Framework for Classical Languages

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Nature and purpose of the Framework

Classical languages are distinct within the languages learning area of the Australian Curriculum. While they have ceased to be languages of everyday communication, Classical languages provide a key to the literature, history, thought and culture of the ancient worlds and societies that produced them.

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Rationale

The study of Classical languages allows students to enter and explore ancient worlds that have shaped contemporary life and societies. Authentic engagement with seminal works of great literature and antiquities gives direct access to ancient ways of living in and viewing the world, and an appreciation of the languages, cultures, literatures and traditions that are derived from those of ancient societies.

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Aims

The Australian Curriculum: Framework for Classical Languages aims to develop the knowledge, understanding and skills to ensure students:

engage with the language, history and culture of the Classical world through interaction with texts

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Structure

Sequences of learning
To reflect current custom, practice and the needs of learners in Australian schools, the Framework has been developed for Years 7–10.
Strands, sub-strands and threads
The following interrelated strands are derived from the aims, and describe different facets of learning the language, and understanding and reflecting on these processes:

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Using the Framework to develop language-specific curricula or programs for Classical languages

It is intended that the Framework will be used by state and territory jurisdictions to develop language-specific curricula, or by schools and communities to develop teaching and learning programs for Classical languages other than Latin and Classical Greek.

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PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Languages – Classical are available as PDF documents.
Framework of Classical Languages - Classical glossary

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Glossary

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The place of Latin and the heritage of the ancient Roman world

Latin developed from a local dialect of central Italy to become the official language of ancient Rome, transmitting Roman law, government, literature and social and cultural knowledge and values throughout much of Europe, North Africa and West Asia during the period 753 BCE – 476 CE. The period for study is 1st century BCE to 1st century CE, when some of the most influential Latin literature extant was written.

As the institutions of the Roman empire fell into disarray in the 5th century CE, churches and monasteries became centres of education and scholarship, preserving and recopying manuscripts of Latin literary works. Latin was the language of literate Europeans throughout the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, and continued to be used in academic contexts up to the 20th century. It was the vehicle for literary, liturgical, legal, political, philosophical and scientific texts, many of lasting historical and aesthetic value. Latin continued as the language of Western Christianity, and remains so today for the official business of the Roman Catholic Church and the Vatican City State.

The enduring achievements and rich legacy of the ancient Roman world are still evident in today’s world, in modern values, customs and beliefs, our laws and the form of our governments, our buildings and our art and literature. Readers of Latin have firsthand access to the great Classical writers who have shaped later world literature, such as Catullus, Lucretius, Cicero, Virgil, Horace, Livy, Tacitus and Juvenal (1st century BCE to 1st century CE). Readers can also access early Christian writers such as Augustine and documents such as Magna Carta (1215), and the works of mediaeval philosophers such as Thomas Aquinas, Renaissance statesmen such as Thomas More (Utopia 1516) and scientific pioneers such as Isaac Newton (Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 1687). The work of the Swedish scientist Carolus Linnaeus (Systema Naturae 1735) ensured that Latin remains the language of the classification of species in botany and zoology.

Although English is a Germanic language and not a descendant of Latin, the influence of Latin on the vocabulary of English is enormous. The greatest influence has been the adoption of countless literary, legal, political and scientific words from Latin to enable scholarly discourse to take place in English. Students of Latin increase their knowledge of English vocabulary beyond basic usage to include abstract and sophisticated language, for example, judicial. In addition, many Latin terms remain unchanged in English, such as de facto, bona fide, post-mortem, alter ego, veto. Abbreviations of Latin expressions occur in common and specialised usage, such as etc., a.m, i.e., ad lib.

From the 14th century on, the various dialects of popular or ‘Vulgar’ Latin became recognised as distinct languages with literatures of their own: Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese and Romanian. All these living variants of Latin are spoken today, not only in their countries of origin, but as a result of European colonisation, in many parts of the world, as confirmed by the term ‘Latin America’. A knowledge of Latin facilitates the learning of any of these languages.

Although social and educational changes caused a reduction in the numbers of students of Latin in the 20th century, Latin continues to flourish. In the 21st century there has been a steady worldwide resurgence, particularly in the United Kingdom, Europe, North America and Australia.

The place of the Latin language in Australian education

Latin has featured in Australian education since the early 1800s, and was a prerequisite for university entrance in Australia until the 1950s. Educational changes in Australia in the 1950s and 1960s, such as the introduction of comprehensive secondary curricula, contributed to the removal of languages, including Latin, from a central position in the school curriculum.

