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Context statement

The place of the Hindi language and associated cultures in Australia and the world
Hindi is an official language of India and Fiji. It is the most widely spoken language of the Indian subcontinent and is also widely spoken throughout the world in countries that include the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Mauritius, the Gulf countries and Australia.

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PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Languages - Hindi are available as PDF documents. 
Languages - Hindi: Sequence of content
Languages - Hindi: Sequence of Achievement - F-10 Sequence
Languages - Hindi: Sequence of Achievement …

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Years 7 and 8

Years 7 and 8 Band Description

The nature of the learners

Students coming into this pathway are background learners of Hindi with varying degrees of proficiency in the language. All have family and community connections with the language and associated cultures, or with languages or dialects related to Hindi. Some may have recently arrived in Australia, have completed the primary years of schooling in Hindi or other Indian languages and have established literacy as well as oracy skills in the language. Others may have participated in community language programs during these years and have some literacy capabilities in Hindi. Others may have minimal experience of formal learning of the language, with little literacy proficiency and varying degrees of oral capabilities, depending on their home language environment. All students share the experience of belonging to worlds in which languages play a key role and diversity of language use is common. The curriculum takes into account the diversity of learners, ensuring that tasks and activities are flexible to cater for different language capabilities while being appropriately pitched to all learners’ cognitive and social levels.

Hindi language learning and use

Students use Hindi to interact with each other, the teacher and other speakers of the language, to access and exchange information, to express ideas and feelings, to participate and to cooperate in learning experiences and activities. They build vocabulary resources, grammatical knowledge and communicative capabilities such as active listening skills and interactional strategies through shared tasks that provide a context for purposeful language experience and through focused learning episodes that develop understanding of language systems and the ability to use metalanguage. They use modelled and rehearsed language to compose and present different types of texts (for example, shared stories, media and hypermedia texts, songs, poems, reports or journal entries). They plan, draft and present imaginative and informative texts, design interactive events and participate in discussions. They make cross-curricular connections and explore intercultural perspectives and experiences. Learners use ICT to support their learning in increasingly independent and intentional ways, exchanging resources with each other and with learners in different contexts.

Contexts of interaction

Students interact primarily with each other and the teacher in class, with some access to broader Hindi-speaking networks in the school and local community. ICT resources such as email, online chats or wikis provide access to additional experiences of authentic communication, connecting learners’ social worlds with those of Hindi-speaking peers in other contexts. Learners also have access to Hindi language experience through media, community events, websites, social media and radio streaming.

Texts and resources

Learners work with a range of texts designed for in-school learning of Hindi, such as textbooks, readers, literary texts, videos, online media resources and materials. They also access materials created for Hind-speaking communities, such as songs, films, magazines and social media texts such as blogs, advertisements and websites. They interact with a range of texts created for different purposes (for example, informational, transactional, communicative, expressive and imaginative texts) and make connections between these genres in Hindi and the work they do around similar texts in the English learning area.

Features of Hindi language use

Learners develop explicit knowledge of the forms and functions of language elements that they may already use fluently in their spoken language. Literacy development provides the opportunity not only to read and write the language but also to understand how it is formed and how it works. Learners learn how spoken language is represented in the Devanagari script by the use of 13 characters classified as vowels (अ-अः) and 35 as consonants (क-ह and ड़-ढ़) and that a line on the top joins letters to make words and leave spaces between words बस, घर। अब घर चल।. They recognise the matra form of vowels, such as ि, ी, distinguish long and short vowel sounds such as ि, ी and identify the pronunciation of vowel sounds in conjunction with consonants, कइ/कि, कई/की. They develop understanding of key features and core elements of grammar, including sentence structures, the form and function of pronouns, मैं, हम, यह, ये, तुम, तू, आप, मैं, मेरा, तुम्हारा।, the use of postpositions and gender and number agreements, लड़का गाता है। लड़की गाती है। लड़के गाते हैं. They compose statements and questions, such as तुम मेरे साथ चलो। तुम कैसे हो and use simple verb tenses such as गया था, जाऊँगा, जा रहा हूँ, खाया था, खा रहा हूँ, खाऊँगा. They position adverbs correctly in sentences, for example, धीरे-धीरे, जल्दी में, दौड़ते हुए and use negative forms of verbs and adjectives, for example, सोहन ने फिल्म नहीं देखी। झूठ कभी मत बोलो. They increase their range of vocabulary to domains beyond their personal experience and interests, and recognise loan words from languages such as English, Persian, Arabic, Turkish and Portuguese. They learn how the under-dotted characters क़, ख़, ग़, ज़, फ़ are used to represent loan sounds in Hindi. Learners use and analyse grammatical forms and sentence structures that express relationships between ideas, experiences and relationships, and develop awareness of how language structures shape textual features. They use descriptive and expressive language to create particular effects and to engage interest. They develop language knowledge, processing strategies and understanding of text conventions to assist in comprehending unfamiliar texts. They make connections between texts and cultural contexts, identifying how values and perspectives are embedded in language and how language choices determine how people, issues and experiences are represented. They are aware of the nature of the relationship between languages and cultures, noticing, for example, how particular Hindi words or expressions ‘carry’ cultural values or experiences. They reflect on the nature of bicultural and multicultural experience, on how languages change in response to broader social and cultural shifts, and how they perceive their own identities as users of two or more languages in a multicultural society.

