which language is more appropriate for different elements of the presentation
  • creating bilingual texts such as leaflets or slogans to raise awareness of health or environmental issues among both language communities, for example, स्वच्छ भारत; छोटा परिवार - सुखी परिवार; बेटी बचाओ-बेटी पढ़ाओ


Reflect on their own language choices and communicative behaviour when using Hindi or English, including adjustments they make between languages and strategies they adopt to support intercultural communication

[Key concepts: interculturality, reflection, flexibility reciprocity; Key processes: reflecting, monitoring, comparing, discussing] (ACLHIC118 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • discussing differences they are conscious of when interacting in Hindi or English, for example, when expressing feelings such as anger or sadness or when talking about personal issues
  • reflecting on the importance of non-verbal elements of communication, such as hand gestures, head movements and facial expressions, and on how these are sometimes used to mean different things in different languages
  • identifying elements of successful interaction when communicating with speakers of different languages, for example, being responsive and flexible, picking up on cues that indicate misunderstanding, respecting different perspectives and traditions
  • identifying differences in the interpretation of conversational strategies such as the use of pauses or silence when speaking in Hindi as compared to English, for example, to signal disapproval, respect for an elder, waiting for consensus, reflection or waiting for the end of a turn
  • reporting on moments of intercultural miscommunication, discussing possible reasons why they happened, repair and recovery strategies and what they learnt from these experiences
  • reflecting on language choices they make when interacting with friends who also speak both Hindi and English, identifying instances when they move between languages for practical or cultural reasons
Reflect on the relationship between language, culture and identity, and how this shapes and reflects ways of communicating and thinking

[Key concepts: affiliation, identity, communication; Key processes: reflecting, evaluating, explaining] (ACLHIC119 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • identifying variations in the ways they communicate with people from different language backgrounds, for example, in relation to the use of humour, respect or communication in public or formal situations
  • reflecting on differences in communication styles between speakers of different languages that they know, such as ways of expressing identity or responding to others’ comments, including observations of each other’s ways of communicating in different contexts and languages
  • considering the relationship between styles of communication and cultural factors such as generation or social environment, for example, by talking about the kinds of questions they ask or comments they make when interacting with people of their own age compared to how they talk with older people in their families or communities
  • describing ways they adjust their interactions in different languages, situations and contexts, for example, by comparing typical exchanges with Hindi- or English-speaking friends in different situations
  • exploring how ways of thinking, communicating and behaving both influence and reflect cultural identity, for example, by identifying ways of expressing ideas that they see as being more Australian or Índian
  • reflecting on intercultural learning in school and intercultural experience in and out of school, discussing how each context presents different opportunities for developing intercultural capabilities

Systems of language

Recognise regularities and irregularities of spoken Hindi and conventions of the written script, and apply these to their own language production in increasingly complex ways

[Key concepts: word building, pronunciation, accent; Key processes: recognising, applying] (ACLHIU120 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • recognising and practising the spelling of words that involve combinations of pronouns and postpositions that lose the inherent ‘a’ inside a word in the representation in Devanagari script, such as in उसका, and understanding how the loss of the inherent ‘a’ at the end of a verb stem is not represented in Devanagari, for example, सुनना/सुनता
  • explaining and applying basic rules of Hindi pronunciation, spelling, punctuation and intonation
  • applying phonic and grammatical knowledge to the spelling and writing of unfamiliar words
  • recognising how words can be formed from base words and understanding how prefixes and suffixes change the meaning of words, for example, जीव, सजीव, जीवंत and the impact this has on pronunciation
  • recognising and understanding the impact on Hindi pronunciation and spelling in Devanagari of elements of direct forms of Sanskrit words (तत्सम words) and of derived forms (तद्भव words), understanding that both forms can be used in different contexts, for example, क्षेत्र for field in an abstract sense and खेत for a field for farming
  • increasing control of regular and irregular elements of spoken and written Hindi, such as the influence of accents and expressions on pronunciation and their impact on spelling, for example, the use of वो in spoken Hindi in place of वह in written Hindi
  • recognising the impermanent and fluid nature of spoken language and how it is influenced by local customs, cultures and regional languages, for example, the addition of honorifics such as ताई to women’s names by Marathi speakers and देवी to married women’s names by Biharis
  • recognising and responding to challenges associated with clarity and pace in audio texts, such as station or airport announcements or recorded phone messages
Extend knowledge and use more complex features and patterns of the Hindi grammatical system, such as the use of passive voice, compound words and phrases and variations in register

