Sequences of learning

To reflect current custom, practice and the needs of learners in Australian schools, the Framework has been developed for Years 7–10.

Strands, sub-strands and threads

The following interrelated strands are derived from the aims, and describe different facets of learning the language, and understanding and reflecting on these processes:

  • Engaging with texts: engaging with the language, culture and history of the Classical world through the interpretation, analysis and translation of (language) texts
  • Understanding: analysing Classical language and culture as resources for understanding meaning and interpreting the ancient and modern worlds.

A set of sub-strands has been identified within each strand; the sub-strands reflect dimensions of language learning, through which the content is organised. The strands and sub-strands do not operate in isolation but are integrated in relation to language use for different purposes in different contexts.

The sub-strands are further differentiated according to a set of ‘threads’ that support the internal organisation of content in each sub-strand. These threads are designed to capture, firstly, a range and variety in the scope of learning and, secondly, a means of expressing progression of content across the learning sequence.

Table 1 identifies the strands, sub-strands and threads.

Table 1: Framework for Classical Languages strands, sub-strands and threads

Engaging with texts:
Engaging with the language, culture and history of the Classical world through the interpretation, analysis and translation of (language) texts
1.1 Accessing the ancient world through (language) texts Engaging with people and ideas in the ancient world through texts that reveal language use and social and cultural practices Engaging with people and ideas in the ancient world, by reading, analysing and interpreting (language) texts
Conveying information and ideas about ancient society and culture
1.2 Responding to texts Engaging with and responding to (language) texts as literature Responding to (language) texts as literature
Responding to (language) texts through reading aloud, reciting or performing
1.3 Translating Translating (language) texts into English, comparing different interpretations of the same text and explaining these to others Translating and explaining (language) texts
Comparing and evaluating translations
Analysing Classical language and culture as resources for understanding meaning and interpreting the ancient and modern worlds
2.1 Systems of language Understanding the language system, including sound, writing, grammar, vocabulary and text structure Sound and writing systems
Grammatical system
Vocabulary acquisition and building
Text structure and organisation
2.2 The powerful influence of language and culture Understanding how languages vary in use (register, style, standard and non-standard varieties) and change over time and place. (Language) in the ancient world and its linguistic legacy
Cultural legacy of the ancient world in the modern world
2.3 The role of language and culture Understanding the relationship between language and culture Relationship between language and culture
2.4 Reflecting Questioning reactions and assumptions in response to engaging with the Classical world, and considering how this affects own identity and world view Reactions to engaging with the ancient world
Identity as language learner

Concepts, processes, texts and text types


Concepts are the ‘big ideas’ that students work with in engaging with Classical languages. The choice of the word ‘concept’ rather than ‘topic’ is deliberate: it marks a shift from description to conceptualisation. The curriculum should invite students not only to describe facts or features of phenomena, situations and events, but also to consider how facts and features relate to concepts or principles. For example, a description of a house can lead to a consideration of the concept of ‘home’ or ‘space’. This shift is necessary because it is concepts that lend themselves most fruitfully to intercultural comparison and engage learners in personal reflection and more substantive learning.

Key concepts for Classical languages include:

  • language
  • culture
  • experience
  • representation (words, icons, symbols)
  • equivalence
  • nation (origins, social order, politics, religion)
  • citizenship
  • relationship (family, community, government)
  • history and historical appreciation
  • attitude, value and belief
  • power
  • aesthetics
  • time (the past in the present)
  • modernity
  • tradition
  • linguistic evolution
  • interconnection across concepts
  • intercultural comparisons.

Further examples of concepts for languages can be found in the Australian Curriculum: Languages Foundation to Year 10 Curriculum Design.


Processes include skills (reading, listening, writing) as well as higher-order thinking processes, such as translating, interpreting, obtaining, presenting, informing, conceptualising, analysing, reasoning, connecting, explaining and comparing, evaluating, simplifying, rephrasing, intertextualising, decentring, empathising, mediating and reflecting.

Texts and text types

Texts are central to curriculum development, as all work in language learning can be seen as textual work. The selection of texts for Classical languages is important because they define and reflect the linguistic and cultural identity of the ancient world. Classical languages texts may be synthetic, modified or authentic; they may be in oral, written, digital or multimodal form. Text types for Classical languages include narratives, stories, texts in the public domain, speeches, rhetoric, poetry, plays/drama, written translation, oral interpretation, discussion and explanation.