Level of support

Differentiated support is required for learners with different levels of oracy and literacy proficiency. All learners require opportunities to review and consolidate learning; different degrees of balance between consolidation work and provision of more challenging tasks ensure learners at different levels are catered for. Teachers provide scaffolding, modelling and material and resource support for the development of fluency and accuracy in spoken language and of grammatical and literacy capabilities. Learners are supported to develop autonomy as language learners and users and to self-monitor and adjust language in response to their experience in different communicative contexts. They are encouraged to engage critically with resources such as websites, translating tools and other resources designed to strengthen their receptive and productive language use.

The role of English

Learners are encouraged to use Hindi whenever possible, including for discussion, explanation, comparison and reflection. English is used when appropriate, for example, when considering the nature and relationship of language and culture or in tasks that involve comparison and analysis of Hindi and English. The process of moving between/using both languages consolidates learners’ already established sense of what it means to be bilingual or multilingual and provides opportunities for reflection on the experience of living inter-culturally in intersecting language communities.


Years 7 and 8 Content Descriptions

Socialising

Interact with peers and teacher to exchange greetings, wishes, information and opinions, to talk about their personal worlds and to express feelings

[Key concepts: self, family, leisure, preferences; Key processes: interacting, exchanging information, describing] (ACLHIC091 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • engaging in everyday social interactions such as greetings and farewells, apologies or thanks, using appropriate informal and formal language, such as नमस्ते, फिर मिलेंगे, माफ़ कीजिए
  • exchanging greetings, wishes and congratulations on specific occasions, for example, दीपावली की हार्दिक शुभकामनाएं, दीपों की ज्योति की तरह आपका जीवन भी हमेशा उज्ज्वलित् रहे, परीक्षा पास करने के लिए बधाई हो
  • sharing aspects of their personal worlds and experiences, for example, by describing significant events or milestones or by comparing their experiences of using different languages in different areas of their lives
  • talking about themselves and their families, sharing ideas and opinions and expressing likes, dislikes and preferences, for example, मेरे परिवार के अधिकतर सदस्य ऑस्ट्रेलिया में रहते हैं लेकिन कुछ सदस्य भारत में भी रहते हैं; मुझे क्रिकेट खेलना अच्छा लगता है क्योंकि....
  • asking and answering questions about their interests and leisure activities, for example, आप अपनी पढ़ाई और सामाजिक जीवन में संतुलन कैसे बनाते हैं?
  • participating in informal conversations with each other, encouraging equal participation, for example, तुम ने कुछ नहीं कहा, क्या तुम इस से सहमत हो? and keeping conversation moving by asking for clarification or elaboration, आप ऐसा क्यों कह रहे हैं?
  • maintaining social contact with peers and contacts in other contexts by exchanging emails, posts on shared websites or personal blogs that highlight school, home or leisure activities
  • using descriptive and expressive language, including colloquial expressions, idioms or proverbs, to describe people, places or experiences and to express feelings, for example, अँगुली पर नचाना; नाक में दम करना; मेरी चाचीजी मुझसे बहुत प्यार करती हैं; मैं उनकी आँखों का तारा हूँ; हरे भरे खेत हवा के झोंकों के संग लहलहा रहे थे; पेड़ों के पत्तों में से सूरज की किरणें छन छन कर आ रही थीं। अपने घर में कुत्ता भी शेर होता है।
Participate in shared activities such as performances, celebrations, presentations or website design that involve planning, collaborating, making arrangements, transacting and negotiating