By the early 1970s, it seemed that Latin would disappear from Australian schools, and it largely did, remaining viable mainly in New South Wales and Victoria, with independent schools offering Latin in other states. That Latin survived, grew and flourished in New South Wales and Victoria, with increasing growth in Queensland, is due in part to significant new directions in pedagogy. The traditional emphasis on composing Latin was replaced by the reading method, in which students acquire the language by reading continuous, historically accurate texts in Latin, carefully structured so as to introduce the language and its literary features progressively within an engaging historical and cultural context. The pedagogy was designed to offer an enriching experience to a wide range of learners; the study of Latin offered them an ongoing opportunity for the development of deep knowledge and transferable skills, including literacy and critical thinking. This method proved popular and effective for modern learners.

In some states, such as New South Wales and Victoria, active teacher associations provide stimulating activities for students of Latin, such as competitions in Latin recitation and essay writing; artistic interpretations of the Classical period; Latin quiz nights; Classical drama productions; and Latin study seminars, summer schools and weekend camps.

Latin has a long tradition in Australian universities, and Australian graduates have distinguished themselves in Classical scholarship in this country and overseas. The allied disciplines of archaeology, ancient history and philosophy often require reading skills in Latin. Latin terminology is widely used in such disciplines as science, horticulture, law and medicine.

The nature of learning Latin

Latin is a highly inflected language, with three distinct genders, as well as noun cases and verb conjugations, tenses, moods and voices. The modern English alphabet is essentially the same as the Roman alphabet.

Students learn Latin systematically within an authentic historical, social and cultural context. They engage with the ambience, history, society and values of ancient Rome as they read, and are encouraged to relate their discoveries to life in the modern world.

As they learn Latin, students make connections with English and other languages. They expand their English vocabulary by exploring words derived from Latin, and examine the complex inflections of Latin, making comparisons with how meaning is conveyed in English. Students’ growing awareness of grammar equips them to understand the workings of other languages they may already know or wish to learn.

From synthetic reading material, students may progress to authentic Latin texts, encountering selections from famous works of poetry and prose which have influenced Western literature and thought for two millennia. Students are encouraged to discuss the ideas and values embedded in texts and to convey their meaning and tone in English. They analyse how language and style are used to convey the author’s purpose. As Latin literature was composed to be delivered orally, students learn to read aloud, using the restored Classical pronunciation, and are encouraged to listen to oral performances so as to appreciate the impact of these works on their intended audiences.

The learning pathway and curriculum design

In the Australian Curriculum: Languages – Latin, the learning pathway for students is Years 7–10.

A key dimension of the curriculum involves understanding the cultural dimension that shapes and is shaped by the language. The curriculum is designed with an intercultural language learning orientation to enable students to enter and explore an ancient world; to engage with an ancient people’s ways of living and viewing the world; to consider how an ancient civilisation influences life and thought in the modern world; and to reflect on what is special and valuable about their own language and culture.

Years 9 and 10

Years 9 and 10 Band Description

The nature of the learners

Students have prior experience of learning Latin and bring a range of capabilities, strategies and knowledge that can be applied to new learning. They are expanding the range and nature of their learning experiences; from synthetic or modified reading material, they may progress to some authentic Latin texts, encountering selections from famous works of poetry or prose. Through their reading, analysis and translation of texts, students of Latin further develop their literacy in English, through close attention to detail, precision, accuracy, memory, logic and critical reasoning. They have a growing awareness of the wider world, including the diversity of languages and cultures that have continued to be an integral feature of society since ancient times. They are considering future pathways and prospects, including how further study of Latin may feature in these.

