Framework for Classical Languages

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Nature and purpose of the Framework

Classical languages are distinct within the languages learning area of the Australian Curriculum. While they have ceased to be languages of everyday communication, Classical languages provide a key to the literature, history, thought and culture of the ancient worlds and societies that produced them.

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Rationale

The study of Classical languages allows students to enter and explore ancient worlds that have shaped contemporary life and societies. Authentic engagement with seminal works of great literature and antiquities gives direct access to ancient ways of living in and viewing the world, and an appreciation of the languages, cultures, literatures and traditions that are derived from those of ancient societies.

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Aims

The Australian Curriculum: Framework for Classical Languages aims to develop the knowledge, understanding and skills to ensure students:

engage with the language, history and culture of the Classical world through interaction with texts

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Structure

Sequences of learning
To reflect current custom, practice and the needs of learners in Australian schools, the Framework has been developed for Years 7–10.
Strands, sub-strands and threads
The following interrelated strands are derived from the aims, and describe different facets of learning the language, and understanding and reflecting on these processes:

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Using the Framework to develop language-specific curricula or programs for Classical languages

It is intended that the Framework will be used by state and territory jurisdictions to develop language-specific curricula, or by schools and communities to develop teaching and learning programs for Classical languages other than Latin and Classical Greek.

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PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Languages – Classical are available as PDF documents.
Framework of Classical Languages - Classical glossary

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Glossary

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The place of Classical Greek and the heritage of the ancient Greek world

The Classical Greek language belongs to the Indo-European linguistic family. It is thus related to most of the languages of Europe, to Old Persian and, through Sanskrit, to several major Indian languages.

Classical Greek is defined as the literary Attic–Ionic dialect used by prominent Greek writers in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE, such as the playwrights Sophocles, Euripides and Aristophanes, the historians Herodotus and Thucydides, the philosophers Plato and Aristotle and the orators Lysias and Demosthenes. Students of Classical Greek also develop the linguistic knowledge to access earlier works, such as the Iliad and Odyssey of Homer, and later works, such as Hellenistic literature and the New Testament.

From the 8th century BCE, Greeks established settlements across the Mediterranean area, in Spain, Sicily, Italy, North Africa, Asia Minor and the Black Sea coast. These communities identified as Greek in language and culture, and regularly took part in festivals for Greeks only, such as the Olympic Games. The conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BCE extended the influence of Greek language and culture in western Asia and Egypt, and resulted in the upsurge in Greek literature and learning known to us as the Hellenistic Age. During this period, a common dialect of Greek known as koiné became the lingua franca of the eastern half of the Mediterranean basin, persisting under Roman administration and surviving the fall of the western Roman Empire in the 5th century CE. The eastern Roman Empire, based at Constantinople, continued as a Greek-speaking, Christian community until it was conquered by the Turks in 1453 CE. Christian missionaries from Constantinople spread Orthodox Christianity and the Greek alphabet to Russia, where the Cyrillic alphabet developed from the Greek.

After the conquest of Constantinople in 1453, many Greek scholars moved to western Europe, stimulating the revival of Classical Greek learning, art and culture during the Renaissance period.

The Greek language continued to evolve and to absorb influences from other languages until the present day. Modern Greek uses the same alphabet, and much of the written language bears strong resemblance to its Classical ‘mother’ language.

As Classical Greek is the oldest Indo-European language readily accessible to English speakers, it gives students the opportunity to engage with the evolution of language and the connections among related languages. In addition, the intellectual flowering of the Renaissance brought to English a literary and scientific vocabulary from Greek in order to discuss and describe the new ideas. It is no accident that many school subjects have names of Greek origin such as history, geography, mathematics, physics, economics, music, drama, biology and athletics. The vocabulary of academic discourse is heavily indebted to Greek, and students of Classical Greek acquire a deep understanding of specialised words and an enriched personal vocabulary to enable them to discuss academic concepts.

The enduring achievements and rich legacy of the ancient Greek world are still evident in today’s world, in modern values, customs and beliefs, our laws and the form of our governments, our buildings and our art and literature.