[Key concepts: interaction, collaboration, negotiation; Key processes: planning, negotiating, responding] (ACLHIC092 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • making decisions about collaborative projects such as displays or performances, discussing roles and responsibilities and sharing ideas, for example, इसके लिए संगीत की व्यवस्था कौन करेगा ? किन चित्रों का उपयोग होगा इसका निर्णय हम कैसे करेंगे ? यदि तुम तबला बजाओगे तो मैं गाऊँगी।
  • designing a website that provides opportunities for intercultural exchange between themselves and young Hindi-speakers in different contexts, preparing possible stimulus questions such as क्या तुम्हें यह रूपरेखा ठीक लगती है? हमें किस भाषा का प्रयोग करना चाहिए? इस वेबसाइट को कौन देखेगा?
  • contributing to the planning of presentations or displays that reflect their individual and/or shared experiences of living and communicating across different languages and cultures, for example, composing captions for photos/images or selecting multimodal resources
  • negotiating details of real or simulated online transactions that involve discussion of comparability, value, price and availability, using terms such as बजट की सीमा, विनिमय दर, पैसे वसूल करना
  • negotiating differences in opinions or preferences when planning events or excursions, for example, the hosting of an exchange group of students or a visit to a culturally significant site
  • planning a party menu or picnic, for example, by deciding on elements of a थाली comprised of a selection of their favourite dishes, such as दाल, रोटी, सब्जी, and discussing individual and shared preferences or dislikes, for example, माँसाहारी,शाकाहारी
Interact in classroom routines and exchanges such as asking and responding to questions, requesting help, repetition or permission, following directions, giving praise or encouragement and reflecting on learning experiences

[Key concepts: conversation, discussion, comparison, meaning; Key processes: discussing, responding, comparing, reflecting] (ACLHIC093 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • participating in regular classroom interactions such as asking and answering questions, for example, आज २० जून है; आज सोमवार है; आज बहुत सर्दी है; requesting permission or clarification, नहीं, मुझे समझ नहीं आया, कृपया फिर से दोहराइए। यह बहुत कठिन है। इस में मुझे क्या करना है? इस प्रश्न का उत्तर क्या है? कृपया, यह फिर से समझाइए; and responding to praise or criticism, बहुत बढ़िया! बुरा नहीं है। ठीक ठाक हैl
  • using language of comparison, opinion, reflection and response, for example, इस विकल्प को अधिक लोग चुनते हैं ... मुझे यह कार्य बहुत कठिन लगा।
  • monitoring progress during learning experiences, responding to each other’s contributions and expressing opinions and preferences, किसकी बारी है? यह बहुत कठिन लग रहा है। मैं फिर से शुरू करूंगा …
  • using evaluative language to provide feedback and encouragement and to review learning experiences, for example, by reflecting on completed tasks, हमने अच्छा प्रबंध किया। हमें उम्मीद से ज़्यादा समय लगा, प्रभावशाली सुधार, प्रयत्न करते रहो
  • identifying and discussing Hindi idioms and proverbs that may be applied to the experience of learning languages, for example, डूबते को तिनके का सहारा, नाच न जाने आंगन टेढ़ा, अँधे की लाठी, चार–चाँद लगाना

Informing

Access and identify specific points of information such as details about people, places or events from a range of spoken, written and digital texts and use the information in new ways

[Key concepts: social worlds, environment, communication, lifestyle; Key processes: researching, recording, reporting] (ACLHIC094 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Sustainability
  • collecting information from print and digital sources on social or environmentally related events, recording key facts and associated vocabulary for use in their own projects, for example, प्रदूषण एवं पर्यावरण; स्वच्छ भारत; गंगा नदी की सफ़ाई; स्वच्छ ऑस्ट्रेलिया दिवस
  • collecting information via surveys or face-to-face conversations with friends and family members on questions related to social behaviours or trends, such as preferred modes of communication, for example, फ़ोन; ईमेल; आमने सामने बातचीत; टेक्स्टिंग, compiling a summary of findings in table or graph form
  • listening to recordings of phone conversations, announcements or radio interviews, transcribing key facts or details such as dates, times, events or locations in note form or through checklists or timelines
  • accessing information from videos, books and websites produced in different cultural contexts on topics such as family life, community living, housing or schooling, summarising and reporting back on key trends and cultural factors
  • collecting facts, figures and vocabulary from resources such as posters, websites and brochures, and using them to draft a position for an in-class discussion of a topic such as healthy lifestyles, benefits of travel or animal protection
  • presenting an oral summary of an action or event reported in the media, using appropriate register, language features and non-verbal language to capture key elements and engage audience interest
Convey information obtained from different sources relating to personal, social and natural worlds in spoken, written and multimodal forms suitable for a particular audience

[Key concepts: community, experience, bilingualism; Key processes: selecting, presenting, creating] (ACLHIC095 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Sustainability
  • creating multimodal texts to share with Hindi speakers in different contexts that capture elements of their personal and social worlds, for example, हमारे स्कूल का एक दिन, मेरी मित्र-मण्डली
  • using different modes of presentation such as photo montages, written journals or recorded interviews to provide information for extended family members overseas about their social and educational experience in Australia
  • creating a video clip to support new students to the school, introducing aspects of school culture, key personnel and available study and extra-curricular options
  • presenting information gathered from print media/online sources on selected topics, using formats such as tables, graphs or spreadsheets to present statistical information or captions or spoken commentaries to report on environmental issues such as disaster relief or land degradation
  • creating a short video to post on their school website to report on a good news story, such as a successful fund-raising event or sporting or academic achievements
  • creating an interactive presentation for younger children to highlight the advantages of being bilingual/multilingual in a globalised world and of maintaining and strengthening a home/first language