[Key concepts: grammatical systems, tense, sentence structure, cohesion; Key processes: understanding, classifying, applying] (ACLHIU121 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • indicating situations and events by using past, present and future tense forms, for example, जाता था, जाता हूँ, जाऊँगा
  • creating simple sentences using conjunctions such as राम ने खाना खाया और सो गया।
  • creating compound and complex sentences such as मैं पहले दिल्ली जाऊँगा और अपना काम पूरा करने के बाद कोलकता पहुँचूँगा।
  • expanding vocabulary related to personal, social, environmental and global worlds
  • recognising and using idiomatic expressions such as आँख का तारा and दाल में कुछ काला
  • using numbers in fraction, multiple and collective forms, for example, आधा, चौथाई, एक तिहाई, सैंकड़ों, हज़ारों, तीन गुणा
  • continuing to build and expand metalanguage to describe grammatical concepts and to organise learning resources such as verb charts, vocabulary lists and groups of pronouns, adverbs and adjectives
  • understanding and extending knowledge of basic joining (सन्धि) rules, such as इ+आ = ए
  • extending knowledge of the use of the active and passive voice according to context, for example, राम उर्दू लिख रहा है। उर्दू लिखी जा रही है।
  • understanding the function and use of case (कारक), for example, ने, को, से, के लिए, में, पर
  • using participles (पदबंध): imperfect – डूबती हुई नाव, perfect – डूबी हुई नाव, adverbial present – रोते हुए, लिखते हुए, adverbial past – वह लड़की का हाथ पकड़े हुए था, वाला as participle – सब्जी वाला, डिब्बे वाला
  • using a range of tenses in complex sentences to describe events and personal experiences, for example, पिछले वर्ष जैसे हमने होली का त्योहार मनाया था, उसी प्रकार इस वर्ष भी हम होली का त्योहार धूमधाम से मनाएंगे।
  • understanding that in different contexts words from different registers are used for related concepts, such as इंसाफ़ and न्याय
Know how to construct different types of texts to suit different contexts, purposes and audiences, incorporating appropriate cultural elements

[Key concepts: genre, context, mode, audience; Key processes: analysing, comparing, composing] (ACLHIU122 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • understanding the significance and cultural importance of features of different types of texts, such as forms of address or language associated with rituals or celebrations, such as आदरणीय, पूज्य, मान्यवर, महोदय (formal) प्रिय मित्र (informal)
  • identifying key features and structures of familiar texts types to understand unfamiliar content, for example, recognising core words associated with time or place in airport announcements, ‘reading’ images as well as written language in advertisements
  • recognising the format of different Hindi texts and stylistic conventions such as the need for elaborated forms of address in formal invitations or congratulations, understanding how these vary according to the context, occasion and intended audience
  • composing and comparing examples of familiar texts such as emails, songs, slogans or public signs, noticing how choice of language and text structure positions the reader and indicates the text’s purpose
  • comparing language features of Hindi and English versions of genres such as news headlines or school reports, noticing differences that appear to be culturally significant
  • composing a formal and an informal version of a selected text genre, such as a written invitation or a text message, for example, मोहन और गीता की सगाई के शुभ अवसर पर आपकी परिवार सहित उपस्थिति प्रार्थनीय है। क्या तुम... के दिन.. समय मुझे मिल सकते हो?

Language variation and change

Identify variations in the use of Hindi that relate to social roles, contexts and modes of expression, considering similar variations in language use in English or other known languages

[Key concepts: register, respect, mode, non-verbal communication; Key processes: identifying, explaining, comparing] (ACLHIU123 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • explaining variations in language use between people of different ages, gender or relationships that reflect attitudes and values, for example, ways of expressing authority or humility or inclusivity or exclusivity
  • identifying differences in terms of language features and register between spoken and written forms of texts such as apologies, invitations or narratives माफ़ कीजिए, क्षमा कीजिए
  • noticing and explaining differences in text structure and grammar between formal and informal Hindi use, for example, between the structure of a business letter and an informal email, आपको सूचित किया जाता है..., मैं तुम्हें बताता हूँ....
  • analysing non-verbal elements of communication between Hindi speakers, such as gestures, facial expressions and the use of space and silence, discussing to what extent they contribute to the exchange of meaning and whether they vary in formal and informal contexts
  • finding examples and explaining variations in style, content and intention of different expressions of wishes for a particular event or occasion such as Diwali, for example, हर घर में हो उजाला, आए न कभी रात काली हर घर मनाए ख़ुशियाँ, हर घर में हो दिवाली compared to an sms message such as शुभ दिवाली
Understand that languages and associated cultures shape and are shaped by each other and change over time and contexts in ways that are creative, dynamic and responsive to both internal and external influences