Latin language learning and use

Learners gain direct access to life in the Roman world through reading, analysing and interpreting Latin texts that reveal the language use and social and cultural practices of the Romans. They use vocabulary, grammar and textual cues to analyse and interpret language use and cultural references in Latin texts, and convey their interpretations of information and ideas about Roman society and culture, in oral, written or digital forms, using Latin as appropriate. They respond to Latin texts by analysing themes, values and literary features, such as plot development and characterisation, and sharing and justifying opinions. They read aloud, recite or perform Latin texts, such as oratory, history, drama or poetry, to entertain an audience, using phrasing, voice inflection and metrical effects to convey meaning and emotion. They translate a range of Latin texts that incorporate complex sentence structures and extensive vocabulary into Standard English, reproducing the style and purpose of the texts. They evaluate the effectiveness of different English translations and interpretations of a text, and develop strategies for successful translations. Learners apply the principles of pronunciation for the reading of Latin texts, and apply an extended knowledge of vocabulary, accidence and syntax to analysing how Latin is used in complex sentences. They analyse the structure and organisation of different text types in Latin, exploring how they relate to context, purpose and audience. Learners identify Roman values, attitudes and beliefs implicit in Latin texts, reflecting respectfully on the interdependence of language and culture. They investigate the enduring linguistic and cultural legacy of the Roman world in the modern world. They question and explain their own and others’ reactions to and assumptions about the language, culture and values of Roman society, discussing how these relate to their own. They reflect on the power of language, and the impact of learning Latin on their own style of communicating, and ways of thinking and viewing the world.

Contexts of interaction

Task characteristics and literary styles at this level are complex and challenging, providing opportunities for independent as well as collaborative language interpretation and performance, and development and strategic use of language and cultural resources. The language class remains the principal context for learning Latin. Learners may participate in wider experiences relating to language and culture, such as competitions in recitation, art and essay writing; weekend camps; quiz nights; study seminars; summer schools; drama productions; and visits to museums and galleries. These experiences give learners a sense of connectedness and purpose, and allow them to make use of and extend their understanding of the Roman world and their language capability beyond the school context.

Texts and resources

Learners engage with a range of texts designed for language learning, such as textbooks, audio recordings, teacher-generated materials and online resources. A variety of texts gives opportunities for discussion and analysis of the relationship between language and culture. Research tasks allow for exploration of themes, cultural references and historical events.

Features of Latin language use

Learners apply the principles of pronunciation for the reading of Latin texts, for example, stressing the correct syllables, or acknowledging elision in poetry. They apply an extended knowledge of accidence and syntax, including subordinate clauses, finite and non-finite verb forms, pronoun forms, indicative and imperative moods, and active and passive voices, to the analysis and translation of texts that incorporate complex sentence structures. They analyse texts more critically, identifying the structure and features of different text types, and explaining their relationship with context, purpose and audience. They recognise the ongoing influence of Latin on English, through the transfer of specialist vocabulary and abstract concepts, for example, alibi or gravitas, and the coining of vocabulary for new technology and new discoveries, such as in science and medicine, for example, the terraforming of Mars. They analyse implicit values, concepts and assumptions embedded in texts, explaining the interrelationship between language and culture.

Level of support

This stage of learning involves consolidation and progression. Learners need opportunities for new challenges and more independent learning experiences. Continued scaffolding, modelling and monitoring are required to support these challenges. A range of resources is provided and processes are modelled for the development of more autonomous self-monitoring and reflecting strategies, such as online collaborating for translation, video documenting and discussion forums. Continued focused attention on grammatical and literary features supports learners in the reading, analysis and translation of texts.

The role of English

Latin is the language of texts studied, such as narratives, drama, poetry, history or oratory. Latin is also used for reading aloud, reciting or performing texts. English is used for translation, analysis, explanation, discussion, evaluation and reflection.


Years 9 and 10 Content Descriptions

Accessing the Roman world through Latin texts

Read, analyse and interpret Latin texts, using vocabulary, grammar and textual cues, to engage with the Roman world