Creating

Engage with imaginative and creative texts such as stories, cartoons, paintings, poems, songs and TV programs, comparing favourite elements and discussing structure, characters, themes and effects

[Key concepts: imagination, creativity, imagery, representation; Key processes: responding, comparing, analysing, discussing; Key text types: poetry, folk tales, TV programs, films, music] (ACLHIC096 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • interacting with different types of verse, drama and song lyrics, discussing how imagery, rhythm and rhyme are used to create mood and effect, and experimenting with expressive language to create their own texts
  • comparing their life experiences with those of characters in traditional folktales such as एकता में बल है, identifying elements of universal human experience such as loss, love or loyalty
  • comparing story lines and characterisation in popular Hindi- and English-language TV series, identifying themes or issues that seem to be differently responded to in one cultural context than in the other
  • identifying how cultural traditions and beliefs are communicated through visual and performing arts, and comparing different living traditions present in Australia, including artistic expression associated with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.
  • comparing style, creative effects and cultural traditions reflected in popular forms of Hindi and Australian entertainment, for example, The Voice India or India’s Got Talent and Australian versions of the shows, Bollywood movies and English-language musicals, TV programs such as अशोक सम्राट and Australian programs popular with a similar age-group
  • discussing characters from favourite stories, comics or cartoons, such as चाचा चौधरी; बहादुर नागराज, identifying elements of their personalities that they most admire, enjoy or identify with
  • considering how humour is expressed and shared in culturally specific ways and whether it ‘travels’ successfully across languages, for example, by comparing favourite jokes, cartoons or amusing stories in Hindi with humorous texts in English
  • analysing the structure of traditional or contemporary Hindi poetry, for example, by identifying the use of rhythm, rhyme and repetition, or comparing examples of lyrical or poetic expression, बुन्देले हरबोलों के मुख हमने सुनी कहानी थी खूब लड़ी मर्दानी वो तो झांसी वाली रानी थी
Create original texts that involve imagination and expression, experimenting with a range of modes and performance genres

[Key concepts: expression, imagination, adaptation, performance; Key processes: experimenting, adapting, designing, performing; Key text types: stories, plays, music] (ACLHIC097 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • experimenting with text structure and imaginative language to create entertaining texts for younger children, for example, by using dramatic and emotive words and vocal expression to build suspense in a story
  • creating dramatic or humorous representations of people, situations or events encountered in their own lives
  • composing and performing poems or songs that incorporate elements of traditional or contemporary literary and musical forms, for example, भक्ति or वीर गाथा verse, nonsense songs, raps
  • creating, rehearsing and performing interpretations of poems for a public recitation or verse-speaking competition
  • creating a multimodal text that captures impressions of their local community through images, sound effects and spoken commentary
  • preparing and presenting a contribution to their school Speech Day, for example, an opening address that uses formal expressions such as माननीय प्रधानाचार्य जी...
  • planning performances that incorporate elements such as mime, music and expressive commentary and invite reflection on ethical or humanitarian principles, for example, अहिंसा; अनेकता में एकता
  • creating texts such as short stories or cartoons that involve imaginary characters and fantasy scenarios, for example, a new species, parallel universe or superhero
  • improvising unscripted exchanges between imaginary characters who find themselves in challenging situations, for example, मित्रता; निष्ठा; साहस, using gestures, voice and props to build mood, explore relationships and express emotions
  • creating a segment for a community radio station, such as an imaginary cricket commentary or news flash about an imagined catastrophe

Translating

Translate and interpret short texts such as public signs, proverbs or menus from Hindi to English and vice versa, noticing which words or phrases translate easily and which do not

[Key concepts: equivalence, meaning, translation, interpretation; Key processes: translating, explaining, evaluating] (ACLHIC098 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • translating short community texts such as public signs, menu items or public announcements from Hindi to English and vice versa, comparing choices they each made to arrive at the closest equivalent meaning
  • translating and explaining proverbs or colloquial expressions used in their families, for example, दूर के ढोल सुहावने; पेट में चूहे दौड़ रहे हैं, discussing how they would explain them to non-Hindi speaking friends
  • translating short media texts such as appeals or slogans from Hindi to English or vice versa, noticing how the two languages convey meaning in similar or different ways, for example, by using imperative verb moods or emotive language: ‘Never refuse to re-use!’; ‘Don’t be trashy - recycle!’; सारी धरती की यह पुकार, पर्यावरण का करो सुधार
  • translating excerpts from traditional fables and legends, identifying words and expressions that reference cultural values, history and beliefs and are difficult to translate into English
  • evaluating the effectiveness of print and digital dictionaries and electronic translators, for example, by comparing each other’s translations of a text, back-translating or swapping references, considering issues such as alternative or multiple meanings of words and the importance of context to meaning
  • considering the significance of naming practices in Hindi, for example, by translating popular names such as पवन, माला, दीपक, आशा, comparing with naming practices in Australian English
  • classifying commonly used informal expressions in Hindi, including colloquialisms and proverbs, into those that are easily understood when translated into English and those that require interpretation and explanation
Create shared bilingual texts and learning resources such as word banks, databases, promotional materials or hyperlinks for digital presentations for the classroom and wider school or local community

