Framework for Classical Languages

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Nature and purpose of the Framework

Classical languages are distinct within the languages learning area of the Australian Curriculum. While they have ceased to be languages of everyday communication, Classical languages provide a key to the literature, history, thought and culture of the ancient worlds and societies that produced them.

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Rationale

The study of Classical languages allows students to enter and explore ancient worlds that have shaped contemporary life and societies. Authentic engagement with seminal works of great literature and antiquities gives direct access to ancient ways of living in and viewing the world, and an appreciation of the languages, cultures, literatures and traditions that are derived from those of ancient societies.

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Aims

The Australian Curriculum: Framework for Classical Languages aims to develop the knowledge, understanding and skills to ensure students:

engage with the language, history and culture of the Classical world through interaction with texts

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Structure

Sequences of learning
To reflect current custom, practice and the needs of learners in Australian schools, the Framework has been developed for Years 7–10.
Strands, sub-strands and threads
The following interrelated strands are derived from the aims, and describe different facets of learning the language, and understanding and reflecting on these processes:

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Using the Framework to develop language-specific curricula or programs for Classical languages

It is intended that the Framework will be used by state and territory jurisdictions to develop language-specific curricula, or by schools and communities to develop teaching and learning programs for Classical languages other than Latin and Classical Greek.

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PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Languages – Classical are available as PDF documents.
Framework of Classical Languages - Classical glossary

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Glossary

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The place of Latin and the heritage of the ancient Roman world

Latin developed from a local dialect of central Italy to become the official language of ancient Rome, transmitting Roman law, government, literature and social and cultural knowledge and values throughout much of Europe, North Africa and West Asia during the period 753 BCE – 476 CE. The period for study is 1st century BCE to 1st century CE, when some of the most influential Latin literature extant was written.

As the institutions of the Roman empire fell into disarray in the 5th century CE, churches and monasteries became centres of education and scholarship, preserving and recopying manuscripts of Latin literary works. Latin was the language of literate Europeans throughout the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, and continued to be used in academic contexts up to the 20th century. It was the vehicle for literary, liturgical, legal, political, philosophical and scientific texts, many of lasting historical and aesthetic value. Latin continued as the language of Western Christianity, and remains so today for the official business of the Roman Catholic Church and the Vatican City State.

The enduring achievements and rich legacy of the ancient Roman world are still evident in today’s world, in modern values, customs and beliefs, our laws and the form of our governments, our buildings and our art and literature. Readers of Latin have firsthand access to the great Classical writers who have shaped later world literature, such as Catullus, Lucretius, Cicero, Virgil, Horace, Livy, Tacitus and Juvenal (1st century BCE to 1st century CE). Readers can also access early Christian writers such as Augustine and documents such as Magna Carta (1215), and the works of mediaeval philosophers such as Thomas Aquinas, Renaissance statesmen such as Thomas More (Utopia 1516) and scientific pioneers such as Isaac Newton (Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 1687). The work of the Swedish scientist Carolus Linnaeus (Systema Naturae 1735) ensured that Latin remains the language of the classification of species in botany and zoology.

Although English is a Germanic language and not a descendant of Latin, the influence of Latin on the vocabulary of English is enormous. The greatest influence has been the adoption of countless literary, legal, political and scientific words from Latin to enable scholarly discourse to take place in English. Students of Latin increase their knowledge of English vocabulary beyond basic usage to include abstract and sophisticated language, for example, judicial. In addition, many Latin terms remain unchanged in English, such as de facto, bona fide, post-mortem, alter ego, veto. Abbreviations of Latin expressions occur in common and specialised usage, such as etc., a.m, i.e., ad lib.

From the 14th century on, the various dialects of popular or ‘Vulgar’ Latin became recognised as distinct languages with literatures of their own: Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese and Romanian. All these living variants of Latin are spoken today, not only in their countries of origin, but as a result of European colonisation, in many parts of the world, as confirmed by the term ‘Latin America’. A knowledge of Latin facilitates the learning of any of these languages.

Although social and educational changes caused a reduction in the numbers of students of Latin in the 20th century, Latin continues to flourish. In the 21st century there has been a steady worldwide resurgence, particularly in the United Kingdom, Europe, North America and Australia.