[Key concepts: language, culture, meaning, experience; Key processes: reading, analysing, connecting] (ACLCLE046 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • predicting the context and content of Latin texts through initial holistic reading, by identifying key words and phrases, for example, Romani Carthaginienses valde timebant
  • inferring the meaning of new words, using knowledge of the text type and the author’s purpose and technique, for example, res, gero, rem gerere
  • investigating and explaining the effect of word order in Latin in producing emphasis and tone, such as indignation, anger, suspense, for example, qualis vir? conclamant omnes; miser Catulle
  • examining and interpreting complex sentence structures, such as conditional sentences, indirect speech and subordinate clauses, for example, adjectival, causal, purpose or result clauses, indirect questions or commands
  • reflecting on the precise use of tenses in Latin and making comparisons with English, for example, cotidie ibat; si veneris
  • explaining how the coherence of complex texts relies on devices that signal text structure and guide readers, for example, paulisper … dum … interea …; primo … deinde … tandem; non solum … verum etiam
  • investigating how different conjunctions are used in complex sentences to extend, elaborate and explain ideas, for example, in periodic sentences using quod, quamquam, cum
  • explaining allusions to historical or mythological characters which exemplify Roman values and attitudes, such as Romulus and Remus, Lucretia, Horatius, Cloelia
  • discussing conventions of Latin texts, such as letter format, for example, Marcus Quinto SPD … cura ut valeas, or metre in poetry, for example, acknowledging quantities
  • recognising positive and negative cultural connotations of concepts implicit in Latin vocabulary, for example, rex, imperium
  • analysing cultural values and attitudes embedded in language use, for example, vocabulary and expressions particular to festivals and ceremonies such as Io triumphe; ave Caesar
  • discussing the function and power of cultural representations such as symbols, for example, SPQR, aquila, fasces
  • justifying interpretations of texts, using examples or quotations from or references to the text, such as line numbers or a paraphrase of a longer section of text
  • constructing, editing and presenting interpretations of and responses to literary Latin, using ICT collaboratively
Convey interpretations of information and ideas about Roman society and culture, in oral, written and digital forms, using Latin as appropriate

[Key concepts: information, culture; Key processes: interpreting, explaining, presenting] (ACLCLE047 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • examining how cultural attitudes are conveyed in Latin texts, such as attitudes to slaves or women, cleanliness, food, Romanisation, for example, by conducting a role-play, a forum on salient issues, a ‘Q & A’ session regarding the appropriateness of giving farming advice in verse
  • investigating legal rights and obligations, such as citizenship, social classes, property rights, divorce, for example, building a digital representation of social strata through a pyramid
  • researching Roman urban planning and architecture through the study of an archaeological site, and presenting findings, for example, by creating a virtual tour of the Colosseum, with written or oral text in English or incorporating Latin terms as appropriate, such as harena, vomitoria
  • examining Roman architectural remains by electronic means, such as places of entertainment and worship, and exploring what they reveal about the values and attitudes of Romans
  • gathering and collating information about Roman art, including sculpture, jewellery and painting, for example, producing an online exhibition catalogue
  • researching references in Latin texts to foreign religions, for example, Mithraism, Isis worship and Christianity, and the extent of their influence in Rome
  • examining Latin inscriptions, curses or graffiti to elicit information about Roman society, for example, defixiones from Bath, graffiti at the Colosseum or in Pompeii, and creating own examples in English or Latin

Responding to texts

Respond to Latin texts by analysing themes, values and literary features, such as plot development and characterisation, and sharing and justifying opinions

[Key concepts: morality, characterisation, theme; Key processes: responding, analysing, discussing, explaining] (ACLCLE048 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • reading Latin texts and responding to questions in English to demonstrate understanding of content, context, purpose and technique
  • exploring how language is used to reveal character, values and key messages in texts such as narratives, dialogues, plays, poems and letters, for example, Cena Trimalchionis; odi et amo
  • discussing epic plots and characters, such as the Aeneid, for example, debating significant events and the author’s purpose
  • analysing plot development in texts such as plays and stories, discussing literary features, for example, use of comic episode, plot twist, climax, resolution
  • interpreting how particular stylistic effects are created, such as emphasis, doubt, irony or supposition, for example, sine dubio, satis constat, ut mihi videtur
  • analysing how writers use language features to achieve particular aesthetic, humorous or persuasive purposes and effects, for example, diminutives such as puellula or homuncule
  • evaluating the effectiveness of texts, by considering the use of stylistic features, for example, simile, metaphor, personification or pathos, for particular purposes, such as to entertain or persuade
Read aloud, recite or perform Latin texts to entertain others, using strategies such as phrasing, voice inflection and metrical effects to convey meaning and emotion

[Key concepts: performance, expression, emotion; Key processes: reading, presenting] (ACLCLE049 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • reading aloud, as Romans were accustomed to do, extracts from different genres of Latin literature, such as oratory, history, drama or poetry, with appropriate expression, phrasing, stress, rhythm and tone to convey meaning, for example, selections from the epigrams of Martial, or the letters of Pliny
  • reciting or presenting extracts from Latin texts to the class or school community, using expression and movement to illustrate meaning and to entertain, for example, part of one of Cicero’s speeches or excerpts from Virgil’s Aeneid
  • performing in theatrical presentations of Latin poetry or plays, such as the poetry of Ovid or Virgil, extracts from the plays of Plautus