[Key concepts; expression, meaning, elaboration; Key processes: creating, reviewing, exemplifying, designing] (ACLHIC099 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • designing a flyer for a class event or performance which uses Hindi and English, considering how to convey information and ideas in each language
  • creating bilingual captions or hyperlinks for a photographic or digital display to show parents and other student groups key elements of their learning experiences
  • contributing reviews, reports or recipes to a shared bilingual or multilingual website, using Hindi, English and other languages as appropriate to different domains of language use
  • creating a bilingual blog, wiki or contribution to an online discussion forum that shares examples of challenges associated with translating and interpreting
  • developing bilingual instructional texts or directions that cater for Hindi- and English-speaking friends, family members or participants, for example, computer game instructions or information for an extended-family event
  • creating a short documentary about a local community event or locale that uses both Hindi and English, for example, with narration in one language and subtitles in the other
  • designing bilingual signage for the school campus, including names of facilities, directions to locations or advice on expected behaviours, noting differences in phrasing or expression, as in ‘Silence Please’: ‘कृपया शांति बनाए रखें
  • composing menus or programs for school or community events/celebrations that include footnotes in English to explain key terms or items

Reflecting

Consider similarities and differences in their ways of communicating in Hindi or English, or when switching between the two, noticing when they choose to use either or both languages

[Key concepts: language domains, culture, expression; Key processes: comparing, identifying, monitoring, analysing] (ACLHIC100 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • identifying differences between how they communicate in Hindi and in English, including the use of gestures and other forms of non-verbal communication such as hand or head movements, the use of space or silence
  • comparing examples of interactions which feel more natural in Hindi than they do in English or vice versa, noticing the contexts of those interactions, the people they are communicating with and the kinds of topics being discussed
  • identifying instances when using both Hindi and English in the same interaction makes for easier communication, for example, when using English technical terms such as लाइट जला दो
  • identifying behaviours that may be similar or dissimilar when communicating in Hindi and in English, for example, when using direct or indirect questions, interruptions, silence, turn-taking
  • monitoring their use of Hindi and English in different areas of their lives, for example, by keeping a record of what they use each language for over a particular day
  • reflecting on the nature of culture and its relationship with language with reference to Hindi, English and other languages they know, for example, by identifying words, phrases or behaviours that carry cultural information or reflect cultural values
Discuss the nature of identity and of cultural experience, considering the relationship between the two

[Key concepts: identity, multiculturalism, code-switching; Key processes: reflecting, discussing, comparing] (ACLHIC101 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • discussing what identity is and how their own sense of identity is influenced by their experience of living in a multicultural society and of identifying with particular language communities
  • considering how their sense of identity changes over time, taking into account changes in language use at home, in school and in the wider community
  • discussing whether their relationships with people of different generations, gender and language backgrounds influence their ways of communicating
  • reflecting on how their own perspectives and ways of communicating may be perceived by others, for example, in relation to language choice or code-switching and to behaviours that may be perceived as ‘cultural’
  • exploring how using different languages to make meaning and drawing from varied cultural resources affects how they think, behave and communicate
  • discussing whether being bilingual and bicultural affects their sense of identity in ways that involve culture as well as language

Systems of language

Understand the relationship between the sounds of spoken Hindi and elements of the Devanagari script, such as the writing of conjunct characters and the combinations of consonants and matras