The place of the Latin language in Australian education

Latin has featured in Australian education since the early 1800s, and was a prerequisite for university entrance in Australia until the 1950s. Educational changes in Australia in the 1950s and 1960s, such as the introduction of comprehensive secondary curricula, contributed to the removal of languages, including Latin, from a central position in the school curriculum.

By the early 1970s, it seemed that Latin would disappear from Australian schools, and it largely did, remaining viable mainly in New South Wales and Victoria, with independent schools offering Latin in other states. That Latin survived, grew and flourished in New South Wales and Victoria, with increasing growth in Queensland, is due in part to significant new directions in pedagogy. The traditional emphasis on composing Latin was replaced by the reading method, in which students acquire the language by reading continuous, historically accurate texts in Latin, carefully structured so as to introduce the language and its literary features progressively within an engaging historical and cultural context. The pedagogy was designed to offer an enriching experience to a wide range of learners; the study of Latin offered them an ongoing opportunity for the development of deep knowledge and transferable skills, including literacy and critical thinking. This method proved popular and effective for modern learners.

In some states, such as New South Wales and Victoria, active teacher associations provide stimulating activities for students of Latin, such as competitions in Latin recitation and essay writing; artistic interpretations of the Classical period; Latin quiz nights; Classical drama productions; and Latin study seminars, summer schools and weekend camps.

Latin has a long tradition in Australian universities, and Australian graduates have distinguished themselves in Classical scholarship in this country and overseas. The allied disciplines of archaeology, ancient history and philosophy often require reading skills in Latin. Latin terminology is widely used in such disciplines as science, horticulture, law and medicine.

The nature of learning Latin

Latin is a highly inflected language, with three distinct genders, as well as noun cases and verb conjugations, tenses, moods and voices. The modern English alphabet is essentially the same as the Roman alphabet.

Students learn Latin systematically within an authentic historical, social and cultural context. They engage with the ambience, history, society and values of ancient Rome as they read, and are encouraged to relate their discoveries to life in the modern world.

As they learn Latin, students make connections with English and other languages. They expand their English vocabulary by exploring words derived from Latin, and examine the complex inflections of Latin, making comparisons with how meaning is conveyed in English. Students’ growing awareness of grammar equips them to understand the workings of other languages they may already know or wish to learn.

From synthetic reading material, students may progress to authentic Latin texts, encountering selections from famous works of poetry and prose which have influenced Western literature and thought for two millennia. Students are encouraged to discuss the ideas and values embedded in texts and to convey their meaning and tone in English. They analyse how language and style are used to convey the author’s purpose. As Latin literature was composed to be delivered orally, students learn to read aloud, using the restored Classical pronunciation, and are encouraged to listen to oral performances so as to appreciate the impact of these works on their intended audiences.

The learning pathway and curriculum design

In the Australian Curriculum: Languages – Latin, the learning pathway for students is Years 7–10.

A key dimension of the curriculum involves understanding the cultural dimension that shapes and is shaped by the language. The curriculum is designed with an intercultural language learning orientation to enable students to enter and explore an ancient world; to engage with an ancient people’s ways of living and viewing the world; to consider how an ancient civilisation influences life and thought in the modern world; and to reflect on what is special and valuable about their own language and culture.

Years 7 and 8

Years 7 and 8 Band Description

The nature of the learners

Students are beginning their study of Latin and typically have little prior knowledge and understanding of the language and Roman history and culture. Most will have learnt a different language in primary school, while some will have proficiency in different home/community languages and bring existing language learning experiences and intercultural awareness to the new experience of learning Latin. Students’ skills in interpreting texts and their development of literacy are supported by their study of Latin. Through their reading, analysis and translation of texts, students of Latin develop their thinking processes, such as close attention to detail, pattern recognition, accuracy, memory and logic. Students may need to be encouraged to take risks in learning a new language at this stage of social development and to consider how the experience of learning a Classical language impacts on their own ways of thinking and viewing the world.