[Key concepts: change, memory, history, culture; Key processes: tracking, reflecting, discussing] (ACLHIU124 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • reflecting on their own and each other’s use of Hindi, identifying influences from other languages and cultures such as terms used in everyday language as a result of the influence of social media, popular culture and technology
  • talking with older members of their families or communities about changes they have experienced in the use of Hindi across their lifetime, such as the increasing blending of English and Hindi in particular domains of language use such as entertainment, news and sports commentary and advertising
  • recognising that Hindi, like all languages, carries histories of contact with other languages and cultures, for example, by identifying and classifying words that originate in languages such as Persian सरकार; Arabic तलाक़; Turkish क़ुली; and Japanese रिक्शा
  • understanding that languages and cultures change continuously due to contact with each other and in response to new ideas, developments in technology, communication and design, considering why some types of words and expressions are most frequently borrowed, such as vocabulary associated with fashion, sport and technology
  • identifying ways in which social media and technology have brought about changes in communication in their own lives, for example, by compiling a glossary of terms routinely used in emails or text messages, such as अब (ATM), फिर मिलेंगे CU, जाना होगा (G2G), हे हे (LOL), फिर बात करते हैं (TTL)
Identify key features of multilingual experience, referencing their own individual and community language practices

[Key concepts: multilingualism, context, culture; Key processes: explaining, reflecting, analysing] (ACLHIU125 - Scootle )

  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • explaining the influence of Hindi language and associated cultures on their ways of communicating in different situations, for example, by creating a glossary of Hindi words and expressions that they use when communicating in English and English words and expressions that they use when communicating in Hindi
  • considering the advantages of being bilingual or multicultural, the limitations of being monolingual, and the meaning of concepts such as intercultural competence and translanguaging
  • discussing the effects of using either Hindi or English on how they express feelings, debate ideas or construct arguments
  • reflecting on how they use different languages when communicating across different social contexts, and to what extent these choices signal or define social roles or relationships and provide additional resources for thinking and talking about ideas and experience
  • recognising that language use among bilingual and multilingual speakers varies according to ethnicity, age, profession or social status, and to the context of language use
  • reflecting on other people’s reactions to their use of Hindi and/or English, considering how perceptions of other people’s ways of communicating are shaped by cultural standpoints, experiences and perspectives
  • creating and comparing individual language profiles, explaining which languages or dialects they use in their family, social and community lives
  • reflecting on elements such as gestures, body language and the use of space or silence when they are using different languages to communicate

Role of language and culture

Understand that the Hindi language and associated cultures, like all languages and cultures, shape and are shaped by each other in ways that change over time and contexts, and that cultural experience, values and identities are reflected in language

[Key concepts: values, concepts, expression; Key processes: tracking, identifying, analysing] (ACLHIU126 - Scootle )

  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • tracking changes in Hindi language forms and usage over different times and contexts such as मोटरगाड़ी, कार
  • explaining the significance of single words in Hindi that represent complex and culturally significant concepts that do not translate directly into English, for example, दक्षिणा, शुभमुहुर्त, पूजा, साधू
  • considering reasons for the trend among young Hindi speakers to create abbreviated adaptations of English words, for example, funda (fundamental), despo (desperate), enthu (enthusiastic), comparing with the use of abbreviations such as ‘arvo’, ‘brekkie’, ‘footie’, ‘barbie’ in Australian English
  • identifying compound words used in colloquial Hindi that fuse Hindi and English to capture trends, convey concepts and engage with intercultural experience, for example, tension mat lo, accent maarna
  • discussing the significance of naming in different languages and cultures, for example, by exploring the origins and meanings of Hindi names such as आद्या, आशा, आर्य, बोधि, धर्म, गीता, सलमान and comparing with popular names in English and other languages
  • identifying changes in some forms of Hindi that reflect the impact of globalisation and intercultural experience, for example, the increasing mixing of languages and adoption of practices associated with other communities and cultures
  • exploring the idea that some elements of a language carry particular cultural significance, having come to assume symbolic as well literal value in ways that make translation difficult, for example, Hindi terms such as बिदाई, सन्यास, शुभमुहुर्त, मुहूर्त, and Australian expressions such as ‘mateship’ or ‘fair dinkum’
  • researching and classifying terms associated with particular cultural traditions and practices that have cultural significance or history and whose meanings are difficult to convey in other languages, for example, words associated with yogic practice such as संसार, मंत्र, कर्म, गुरू, ब्राह्मण, मोक्ष