[Key concepts: pronunciation, intonation, writing conventions; Key processes: listening, distinguishing, recognising] (ACLHIU102 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • building phonic awareness by recognising and experimenting with sounds and focusing on those that are new and initially difficult, for example, त, थ, ग, घ, ट, द, ध।
  • learning how the Hindi sound system is conventionally represented in the Devanagari sound system by the use of 13 letters classified as vowels (अ-अः) and 33 consonants (क-ह and ड़-ढ़)
  • recognising that a line on the top joins letters to make words in addition to leaving spaces between words बस, घर। अब घर चल।
  • recognising the matra form of vowels, such as ि, ी, and distinguishing long and short vowel sounds such as ि, ी
  • identifying and practising pronunciation of vowel sounds in conjunction with consonants कइ/कि, कई/की
  • understanding the formation of conjunct consonants such as क्ष, त्र, ज्ञ
  • imitating discrimination of unaspirated and aspirated sounds such as क-ख, द-ध।
  • understanding that Hindi vowels can be pronounced with a nasal quality added to them which is represented by either a (चँद्रबिंदु) or (बिंदु) above the headstroke, for example, हाँ, मैं
  • learning how the under-dotted characters क़, ख़, ग़, ज़, फ़ are used to represent loan sounds in Hindi from other languages such as English, Persian, Arabic, Turkish and Portuguese
  • understanding conventions by which new loan words are written in Hindi, for example, the way in which English ‘t’ and ‘d’ sounds are represented normally as and , the replacement of English ‘th’ sounds by and the ways in which English vowels such as short ‘a’ sounds are replaced by Hindi vowel sounds such as in डॉलर versus डालर
Develop knowledge of key elements of the Hindi grammatical and vocabulary systems, such as sentence structures, use of pronouns, postpositions and gender and number agreements

[Key concepts: grammar, sentence structure; Key processes: understanding, applying] (ACLHIU103 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • identifying people by using pronouns in singular and plural forms, for example, मैं, हम, यह, ये, तुम, तू, आप, मैं, मेरा, तुम्हारा।
  • recognising and using pronouns for places and objects, for example, यहाँ, वहाँ, यह, वह
  • referring to objects and describing quantities using cardinal numbers, for example, एक, दो, पाँच, सात and पाँच रोटियाँ, दस गिलास
  • learning the structure of declarative and interrogative verb forms, for example, by composing simple statements and questions based on models such as तुम मेरे साथ चलो। तुम कैसे हो?
  • understanding that verbs change according to the gender and number of the noun, as in लड़का गाता है। लड़की गाती है। लड़के गाते हैं।
  • using simple verb tenses such as गया था, जाऊँगा, जा रहा हूँ, खाया था, खा रहा हूँ, खाऊँगा
  • using adjectives to describe characteristics or qualities of a person or object, such as nationality, shape or colour, and noticing that they change with gender and number, for example, छोटा लड़का, छोटी लड़की, छोटे लड़के, छोटे लड़के को, छोटे लड़कों को
  • using possessive adjectives to express ownership, for example, मेरी पुस्तक, तुम्हारा बस्ता
  • positioning adverbs correctly in sentences, for example, धीरे-धीरे, जल्दी में, दौड़ते हुए
  • using ordinal numbers such as पहला, दूसरा
  • using negative forms of verbs and adjectives, for example, सोहन ने फिल्म नहीं देखी। झूठ कभी मत बोलो।
  • building lexical competence for example, by collating vocabulary sets in relation to meaning or function, such as words for different kinds of fruit such as आम, पपीता, अमरुद, नारंगी, संतरा, मौसंबी or verbs of action such as जाना, आना, पहुँचना, लौटना, घूमना, भटकना.
Identify textual and grammatical features that characterise different types of literary, instructional, persuasive or imaginative texts in Hindi, comparing them with similar texts in English and other languages

[Key concepts: genre, language features, metalanguage; Key processes: noticing, analysing, comparing] (ACLHIU104 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • recognising characteristic features of different text genres, such as headings, footnotes and reference lists in textbooks, rhetorical questions and persuasive language in advertisements, abbreviations and emoticons in emails and text messages, an opening orientation statement at the beginning of a narrative, such as जब वे केवल चौदह वर्ष के थे, उनकी पिता की मृत्यु हो गयी ।
  • comparing Hindi- and English-language versions of text types such as phone conversations, business letters or sports reports, considering whether differences in style or structure reflect differences in cultural values or practices
  • recognising rules of structure and composition in Hindi poetry, for example, by identifying patterns of rhythm, rhyme, repetition and meter in poems by सुभद्रा कुमारी चौहान or जयशंकर प्रसाद
  • developing metalanguage to talk about texts, for example, by identifying the purpose, features and typical structure of text genres, for example, निबन्ध में तीन भाग होते हैं- भूमिका, विषय-वस्तु और उपसंहार
  • recognising differences between the layout and language features of different types of texts and formats, such as चित्र-कथाएँ और लोक-कथाएँ
  • recognising the role played by different textual elements, for example, the layout, title, illustration and use of punctuation in a picture book or the use of repetition and rhyme in poems and chants
  • comparing the use of imagery or satire in a range of imaginative texts, discussing how these elements convey meaning and engage/entertain the audience

Language variation and change

Understand that both spoken and written Hindi vary in form and function when used by different people in different contexts and situations

[Key concepts: variation, context, register; Key processes: noticing, comparing, explaining] (ACLHIU105 - Scootle )