Latin language learning and use

Learners engage with people in the Roman world, and gain direct access to their daily lives, through reading, comprehending and discussing Latin texts that reveal their language use and social and cultural practices. They use vocabulary, grammar and textual cues to understand and interpret Latin texts, and convey information and ideas about the daily life and attitudes of the Romans, in oral, written or digital forms, using Latin as appropriate. They listen to and read Latin texts, such as stories, myths and plays, and discuss characters, events, actions, settings and emotions. They read aloud, recite or perform Latin texts, such as stories, dialogues or songs, to convey meaning and to entertain others. They translate Latin texts into Standard English, applying their knowledge of vocabulary, accidence and syntax, linguistic cues and culture. They compare the features and relative merits of different translations of Latin texts to determine the features of a successful translation. Learners focus on the systems that structure the Latin language (grammar, vocabulary, sounds, the written alphabet) and systematically build a vocabulary and grammatical base that allows them to access a variety of Latin texts, such as narratives and short plays. They understand that Latin spread during the expansion of the Roman empire and developed over time into the Romance languages, and they explore the influence of Latin on English vocabulary. Learners explore the relationship between language and culture, by examining particular language use that provides insights into the daily lives, ideas, feelings and attitudes of Romans in the Classical period. They discuss the ancient origins of modern customs, religion, literature and architecture, reflecting on the enduring influence of the Roman world on the modern world. They are encouraged to consider their own and others’ reactions to and assumptions about the language and culture of Roman society, and to reflect on their own approaches to learning and understanding of their own heritage, values and culture.

Contexts of interaction

Learners work both independently and collaboratively, exploring different modes and genres of communication. They pool linguistic knowledge and resources to plan and manage shared activities, problem-solve, and monitor and reflect on their work. Extra opportunities for interaction are provided through purposeful and integrated use of information and communication technologies (ICT), for example, shared research on aspects of culture and historical events, and collaborative translation of seen and unseen texts. Learners may extend their experiences relating to language and culture by participating in activities such as art competitions, weekend camps, quiz nights, drama productions and visits to museums and galleries.

Texts and resources

Learners work with a range of texts designed for language learning, such as textbooks, audio recordings, teacher-generated materials and online resources. They may also use materials designed for students of Latin in different contexts, for example, comics, newsletters, online games, digital learning activities and apps. Texts from different sources give opportunities for discussion of the relationship between language and culture. Research tasks allow for exploration of themes, cultural references and historical events.

Features of Latin language use

Learners become familiar with the restored pronunciation of Latin. They use appropriate phrasing and voice inflection when reading aloud, reciting or performing Latin texts such as stories, dialogues, songs or plays, and develop their understanding of the sounds of the Latin alphabet. When translating Latin texts, students apply their knowledge of Latin grammar, including parts of speech, case, gender, number, person, verb conjugations, noun declensions and conventions of sentence structure. They use roots, derivatives and word lists to acquire and build Latin vocabulary, and use dictionaries to select appropriate meanings of Latin words. They explore influences of Latin on English vocabulary, focusing on derivatives, such as ‘circumnavigate’ from circum + navigare, and the contemporary use of Latin words and expressions, for example, vice versa or modus operandi. They make connections between texts and cultural contexts, exploring ways in which cultural values and perspectives are embedded in language and how language choices determine ways in which people and their ways of living are represented.

Level of support

A differentiated approach to teaching and task design caters for the diversity of learners. Support includes scaffolding, modelling and monitoring, explicit instruction and feedback, structured activities for practising new grammar, and access to print and electronic dictionaries. Students are supported to develop autonomy as language learners, and to self-monitor and refine strategies used in reading, listening, analysis and translation. Opportunities to review and consolidate are an important component of learning at this level.

The role of English

Latin is the language of the texts studied. Latin is also used for reading aloud, reciting or performing texts, and for simple interactions in the classroom, such as greetings. English is used for translation, analysis, explanation, discussion, evaluation and reflection.