The place of the Classical Greek language in Australian education

In Australia, the teaching of Classical Greek has evolved since the 19th century, when it was taught, in addition to Latin, only to boys aspiring to an upper-class education in accordance with European tradition. During the educational changes of the 20th century, Classical Greek was also offered to girls, as part of the move to widen the curriculum for girls to include subjects previously thought too difficult, such as physics, advanced mathematics and Classical Greek. Since that time, Classical Greek has continued to be taught in independent and selective state schools, maintaining its small numbers steadily. Since the 1980s, the establishment of Greek Orthodox independent day schools, serving the large Greek diaspora communities, mainly in Sydney and Melbourne, has offered a new context for learning Classical as well as Modern Greek.

Pedagogy in Classical Greek has also evolved since the 1980s, and continues to do so in the 21st century. Traditionally, the study of Classical Greek began later than Latin, using the grammar and structures of Latin as a model. When the pedagogy of Latin changed in the 1970s from grammar and translation to a contextual reading approach, the teaching of Classical Greek was similarly influenced. New courses were produced for Classical Greek that did not presuppose a knowledge of Latin. The traditional emphasis on composing Classical Greek was replaced by the reading method, in which students acquire the language by reading continuous, historically accurate texts in Classical Greek, carefully structured so as to introduce the language and its literary features progressively within an engaging historical and cultural context. The pedagogy was designed to offer an enriching experience to a wide range of learners; the study of Classical Greek offered them an ongoing opportunity for the development of deep knowledge and transferable skills, including literacy and critical thinking.

Students may be attracted to learn Classical Greek for a variety of reasons, such as fascination with mythology, love of Greek history and culture, or interest in comparative language study. A growing area of interest is the comparative study of ancient European and Asian cultures and languages; for example, Greek and Chinese historiography, medical writings, or poetry.

In some states, such as New South Wales and Victoria, students have access to Classical Greek enrichment activities provided by teachers’ associations and universities, such as competitions in Classical Greek recitation, literary essays and art; symposia and study days; and classical drama productions. At post-secondary level, Classical Greek is available in all Australian states and in the Australian Capital Territory, and summer schools are held regularly in New South Wales and Victoria, offering courses at all levels, from beginner to advanced.

Classical Greek has a long tradition in Australian universities, and Australian graduates have distinguished themselves in classical scholarship in this country and overseas. Some Australians have become distinguished scholars in Classics, while other students of Classical Greek have used their learning to make successful careers in law, politics, literature, education and many other fields.

The nature of learning Classical Greek

Classical Greek is a highly inflected language, with three distinct genders and numbers, noun cases and verb conjugations, including tenses, moods and voices. The Classical Greek alphabet has 24 letters, ordered from alpha to omega, and is essentially the same as the Modern Greek alphabet.

Students learn Classical Greek systematically within an authentic historical, social and cultural context. They absorb the ambience, history, society and values of ancient Greece as they read, and are encouraged to relate their discoveries to life in the modern world.

As they learn Classical Greek, students make connections with English and other languages. They expand their English vocabulary by exploring words derived from Classical Greek, and examine the complex inflections of Classical Greek, making comparisons with how meaning is conveyed in English. Their growing awareness of grammar equips them to understand the workings of other languages they may already know or wish to learn.

From synthetic reading material, students may progress to authentic Classical Greek texts, encountering selections from famous works of poetry and prose which have influenced Western literature and thought for two millennia. Students are encouraged to discuss the ideas and values embedded in texts and to convey their meaning and tone in English. They analyse how language and style are used to convey the author’s purpose. As Classical Greek literature was composed to be delivered orally, students learn to read aloud, using the restored Classical pronunciation, and are encouraged to listen to oral performances so as to appreciate the impact of these works on their intended audiences.

The learning pathway and curriculum design

In the Australian Curriculum: Languages – Classical Greek, the learning pathway for students is Years 7–10.

A key dimension of the curriculum involves understanding the cultural dimension that shapes and is shaped by the language. The curriculum is designed with an intercultural language learning orientation to enable students to enter and explore an ancient world; to engage with an ancient people’s ways of living, and viewing the world; to consider how an ancient civilisation influences life and thought in the modern world; and to reflect on what is special and valuable about their own language and culture.