Translating

Translate a range of texts that incorporate complex sentence structures and extensive vocabulary from Latin into Standard English, representing the style and purpose of the texts

[Key concepts: equivalence, meaning; Key processes: analysing, translating] (ACLCLE050 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • reading holistically to deduce the context and content of Latin texts, by identifying key words and phrases
  • applying expanded knowledge of vocabulary, grammar and problem-solving skills to translate compound sentences and complex sentences with nested clauses
  • conveying shades of meaning of a range of subtle vocabulary, for example, inferring the different connotations of a word in a particular context, such as virtus; causa; gero; ago
  • inferring the meaning of words and expressions, using knowledge of the text type and the author’s purpose and style, for example, res publica; rem gerere; se gerere
  • deducing the meaning of new words by drawing on prior knowledge, derivatives and connections with familiar words, for example, actores in scaena fabulam Graecam hilare agebant; dormire, obdormire; ferre, inferre, offerre
  • expanding the variety of English translations for verb tenses, for example, to express indignation, clamavit as ‘she did shout’, compared to ‘she shouted’ or ‘she has shouted’
  • recreating mood, tone and dramatic impact in English translations by selecting appropriate vocabulary, comparing and contrasting potential choices, for example, o tempora! o mores!
  • refining translations by exploring print and online Latin and English dictionaries and thesauruses to consider a variety of meanings, for example, manus, and synonyms, for example, contentus, felix, laetus
  • conveying emphasis and tone, such as indignation, anger, suspense, embedded in Latin word order, for example, effugere conati sunt, sed frustra
  • rendering the precise meaning of tenses in Latin into idiomatic English, for example, cotidie ibat; si veneris
  • expressing the meaning of idiomatic expressions and culturally specific terms by choosing appropriate English expressions and terms, for example, flocci non facio (I could care less); orationem habere (deliver a speech)
  • constructing and editing translations collaboratively with peers, using a range of ICT
  • improving own translations to increase accuracy and better reflect register, tone and characterisation
  • translating, independently or in collaboration with peers, unseen texts with compound or complex sentences, drawing on familiarity with the style and language of texts already studied
Evaluate different translations and interpretations of Latin texts, using metalanguage to discuss their effectiveness, and develop strategies for successful translations

[Key concepts: translation; Key processes: evaluating, explaining and comparing, intertextualising] (ACLCLE051 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • evaluating the effectiveness of translations, using criteria such as selection of appropriate vocabulary, grammatical accuracy, fluency, conciseness, clarity, idiomatic expression
  • discussing how closely and effectively translations convey the author’s meaning and intent
  • critically analysing the merits of different translations of the same text, presenting and justifying opinions, and recognising skills of others
  • discussing strategies used to convey complex ideas and structures, such as the use of correlatives and subordinate clauses, the rendering of mood
  • evaluating strategies used to create fluent, accurate and idiomatic translations
  • applying identified strategies to the translation of seen and unseen texts

Systems of language

Understand and apply the principles of pronunciation for the reading of Latin texts

[Key concepts: sound system, fluency; Key processes: reading, applying] (ACLCLU052 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • isolating syllables and learning the rules for correctly marking the stress, for example, spec-tá-tor, compared with péc-tor-a
  • distinguishing the change of stress required with an enclitic, for example, éstis compared with estísne; cíbus compared with cibúsque
  • distinguishing between the primary and secondary stress in polysyllabic words, for example, spèctatóribus
  • understanding the significance of elision when reading verse aloud, for example, od(i) et amo
Understand concepts of accidence and syntax used in complex Latin sentences, including subordinate clauses, non-finite verb forms, pronoun forms, mood, voice, and conventions of complex sentence structure