Years 7 and 8 Content Descriptions

Accessing the Roman world through Latin texts

Read, comprehend and discuss Latin texts, using vocabulary, grammar and textual cues, to explore the Roman world

[Key concepts: language, culture, meaning, experience; Key processes: reading, listening, interpreting, connecting] (ACLCLE031 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • developing an initial sense of the structure and content of texts by inferring meaning from textual cues, for example, titles, headings, images or captions to images, maps
  • listening to simple sentences in Latin to infer meaning, using aural cues such as ecce; olim; cur; ubi; euge; eheu
  • determining the general sense of texts through initial holistic reading, by identifying familiar people, vocabulary, places or topics, and recognising modern editors’ use of punctuation to guide readers
  • analysing sentences, identifying and explaining the function of inflected forms, for example, puella canem vocat (subject + object + verb) or Aemilia est soror mea (subject + verb + complement)
  • identifying and discussing linguistic features in narratives, such as word order, use of the interrogative particle, striking word choice, for example, media in via; venitne; ululavit; iratissimus
  • interpreting and commenting on language choices, such as patterns and length of simple and compound sentences, use of direct speech or imagery, for example, the writer’s choice of a dramatic verb to make an action more vivid, as in in atrium volat rather than in atrium intrat
  • exploring social, contextual and cultural references embedded in texts, for example, patronus, cliens; civis; patria potestas; bulla; toga praetexta; mehercle!
  • interpreting stated and implied meanings in texts and supporting an opinion with evidence from the Latin, such as relationships between characters, for example, servi dominum timent; ancilla servum delectat
Convey information and ideas about the daily life and attitudes of the Romans, in oral, written and digital forms, using Latin as appropriate

[Key concepts: information, culture, imagination; Key processes: obtaining, presenting, informing] (ACLCLE032 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • gathering, collating and presenting information about daily routine in the Roman world, such as posters or digital displays about family life, education, food, hygiene, exercise, with annotations in English or words and simple phrases in Latin
  • reading stories about the daily lives of ancient Romans, and recreating their everyday experiences, for example, through role play or an imaginative animated cartoon
  • comparing details from different sources about where Roman people lived, such as in tenements or houses, or on country estates, for example, through dioramas or drawings, with labels in English or Latin, and discussing what they reveal about different lifestyles in the Classical period
  • researching the purpose and function of spaces in a Roman home, such as in a domus or a villa, for an oral or digital presentation, using labels in English and Latin, for example, vestibulum, atrium, triclinium, cubicula, peristylium
  • examining artefacts from the Roman period, such as those from Pompeii, and discussing what they reveal about the everyday lives of Romans
  • collating and sharing information online about Roman engineering and infrastructure, such as roads, aqueducts, cloaca maxima
  • researching the attitudes of Romans revealed in Graeco-Roman myths and legends and acting out stories, such as Romulus and Remus, or Hercules’ labours, to convey these attitudes
  • gathering and creating a class bank of information from texts about Roman religious beliefs and practices, for example, Olympian deities, Lares et Penates, special festivals such as the Liberalia and the Vestalia
  • reading accounts of historical events, such as Pliny’s eyewitness account of the eruption of Vesuvius, and presenting information in new ways, for example, creating and recording own news report or documentary, making comparisons between Pliny’s account and an online reconstruction of the eruption

Responding to texts

Listen to and read Latin texts, such as stories, myths and plays; share reactions and make connections with characters, events, actions, settings and key emotions

[Key concepts: imagination, experience, character; Key processes: responding, connecting, describing] (ACLCLE033 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • listening to and reading texts, such as stories about daily life in the city/country or public entertainment, and responding to questions in English relating to content and context
  • recognising recurring characters, settings and themes in texts, drawing on previous knowledge and experiences to make connections with the narrative, for example, the domineering master or the insolent slave; Pompeii; Vesuvius
  • discussing how scenes and characters are depicted in texts, for example, in short plays, dialogues, retelling of well-known myths and legends, through devices such as imagery or conversations
  • discussing language features that encourage the audience to respond in particular ways, for example, the use of repetition, alliteration, assonance, onomatopoeia
  • recognising that writers use different text structures and formats for specific purposes and effects, for example, change of focus, a story within a story, plot tension
  • identifying and discussing the techniques writers use to achieve specific effects, such as the use of antithesis to create humour or surprise, for example, omnes pueri rident sed Publius non ridet.
Read aloud, recite or perform Latin texts, using phrasing and voice inflection to convey meaning and to entertain others