  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • understanding that there is a standard form of Hindi, मानक हिंदी used in writing and spoken by many people, and also a range of spoken dialects that differ from region to region, for example, ब्रज भाषा, अवधी
  • creating a map that identifies regions of India, Fiji, Mauritius and other parts of the world which have communities of Hindi-speakers and of related languages/dialects represented in the classroom, such as तमिल, गुजराती, पंजाबी, मराठी
  • examining how language users vary modes of expression to reflect different feelings, relationships, intentions or attitudes, for example, by comparing the respectful tone of devotional texts such as भजन, दोहे, the exuberance, humour and colour of Bollywood scripts and the directive tone of rules and regulations in school rules or official documents
  • comparing the style, structure and register of informal and formal texts such as invitations or the expression of wishes, noticing elements such as vocabulary used, economy/elaboration of expression, and grammatical style (मोहन और गीता की सगाई के शुभ अवसर पर आपकी परिवार सहित उपस्थिति प्रार्थनीय है। क्या तुम... के दिन.. समय मुझे मिल सकते हो?)
  • comparing the informal use of greetings and wishes between friends and family members with those used in more formal situations, for example, अरे राहुल! प्यारे माता पिता, ढेर सारा प्यार
Recognise that the Hindi language has evolved and developed through different periods of time and as a result of different influences and interactions, that it is related to many other languages used in India and in the Australian community, and that it has influenced/influences other languages

[Key concepts: language change, language contact, loan words, globalisation; Key processes: discussing, classifying] (ACLHIU106 - Scootle )

  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • understanding that all languages are dynamic, continuously changing over time, that some grow, adding new words and borrowing from other languages, as in the case of both Hindi and Australian English, while others are no longer spoken (often referred to as ‘sleeping’ by owners) as in the case of many Indigenous languages of Australia and North America
  • recognising connections between language families and individual languages, such as that between Hindi and Punjabi, including the practice of adopting and adapting words and expressions from each other, for example, the use of Hindi words that originated in languages such as Persian, Arabic and English
  • identifying Hindi words derived from other languages, such as दफ़्तर, borrowed from Arabic, क्षेत्र (field in an abstract sense) directly from Sanskrit versus खेत (field as in for farming) from Hindi via Pali/Prakrit, मेज़ via Persian from Portuguese
  • exploring the relationship between Hindi and English language systems and practice and identifying changes to Hindi that have come about as a result of processes such as globalisation, technological change and intercultural exchange
  • identifying Hindi words and expressions used in English and other languages, such as pyjamas, bungalow, sorbet, avatar, cashmere, juggernaut, yoga, sari researching their origins and comparing original and current meanings
  • finding examples of Hindi words that retain their identity as non-English words but are increasingly incorporated into English and understood by bilingual speakers, for example, the familiar, affectionate use of यार and देसी
Recognise that Australia is a multicultural society with communities of speakers of many different languages including Hindi, and reflect on the diversity of language practices that characterise members of this multicultural community

[Key concepts: multilingualism, dialect; Key processes: understanding, mapping, reflecting] (ACLHIU107 - Scootle )

  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • recognising the linguistic diversity of the global community, understanding that many people around the world speak more than one language, comparing with the multilingual character of Australian society, for example, by talking about the different languages represented in the classroom and local community
  • exploring the range of languages spoken in Australia, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages, for example, by constructing a linguistic profile of their own class or school community
  • recognising that there are many different Indian languages and dialects spoken in India and other regions of the world, such as Hindi, Tamil, Gujarati, Panjabi, Marathi, involving variations in accents, vocabulary and syntax, and that most Hindi speakers also speak other languages
  • comparing their individual language profiles, explaining which languages or dialects they use in their family, social and community lives
  • reflecting on the impact on their personal lives and sense of identity of being bilingual or multilingual
  • explaining the influence of Indian language and culture on their ways of communicating in different situations, for example, by creating a glossary of Hindi words and expressions that they use when communicating in English

Role of language and culture

Understand the relationship between language and culture, reflecting on how languages reflect values, belief systems and perspectives that may be differently interpreted by speakers of other languages

[Key concepts: culture, language, meaning, interdependence; Key processes: analysing, identifying, making connections] (ACLHIU108 - Scootle )