[Key concepts: grammatical system, case, conjugation, mood, voice; Key processes: identifying, explaining] (ACLCLU053 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • identifying the endings of fourth and fifth declension nouns, for example, exercitus, cornua; dies, fides
  • acknowledging that nouns may have unexpected genders, for example, first declension agricola (m), second declension pirus (f)
  • recognising relative, emphatic and indefinite pronouns, for example, qui, quae, quod; ipse; quisquis; quidam
  • recognising reflexive pronouns and adjectives, for example, se; suus
  • analysing case usage of nouns in all five declensions, for example, partitive genitive quid novi?
  • identifying and understanding the use of the locative case, for example, Romae, Pompeiis
  • identifying and understanding words used in apposition in all cases, for example, Venus, dea, est pulchra
  • explaining case usage of pronouns, for example, personal ego, tu, nos, vos; demonstrative hic, ille; interrogative quis, quis, quid; relative qui, quae, quod; emphatic ipse, ipsa, ipsum; reflexive me, te, nos, vos, se
  • distinguishing the use of different moods
  • extending identification of indicative endings of regular and irregular verbs to different tenses
  • understanding the concept of the principal parts for verbs in all conjugations, for example, voco, vocare, vocavi, vocatum; sum, esse, fui
  • identifying and understanding the use of infinitives for all four conjugations and irregular verbs, for example, a prolative infinitive with amat, such as natare amat
  • recognising impersonal expressions, for example, mihi difficile est dormire
  • understanding the use of present, future and perfect participles, for example, clamans, moriturus, vocatus
  • recognising passive voice forms and the forms of deponent verbs and distinguishing their meanings, for example, laudata est – she has been praised; collapsa est – she collapsed
  • distinguishing in complex sentences between principal and subordinate clauses, for example, relative, causal, temporal, concessive, conditional, such as si/nisi with the indicative
  • recognising comparison of adjectives and adverbs, regular and irregular, for example, stulta, stultior, stultissima; malus, peior, pessimus
  • recognising quam + superlative, for example, quam celerrime
  • understanding conventions of the use of numbers to express distance, capacity, time and price, for example, duo milia passuum, quinquaginta denariis
  • understanding the conventions of the Roman calendar, for example, a.d. XIV Kal Jul
  • recognising creative variations in Latin word order, for example, delay of a key word or clause to create suspense, ordering of clauses to increase impact, bracketing/nesting, juxtaposition
Expand vocabulary by using a range of strategies, including knowledge of roots, cognates and derivatives, and use dictionaries to determine the meaning of unfamiliar vocabulary in specific contexts

[Key concepts: vocabulary, connections; Key processes: analysing, interpreting, applying] (ACLCLU054 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • developing vocabulary lists pertinent to particular reading, for example, military words, philosophical words, poetic words
  • using a dictionary to investigate how vocabulary choices in Latin and English can express shades of meaning
  • extrapolating knowledge of word origins and roots to interpret unfamiliar vocabulary, for example, aedificium: aedifico; rex, regis: regulus
  • extending vocabulary through word-building from Latin roots, for example, caelum + colo: caelicolae, and from derivatives, for example, celestial
  • building vocabulary by recognising English words derived from supines, for example, ‘mission’ from missum
  • identifying and interpreting compound words, for example, ‘prefect’ from prae + factum
  • recognising common patterns of vowel change to identify words from the same root, for example, capere: -cip (recipere)
  • expanding vocabulary by using connections between conceptually related words, for example, pius, impius, pietas
Analyse the structure and features of different text types in Latin, exploring how they relate to context, purpose and audience

[Key concepts: text organisation, genre; Key processes: analysing, explaining and comparing, intertextualising] (ACLCLU055 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • examining textual features used to influence an audience, such as the contrast of short and periodic sentences to persuade, or the use of repetition and humour to entertain
  • making connections and comparisons between a new text and familiar texts of the same type
  • analysing different texts, such as a story, historical account or speech, to understand how a version of an event can be expressed in different ways
  • recognising different ways of presenting the same story, for example, from the viewpoint of different characters or in the form of a flashback
  • analysing language features used to influence the intended audience, such as imagery or rhetorical devices

The powerful influence of language and culture

Understand that Latin became the official language of the Roman empire and facilitated the spread of Roman civilisation and culture, and that Latin continues to enrich English through specialist vocabulary and abstract concepts embodied in the language