[Key concepts: performance, emotion; Key processes: reading, presenting] (ACLCLE034 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • listening to and reproducing familiar and unfamiliar words, phrases and simple texts in Latin to convey meaning, using appropriate phrasing and expression, and the restored pronunciation, for example, cachinnare; clamare; vituperare; furcifer; monstrum horribile
  • presenting short texts orally in Latin, such as stories, dialogues or songs, to peers or the class, for example, singing songs such as gaudeamus igitur; duc, duc navem duc
  • performing short Latin plays or dialogues in collaboration with others, using strategies to convey the emotions of the characters
  • reading aloud or reciting, individually or in a class group, extracts from Latin literature, such as the initial lines of Virgil’s Aeneid or an epigram

Translating

Translate Latin texts into Standard English, by applying knowledge of vocabulary, accidence and syntax, and linguistic and cultural cues

[Key concepts: equivalence, representation; Key processes: interpreting, translating] (ACLCLE035 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • reading texts to gain a sense of holistic meaning, and identifying cues, such as text type, familiar vocabulary, grammar and cultural references
  • considering multiple meanings of vocabulary, for example, by using dictionaries and electronic translation tools, and making appropriate selections according to context, for example, petit; ago; de
  • using known vocabulary, in Latin or English, and context to deduce the meaning of unknown words, for example, clamor, exclamare; puer in cubiculo dormit (dormitory)
  • identifying meanings of words by recognising change of form, such as third declension nouns and irregular verbs, for example, nomen, nominis; est, sunt
  • identifying parts of speech and their function in context to determine meaning, for example, identifying which noun is the subject of the verb
  • identifying the specific function of inflected forms to determine meaning, for example, puella canem videt (subject + object + verb) or puella est laeta (subject + verb + complement)
  • applying knowledge of grammar to recognise in context the specific function of words which may have multiple applications, such as whether nomen or cives is subject or object
  • developing problem-solving skills to resolve perceived issues and anomalies encountered in the translation process, for example, confusion of genitive and nominative forms such as domini
  • exploring the effect of using the variety of English translations for tenses and making selections according to context, for example, clamat – ‘she is shouting’, ‘she shouts’, ‘she does shout’
  • selecting appropriate English meanings, identifying words and expressions that do not translate easily, for example, res; virgo; vir; consul spectaculum dat
  • discussing how words that refer to aspects of Roman culture should be translated, for example, servus (‘slave’ rather than ‘servant’)
  • determining appropriate word order in English to retain meaning and emphasis, for example, agricolam in agro taurus petit
  • translating Latin into idiomatic English, for example, by translating ego et tu as ‘you and I’
  • discussing and correcting or improving own translations to increase accuracy and reflect register, tone and relationships between characters
  • collaborating with peers to interpret meaning in texts and develop and edit joint translations, using a range of ICT
  • applying appropriate strategies to translate, independently, unseen Latin texts
Compare different translations and interpretations of Latin texts, and identify features of successful translations

[Key concepts: translation, analysis; Key processes: evaluating, explaining and comparing, intertextualising] (ACLCLE036 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • identifying the characteristics of a successful translation, such as grammatical accuracy
  • examining translations to determine how effectively Latin is conveyed in English idiom, such as the use of articles
  • comparing and discussing the merits of different translations of the same text, identifying differences and recognising that they may be equally valid
  • giving and justifying opinions about the effectiveness of own and others’ translations
  • identifying and discussing effective strategies to create appropriate translations, such as skimming through the text and identifying familiar words and phrases, contextualising new vocabulary, and using these strategies to review and polish own translations

Systems of language

Understand the phonological and orthographic systems of Latin, including the restored pronunciation and the written alphabet

[Key concepts: sound system, writing system; Key processes: recognising, imitating, copying, writing] (ACLCLU037 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • recognising that the written alphabet used by the Romans is the basis for the modern English alphabet, although some letters are pronounced differently, for example, u/v; i, c and g
  • mimicking or copying the restored pronunciation of Latin words, individually or with peers
  • matching script to sound, using the restored pronunciation, for example, single consonants, long and short vowels, vowels before final m, diphthongs, h and aspirated h, consonant combinations/clusters as in ingens, magnus, urbs
  • distinguishing i as a vowel and as a consonant, for example, intrat; ianua
  • using the spoken stress of Latin, and dramatic expression appropriate to the tone and purpose of a text
  • acknowledging the absence of punctuation in Latin in comparison with English, for example, by working with a sentence spelt out with no pauses between words
  • recognising conventions of punctuation used by editors of Latin texts to assist comprehension
Understand concepts of accidence and syntax used in simple and compound Latin sentences, including parts of speech, case, gender, number, person, declension and conjugation, agreement and tense, and conventions of sentence structure