  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • identifying elements of Hindi that reflect cultural traditions and values, such as the use of forms of address that reflect status, age and relationship, for example, using the suffix ji when referring to elders or people who merit respect, forms of address such as नमस्कार, नमस्ते; आप कैसे हैं, तुम कैसे हो; the addition of श्री, श्रीमती for married women and the formal honorific कुमारी attached to forms of address to unmarried women
  • exploring how culturally defined concepts such as family, responsibility or hospitality influence forms of expression and patterns of interaction in Hindi, considering whether changes in cultural and social practices over time are translated into changes in language use
  • recognising Hindi words and expressions that reflect traditions, values and cultural priorities, such as forms of address like स्वामी जी for a religious leader, गुरु जी for a male teacher, बाबा जी for an older male person and राम राम as a mode of greeting in villages
  • reflecting on the dynamic nature of culture and on the relationship between language and culture, identifying visible and invisible elements of culture expressed in language that may be differently interpreted by speakers of other languages
  • discussing the cultural significance of expressions in Hindi that characterise more indirect forms of language compared to English, for example, by saying कोई बात नहीं, चलो जाने दो.
  • reflecting on how cultures influence ways of thinking about or acting in social, physical and temporal environments, for example, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander relationships with place, language and culture; the concept of non-linear time expressed in Hindi, as in कल – ‘yesterday/tomorrow’; परसों – ‘day before yesterday/day after tomorrow’; the concepts of अहिंसा and कर्म
  • identifying expressions used in news reports or sports commentaries that reflect traditional beliefs and include cultural allusions, such as references to gods and legendary heroes, for example, अगर इंद्रदेव मेहरबान हुए तो भारत बिना मैच खेले पहुँचेगा फाइनल में
  • finding examples of language and behaviours associated with Indian culture that are part of everyday life in Australia and around the world, for example, words and expressions associated with religion, yoga, dance, Bollywood, food, sport

Years 7 and 8 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 8, students interact with the teacher and peers to exchange information and opinions about their personal worlds, for example, मेरे परिवार के अधिकतर सदस्य ऑस्ट्रेलिया में रहते हैं लेकिन कुछ सदस्य भारत में भी रहते हैं। मुझे क्रिकेट खेलना अच्छा लगता है क्योंकि...... They exchange greetings and wishes, for example, दीपावली की हार्दिक शुभकामनाएँ, ईद मुबारक , परीक्षा में सफल होने के लिए बधाई and use descriptive and expressive language to share feelings, for example,उँगली पर नचाना, नाक में दम करना,मेरी चाचीजी मुझसे बहुत प्यार करती हैं ,मैं उनकी आँखों का तारा हूँ । हरे भरे खेत हवा के झोंकों के संग लहलहा रहे थे। पेड़ों के पत्तो में से सूरज की किरणें छन छन कर आ रही थीं। अपने घर में कुत्ता भी शेर होता है. Students use action-related and rehearsed language to engage in shared activities that involve planning, collaborating, making arrangements, transacting and negotiating, for example, इसके लिए संगीत की व्यवस्था कौन करेगा? किन चित्रों का उपयोग होगा इसका निर्णय हम कैसे करेंगे? यदि तुम तबला बजाओगे तो मैं गाऊँगी. They interact in classroom routines and exchanges by following instructions, asking and responding to questions, for example, आज २० जून है, आज सोमवार है, आज बहुत सर्दी है, requesting permission or clarification, for example, नहीं, मुझे समझ नहीं आया, कृपया फिर से दोहराइए l यह बहुत कठिन है । इसमें मुझे क्या करना है? इस प्रश्न का उत्तर क्या है? कृपया, यह फिर से समझाइये and responding to praise or criticism, for example, बहुत बढ़िया!. बुरा नहीं है। ठीकठाक! Students apply features of pronunciation and rhythm in spoken Hindi to a range of sentence types. They locate key points of information from a range of spoken, written and visual texts and communicate information and ideas related to personal, social and natural worlds using different modes of presentation. They share their responses to different imaginative texts by identifying and comparing favourite elements and discussing, characters, themes, effects and structure. Students use imaginative language to create original creative texts in different genres. They use key grammatical forms and structures in spoken and written texts, such as basic rules of word order, pronouns, for example, मैं, हम, तुम, ये, मैं, मेरा, तुम्हारा। यहाँ- वहाँ , यह-वह, postpositions, and gender and number agreement, for example, लड़का गाता है । लड़की गाती है। लड़के गातें हैं. Students compose simple statements and questions based on models such as तुम मेरे साथ चलो। तुम कैसे हो? They translate and interpret short texts from Hindi into English and vice versa, identifying words and expressions that do not readily translate, such as दूर के ढोल सुहावने, पेट में चूहे दौड़ रहे हैं. They create shared bilingual texts for the classroom, school and wider community. They identify differences and similarities in the way they interact in Hindi and English and describe the relationship between identity and cultural experience.

Students make connections between spoken and written Hindi and identify and apply the conventions of the Devanagari script, including elements such as the writing of conjunct characters, for example, क्ष, त्र, ज्ञ, consonant combinations, for example, क+इ = कि , क+ई=की and matras, for example, कु , कू . They identify the structure and textual and grammatical features of different personal, informative, persuasive and imaginative texts. They identify ways in which spoken and written Hindi vary according to context and situation. Students give examples of how Hindi has changed over time due to different influences and interactions and how it has in turn influenced other languages. They identify the diversity of language practices in multicultural communities and describe how languages reflect values, belief systems and perspectives.