Years 9 and 10 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 10, students use written and spoken Hindi in familiar and unfamiliar contexts to discuss and compare experiences and to express views on local and global issues, for example, पारिवारिक सम्बन्ध या सामाजिक मीडिया का उपयोग – डिजिटल दुनिया, मेरा समुदाय, श्रमिक दिवस, स्वतंत्रता दिवस, बैसाखी, भारत का शास्त्रीय संगीत, बॉलीवुड फिल्मों का इतिहास, ऑस्ट्रेलिया के दर्शनीय स्थल. They use action-related and spontaneous language to engage in shared activities that involve brainstorming, transacting, negotiation and problem-solving, for example, म्रत्यु-दण्ड या इच्छा-म्रत्यु के बारे में विचार विनिमय, बाज़ार में खरीददारी, शरणार्थियों की समस्या पर परिचर्चा. They interact in classroom exchanges by asking and responding respectfully to questions. When participating in discussions and shared learning activities, students use elaborated sentences and interactional cues to support debate, provide clarification and maintain cohesion and focus of discussion, for example, तो, उदाहरण के लिए, तदनुसार, आम तौर पर, दूसरे शब्दों में, विशेष रूप से, इस प्रकार, इसलिये, आप इस विषय में क्या सोचते हैं? क्या आप इसे विस्तार में समझाने की कृपा करेँगे? तुम समझ रहे हो न मैं क्या कह रहा हूँ l मेरी राय में…… मेरे कहने का अर्थ है... आपको नहीं लगता कि… मेरा सुझाव तो यही है कि .... They respond respectfully to different views, for example, मेरे विचार में…..ऐसा लगता है कि…; … हमें ध्यान रखना चाहिए… यह विवादास्पद है , लेकिन वास्तव में , मेरा विश्वास है…, मै आश्वस्त हूँ … and express agreement and disagreement in culturally appropriate ways. They apply appropriate pronunciation and intonation to spoken Hindi, identifying regularities and irregularities. They locate, process and analyse information obtained from different sources. They convey ideas and viewpoints from a range of perspectives using different text types and modes of presentation suited to context. They share their responses to different imaginative texts by identifying settings, themes and values, and discussing stylistic devices and the representation of characters and events. They produce imaginative texts using expressive, descriptive and evocative language in a range of modes and formats. When creating texts, students use complex features and patterns of the Hindi grammatical system such as passive voice, for example, रंगोली बनवायी जा रही है, छुट्टी करवाई जा रही है , compound words and phrases, and a variety of verb tenses, for example, पिछले वर्ष जैसे हमने होली का त्योहार मनाया था, उसी प्रकार इस वर्ष भी हम होली का त्योहार धूमधाम से मनाएँगे . They use vocabulary and expressions related to personal, social, environmental and global worlds, and apply appropriate writing conventions to increase text cohesion and enhance expression. Students translate and interpret familiar texts from Hindi into English and vice versa, explaining how cultural elements affect meaning. Students create bilingual texts that reflect the experience of being bilingual and bicultural. They explain their language choices and communicative behaviours in different intercultural interactions, and identify the adjustments they make according to context. They explain how language, culture and identity shape and reflect ways of communicating and thinking.

Students identify regular and irregular elements of spoken and written Hindi, and apply their understanding of the Hindi writing system to express complex information and ideas and enhance meaning. They analyse the relationship between language choices, cultural elements and textual features, and the audience, purpose and context of different spoken, written and multimodal texts. Students explain how spoken and written forms of Hindi vary according to social roles, contexts and modes of expression, and compare these variations to those in other languages. They explain the dynamic nature of language and give examples of how languages change over time and contexts. They identify key features of multilingual experience, with reference to their own and community language practices. They explain how languages and cultures shape and are shaped by each and how cultural experience, values and identities are reflected in language.