[Key concepts: grammatical system, case, conjugation; Key processes: identifying, recognising] (ACLCLU038 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • identifying parts of speech and their functions in texts, such as in statements, direct speech, commands and questions
  • exploring the concepts of number, gender, case and the metalanguage used to describe nouns
  • understanding noun inflections and their usage in first, second and third declensions:
    • case: nominative, vocative, accusative, genitive, dative, ablative, for example, amicus, amice, amicum, amici, amico, amico
    • number: villa, villae
    • gender: masculine dominus, feminine domina, neuter atrium, common canis, parens
  • recognising personal pronouns and pronominal adjectives, and identifying number, gender and case, for example, ego, tu, nos, vos; meus, tuus
  • recognising interrogative pronouns, for example, quis, quis, quid
  • recognising demonstrative pronouns, for example, hic, haec, hoc; ille, iste
  • identifying cardinal numbers unus to viginti and ordinal numbers primus to decimus
  • recognising prepositional phrases and the different forms of prepositions, for example, e villa, ex urbe
  • distinguishing between the meanings of prepositions when governing different cases, for example, in villam, in villa
  • exploring the concepts of verb number, person and tense, the metalanguage used to describe verbs
  • identifying endings of verbs in the four conjugations, and regular and irregular verbs in the present tense, active voice
  • identifying the use of the imperative, for example, tacete vos omnes
  • identifying first/second and third declension adjectives, for example, laeta/laetus; tristis
  • recognising agreement of adjectives and nouns in number, gender and case, for example, puella tristis, frater magnus, and how word order may differ from English
  • interpreting compound sentences using conjunctions, for example, canis intrat sed non latrat
  • recognising adverbs, for example, servus diligenter laborat
  • understanding conventions of word order in Latin sentences, such as subject + direct object + indirect object + verb, for example, puella librum fratri legit, and how those conventions can be used to anticipate the development of a sentence
  • developing strategies for building on prior knowledge and learning new grammar, for example, mnemonic devices, paradigms, drill exercises, online learning tools
Acquire and build vocabulary by using roots, derivatives and word lists, and use dictionaries to select appropriate meanings of Latin words

[Key concepts: vocabulary, meaning; Key processes: exploring, selecting] (ACLCLU039 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • developing own and class lists of vocabulary related to texts and topics, such as daily life in ancient Rome, for example, thermae, caldarium; magister, ludus
  • creating a class bank of words that are frequently used, for example, tamen; alii … alii …; eheu!, and common expressions used in everyday activities, for example, salvete; ludere volo
  • practising vocabulary knowledge, for example, by using online tools such as drills
  • using print and electronic dictionaries to locate the appropriate meanings of words
  • understanding that one Latin word may correspond to several different English words and selecting the most appropriate meaning of a word in its context
  • developing strategies for vocabulary building by applying knowledge of roots, for example, ager/agricola and derivatives, for example, agriculture
  • building vocabulary by recognising Latin words commonly used in English, for example, exit, video, arena
Identify the structure and features of a range of texts in Latin, such as narratives and short plays

[Key concepts: text structure, purpose; Key processes: identifying, explaining and comparing] (ACLCLU040 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • identifying elements of different types of text, for example, stories, dialogues and plays, and explaining the relationship between the language and structure used and the purpose of the text
  • distinguishing and comparing features of a story and a play, such as narrative voice, characterisation, impact of direct speech
  • making connections and comparisons between a new text and familiar texts of the same type
  • using metalanguage to explain the effect of particular language features on intended audiences, for example, exclamations, interjections, such as o me miserum; euge; eheu

The powerful influence of language and culture

Understand that Latin spread with the expansion of the Roman empire, developed over time into the Romance languages, and influenced English vocabulary