[Key concepts: linguistic evolution, power, ancient/modern, influence; Key processes: analysing, conceptualising, explaining and comparing] (ACLCLU056 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • recognising that, as the Roman world expanded, Latin became the language of communication, trade, administration, education and law throughout its sphere of influence
  • exploring the role of Latin in the process of Romanisation, and its influence on local languages
  • discussing the impact on people and their lives in Roman provinces, with Latin as the common language, and Roman infrastructure such as aqueducts, sewers, roads and shipping, safe trade routes, standardised currency and weights and measures
  • recognising the spread of ancient Greek ideas through Latin, such as the use of Greek vocabulary and concepts in literature and philosophy, for example, stadium, rhetor, theatrum, poeta, stoica, philosophia
  • exploring abstract concepts derived from Latin, such as justice, liberty, republic, fraternity, charity, genius, piety
  • recognising terms in English that are hybrids of Classical Greek and Latin, for example, metalanguage, quantum physics, teleconference
  • discussing Latin words and expressions that are used in fields such as law, business and education, for example, de facto, non sequitur, agenda, forum, curriculum
  • examining the Latin roots of English words in subjects across the school curriculum, for example, technical vocabulary related to reporting research, such as ibid and stet
  • identifying Latin roots in English scientific, technical and medical terminology, for example, genus, species; computer, data, accumulator, super conductor, cellular differentiation, quantum teleportation; cancer, cannula, defibrillator, incision, amputation
  • exploring how Latin is used to coin terms for new technology and new discoveries in science and medicine in the modern world, such as internet, Trojan (horse), forum, virus
  • applying knowledge of Latin to form and explain plurals of English words borrowed from Latin, for example, indices, media, vertebrae, curricula, alumni
  • exploring mottoes and inscriptions, such as per ardua ad astra or mens sana in corpore sano, and discussing their relevance in the modern world
  • investigating the enduring nature and use of Latin in academic and religious ceremonies, for example, summa cum laude, honoris causa, gaudeamus igitur or pater noster
Discuss how the Roman world has influenced modern society, culture and political structures, such as literature, art, medical and scientific practices, government and infrastructure

[Key concepts: ancient/modern, aesthetics, time (the past in the present); Key processes: analysing, connecting, conceptualising] (ACLCLU057 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • exploring the ancient origins of modern political and legal structures and concepts, such as republic, balance of power, jurisprudence and judicial precedent, census and elections
  • investigating modern social issues, such as class, the role of women and civil rights, and making comparisons with the Classical period
  • discussing influences of Latin literature on modern novels, poetry, drama and film, such as Book IV of the Aeneid on Miss Saigon, Ovid on David Malouf’s An Imaginary Life, Virgil on Ursula Le Guin’s Lavinia
  • recognising the transmission of literary genres, such as epic, satire, love poetry, epigram, ode
  • investigating famous artists’ incorporation of classical themes and subjects in postclassical sculpture, painting, music, opera, theatre
  • investigating ancient practices in medicine and science still relevant in the modern world, such as Galen’s surgical procedures and Pliny the Elder’s classification of animals and plants

Role of language and culture

Identify how cultural values, attitudes and beliefs of the Romans are embedded in their language

[Key concepts: language, culture, interdependence, attitude, value and belief; Key processes: analysing, conceptualising, explaining and comparing] (ACLCLU058 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • discussing Roman values that are embedded in language, such as pietas, virtus, hospitium, fides
  • understanding how language and cultural practices are interconnected, for example, by explaining religious origins or connotations associated with words and expressions such as the polite command in the English RIP (‘rest in peace’) and the use of the more prayerful subjunctive in the Latin requiescat in pace
  • investigating the importance of Latin to personal status in the Roman world, as a means to social, economic and political advancement
  • examining language that reveals information about Roman government and administration, such as res publica, senatus, comitia, consul, dictator, princeps, census, and references in texts to public service, justice and the court system
  • discussing language that reveals the importance of public spaces and buildings in ancient Rome, for example, forum, temples, theatres
  • explaining references in texts to amphitheatres, gladiatorial combat, Circus Maximus, ‘bread and circuses’ and understanding the important place of entertainment in the Roman world
  • explaining the importance of religion to the Romans, with reference to concepts such as Lares et Penates, household genius, the worship of local gods at shrines, vestal virgins, cult of the Emperor
  • researching and discussing political and cultural influences in and on the works of leading writers, such as Cicero, Horace, Virgil, Livy, for example, mos maiorum; pax Romana
  • exploring the formal language that Romans used for greetings, or responding to the challenges of public life, such as ave, plurimas gratias, di immortales, and making comparisons with own language use in formal contexts
  • reflecting on how language, texts and artefacts provide a means of understanding the social and cultural practices of the Romans and how they conceptualised their world

Reflecting

Question and explain own and others’ reactions to and assumptions about the language, culture and values of Roman society, discussing how these relate to own language and culture

[Key concepts: attitude, value and belief; identity; Key processes: reflecting, decentring, empathising, mediating, explaining] (ACLCLU059 - Scootle )