[Key concepts: linguistic evolution, time (the past in the present), interconnection across concepts, influence; Key processes: comparing, analysing, applying] (ACLCLU041 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • recognising that Latin is a member of the Indo-European family of languages, related to other ancient languages, such as Classical Greek, Sanskrit and Old Persian
  • recognising that Latin was influenced by languages of other ancient peoples, such as Greek
  • locating on a map the places where Latin was spoken across the area of Roman influence, from Britain to West Asia
  • researching how Latin evolved into its modern descendants, the Romance languages, and comparing words, such as numbers, duo (Latin) – deux (French) – due (Italian) – dos (Spanish) – doi (Romanian) – dois (Portuguese), or words such as ‘hand’ or ‘friend’ across languages
  • applying knowledge of Latin to understand words and expressions in Romance languages, for example, tempo; liberté, égalité, fraternité; amigo; la dolce vita
  • identifying and using Latin derivatives to expand own English vocabulary, for example, maternal/paternal, nominate, puerile
  • recognising connections between spelling of Latin and English words and applying understanding to improve own spelling in English, for example, first conjugation verb such as portat – English ‘portable’, compared with fourth conjugation verb audit – audible
  • identifying expressions and abbreviations in Latin that are commonly used in English, for example, post mortem, in loco parentis; e.g., i.e., am, pm, etc.
  • identifying words of Latin origin that are used in subjects across the school curriculum, for example, data, agriculture, commerce, equilateral, formula, mesa, tablet
  • identifying and collecting word families in which the same Latin root is used with different prefixes or suffixes, for example, reduce, introduce, deduce, conduct, produce
  • exploring and discussing the meaning of simple Latin mottoes used by modern institutions, such as the Olympic motto citius, altius, fortius
Examine the enduring influence of Roman culture on the modern world, by discussing the ancient origins of modern customs, religion, literature and architecture

[Key concepts: aesthetics, time (the past in the present), modernity; Key processes: connecting, explaining and comparing] (ACLCLU042 - Scootle )

  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • recognising the ancient origins of national values such as citizenship, liberty, equity and justice
  • exploring ancient connections with daily routines in modern society, such as family life, occupations, schooling, the calendar, and leisure pursuits such as dice, board games
  • tracing Roman customs still used in modern ceremonies, such as weddings and funerals
  • identifying influences from Latin literature on popular culture, for example, Harry Potter, Romeo and Juliet, Percy Jackson, superheroes such as Superman and Hercules
  • exploring connections between ancient and modern music, for example, musical instruments such as the cithara, flutes, drums and contemporary songs composed in Latin, such as Bastille’s Pompeii with Latin lyrics
  • recognising the Roman influence on religion, such as Christian traditions
  • researching elements of Roman engineering and architecture in bridges, aqueducts, amphitheatres, drainage systems and public buildings in Australia and across the world

Role of language and culture

Recognise that the language of the Romans provides insights into their daily lives, ideas, feelings and attitudes

[Key concepts: language, culture, interdependence; Key processes: connecting, conceptualising, explaining] (ACLCLU043 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • investigating connections between language and significant cultural attitudes, for example, discussing how the terms civis, libertus, servus relate to rights of citizens
  • exploring and discussing language use that reflects social structure in ancient Rome, for example, pater familias, patronus/cliens relationships, matrona; Julia = daughter of Julius
  • exploring references in texts to life at home, daily bathing, dining and entertainment, such as public spectacles, and discussing the importance of family and social life to the Romans
  • recognising language that reflects the nature and use of private spaces, such as domus, villa, atrium, hortus, insula
  • understanding the importance of religion and festivals in Roman society, for example, by examining references in texts to worship of the Olympian gods, or festivals such as Saturnalia
  • considering the impact of stories about major early Roman heroes on the formation and transmission of Roman values, for example, Cloelia helping the kidnapped girls to escape, Horatius guarding the bridge
  • discussing the influence on Romans of myths and legends, as represented in their literature and visual arts such as sculpture and mosaics, for example, Romulus and Remus, Aeneas, Hercules
  • exploring the colloquial language that Romans used, such as salvete; gratum; licet

Reflecting

Reflect on own and others’ reactions to and assumptions about the language and culture of Roman society, considering similarities and differences to own language and culture

[Key concepts: identity, interconnection across concepts; Key processes: comparing, connecting, empathising, reflecting] (ACLCLU044 - Scootle )

  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • considering own and others’ cultural assumptions about home and leisure and how these were different or similar in the Roman context
  • reviewing and responding to aspects of cultural practices in Latin texts and Roman artefacts, and discussing the reactions of peers to these
  • describing own life at home and school and making comparisons with that of young people in the Roman world
  • developing an understanding of life in multicultural Rome, and reflecting on similarities and differences to own lifestyle in multicultural Australia
  • discussing how young people in ancient Rome may have viewed the lives of young people in the modern world
Reflect on self as a language learner, considering how learning Latin influences ways of learning and enhances understanding of own heritage, values and culture

[Key concepts: identity, interconnection across concepts, influence; Key processes: connecting, reflecting] (ACLCLU045 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • exploring own sense of identity, considering own and others’ assumptions about family, language(s) spoken, traditions, values and attitudes
  • considering how learning about the ancient world offers different ways of interpreting the modern world and representing experience
  • keeping a journal of experiences (humorous, satisfying or challenging) associated with learning and using Latin, noting personal reactions and reflections over time
  • considering how the strategies adopted while learning Latin have impacted on own approaches to learning across subjects, such as setting realistic timeframes, computational thinking
  • reflecting on the experience of learning Latin, considering how it might add a further dimension to own sense of identity
  • reflecting and reporting on how learning Latin gives insights into the relationship between language and culture in general, and how own way of thinking about language, culture and identity may change through the experience

Years 7 and 8 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 8, students use their knowledge of vocabulary, grammar and textual cues to identify and interpret information in Latin texts, such as narratives, about the daily life and attitudes of the Romans. They interpret grammatical structures such as inflected forms; identify linguistic features such as striking word choice, for example, laetissimus, or use of imagery, for example, dies est calidus; frigidus est rivus; infer meaning from textual cues such as headings, images or maps; and describe social and cultural practices embedded in Latin text, such as puer patrem timet. They convey information and ideas about Roman society and culture, in oral, written or digital forms, using Latin as appropriate, for example, a news report in English about a historical event such as the assassination of Julius Caesar, or a digital poster about family life in Rome with annotations in Latin, such as a mother instructing her daughter about how to organise the slaves and manage the household. They share their responses to Latin texts, such as stories, myths and plays, by expressing their feelings and ideas about characters, events, actions, settings and themes. They read aloud or recite Latin texts, such as stories, dialogues or songs, or perform Latin texts, such as short plays, to entertain an audience, conveying meaning effectively by using appropriate phrasing and voice inflection. Students translate Latin texts accurately into Standard English, applying their knowledge of vocabulary, including roots and derivatives, linguistic cues, culture, and accidence and syntax, including number, gender and case of nouns, for example, in first, second and third declensions, agreement of nouns and adjectives, for example, mater nostra, conjugation and tense, such as regular and irregular verbs in the present tense, for example, audit; potest, and indicative active voice and imperative active mood, for example, paratis, parate!, and conventions of sentence structure. They explain the relative effectiveness of different translations of the same text, and identify the features of a successful translation.

Students identify Latin sound–script relationships and use restored pronunciation when reading aloud, such as for single consonants, long and short vowels, diphthongs, double consonants and consonant clusters, for example, in aestate, puella, observare. They identify the structure and features of different texts in Latin, such as narratives or short plays, and explain how these elements contribute to an audience's response to the text. They describe how the Latin language spread with the expansion of the Roman empire, and developed over time into its modern descendants, the Romance languages. They explain how Latin has influenced and continues to influence English vocabulary, by identifying derivatives such as ‘itinerary’ from Latin iter, and Latin words and expressions that are used in modern English, such as et cetera. Students give examples of how particular language use reflects the lifestyles, ideas, feelings and attitudes of Romans in the Classical period, and identify connections between ancient and modern customs, religion, literature and architecture. They share their reactions to and assumptions about the language and culture of Roman society, identifying similarities or differences to their own language and culture. They describe how learning Latin impacts on their approaches to learning and on their understanding of their own heritage, values and culture.