  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • investigating the extent to which values, attitudes and practices of people of cosmopolitan Rome are similar to or different from their own
  • exploring how cultural identity was manifested in the ancient world, and making comparisons with own cultural identity in modern Australia
  • exploring the identity of people living in the Roman world and relating this to their own identity as a member of a local community, a state/territory/nation and as a global citizen
  • describing own public and private lives and making comparisons with those of people in ancient Rome
  • considering how cultural diversity has continued to be an integral feature of society since ancient times
  • exploring the process of decentring from own linguistic and cultural standpoint and considering how own ways of behaving and communicating might be perceived by people of the past
Reflect on self as a language learner, explaining how the study of Latin influences own style of communicating, ways of thinking and viewing the world

[Key concepts: identity, interconnection across concepts, influence; Key processes: connecting, reflecting, explaining] (ACLCLU060 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • exploring own sense of identity, challenging own and others’ assumptions about family and civic responsibilities, traditions, values and attitudes
  • drawing on knowledge of ancient society to examine and interpret own world, including aspects such as ancestry, values, traditions, social status, family and national pride
  • reflecting, such as in discussions, blogs and journals, on experiences in the course of learning Latin and their impact on perceptions of own cultural experience and ways of communicating
  • identifying challenges and achievements associated with learning Latin, for example, learning to ‘read between the lines’ to identify thought implicit in the use of language
  • reinterpreting own experience of learning Latin, listening to others’ perspectives and comparing these with own experience
  • discussing how learning Latin impacts on own ways of thinking and viewing the world

Years 9 and 10 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 10, students analyse a range of Latin texts to obtain information and ideas about Roman society and culture. They use vocabulary, grammar and textual cues to analyse and interpret language use and cultural references in Latin texts, such as poetry, letters or narratives, for example, by deducing the meaning of complex sentence structures, such as those with subordinate clauses or indirect speech; and explaining the impact of word order on emphasis and tone, for example, dum homines cibum devorant, subito intravit miles! and implicit values, concepts and assumptions embedded in language use, for example, arbiter bibendi. They convey their interpretations of information and ideas about Roman society and culture, in oral, written or digital forms, such as an investigation into Roman reactions to different religions, or a digital presentation on an archaeological site, for example, the forum Romanum. They share their responses to Latin texts, such as narratives, dialogues, plays, poems or letters, by describing themes, values and literary features, such as plot development and characterisation, and expressing and justifying their opinions with support from the text. They read aloud, recite or perform Latin texts, such as oratory, history, drama or poetry, to entertain different audiences, conveying meaning and emotion effectively by using appropriate phrasing, voice inflection or metrical effects, such as elision. Students translate a range of texts that incorporate complex sentence structures and extensive vocabulary, from Latin into Standard English that represents the style and purpose of the texts, applying their knowledge of roots and derivatives to infer the meaning of unfamiliar vocabulary, and using dictionaries to select the appropriate meaning of words. They analyse how the language is used in grammatically complex sentences, that include subordinate clauses, non-finite verb forms, pronoun forms, mood and voice, for example, by identifying case usage of nouns and pronouns, and all verb conjugations and tenses, including indicative, for example, quamquam dominus abest, necesse est nobis strenue laborare, and imperative moods, for example, noli dominum excitare!, and passive voice, for example, ab agricolis nihil agitur. They evaluate the effectiveness of different translations of the same Latin text, and identify strategies for successful translations.

Students apply the principles of pronunciation for the reading of Latin texts, for example, by stressing the correct syllables. They identify the structure and organisation of different text types in Latin, such as prose and verse, and explain how they relate to context, purpose and audience. They explain the role of Latin in facilitating the spread of Roman civilisation and culture during the expansion of the Roman empire, and the contribution of Latin to the enrichment of English through the transfer of specialist vocabulary, for example, sine qua non, abstract concepts, for example, an accused person’s right to a defence, and the coining of vocabulary for new technology and new discoveries, for example, digicam from digitus + camera. Students describe Roman values, attitudes and beliefs that are embedded in particular language use, such as pietas, virtus, hospitium, fides. They explain how the Roman world has influenced modern society, culture and political structures, such as literature, art, medical and scientific practices, government and infrastructure. They share reactions to and assumptions about the language, culture and values of Roman society, explaining how these relate to their own language and culture. They compare ways of communicating and living in the ancient world with those of the modern world, and explain how learning Latin influences their own style of communicating, ways of thinking and viewing the world.