Years 9 and 10

Years 9 and 10 Band Description

The nature of the learners

Students have prior experience of learning Classical Greek and bring a range of capabilities, strategies and knowledge that can be applied to new learning. They are expanding the range and nature of their learning experiences; from synthetic reading material, they may progress to some authentic Classical Greek texts, encountering selections from famous works of poetry and prose. Through their reading, analysis and translation of texts, students of Classical Greek further develop their literacy in English, through close attention to detail, precision, accuracy, memory, logic and critical reasoning. They have a growing awareness of the wider world, including the diversity of languages and cultures that have continued to be an integral feature of society since ancient times. They are considering future pathways and prospects, including how further study of Classical Greek may feature in these.

Classical Greek language learning and use

Learners gain direct access to life in the ancient Greek world through reading, analysing and interpreting Classical Greek texts that reveal the language use and social and cultural practices of the ancient Greeks. They use vocabulary, grammar and textual cues to analyse and interpret language use and cultural references in Classical Greek texts, such as historiography, drama or philosophy, and convey their interpretations of information and ideas about ancient Greek society and culture, in oral, written or digital forms, using Classical Greek as appropriate. They respond to Classical Greek texts by analysing themes, values and literary features, such as plot development and characterisation, and sharing and justifying opinions. They read aloud, recite or perform Classical Greek texts, such as oratory, history, drama or poetry, to entertain an audience, using phrasing and voice inflection to convey meaning and emotion. They translate a range of texts that incorporate complex sentence structures and extensive vocabulary into Standard English, reproducing the style and purpose of the texts. They evaluate the effectiveness of different English translations and interpretations of a text, and develop strategies for successful translations. Learners apply the principles of pronunciation for the reading of Classical Greek texts, and apply an extended knowledge of vocabulary, accidence and syntax to analysing how Classical Greek is used in complex sentences. They analyse the structure and organisation of different text types in Classical Greek, exploring how they relate to context, purpose and audience. Learners identify ancient Greek values, attitudes and beliefs implicit in Classical Greek texts, reflecting respectfully on the interdependence of language and culture. They investigate the enduring linguistic and cultural legacy of the ancient Greek world in the modern world. They question and explain their own and others’ reactions to and assumptions about the language, culture and values of ancient Greek society, discussing how these relate to their own. They reflect on the power of language, and the impact of learning Classical Greek on their own style of communicating, and ways of thinking and viewing the world.

Contexts of interaction

Task characteristics and literary styles at this level are complex and challenging, providing opportunities for independent as well as collaborative language interpretation and performance, and development and strategic use of language and cultural resources. The language class remains the principal context for learning Classical Greek. Learners may participate in wider experiences relating to language and culture, such as competitions in recitation, art and essay writing; weekend camps; quiz nights; study seminars; summer schools; drama productions; and visits to museums and galleries. These experiences give learners a sense of connectedness and purpose, and allow them to make use of and extend their understanding of the ancient Greek world and their language capability beyond the school context.

Texts and resources

Learners engage with a range of texts designed for language learning, such as textbooks, audio recordings, teacher-generated materials and online resources. A variety of texts gives opportunities for discussion and analysis of the relationship between language and culture. Research tasks allow for exploration of themes, cultural references and historical events.

Features of Classical Greek language use

Learners apply the principles of pronunciation for the reading of Classical Greek texts, for example, using accentuation, crasis and elision to maintain speech flow. They apply an extended knowledge of accidence and syntax, including parts of speech, case, gender, number, person, declension, for example, τῆς γυναικὸς ὀργιζομένης ὁ ἀνὴρ ἀπέδραμε, and conjugation, for example, contract verbs in –οω and –μι, agreement, tense, mood, voice, participles and infinitives, to the analysis and translation of texts that incorporate complex sentence structures. They analyse texts more critically, identifying the structure and features of different text types, and explaining their relationship with context, purpose and audience. They recognise the ongoing influence of Classical Greek on English, through the transfer of specialist vocabulary and abstract concepts, for example, sympathy, theorem, chaos, and the coining of vocabulary for new technology and new discoveries, such as in science and medicine, for example, phenotype, glycolysis and neurosis. They analyse implicit values, concepts and assumptions embedded in texts, explaining the interrelationship between language and culture.

Level of support

This stage of learning involves consolidation and progression. Learners need opportunities for new challenges and more independent learning experiences. Continued scaffolding, modelling and monitoring are required to support these challenges. A range of resources is provided and processes are modelled for the development of more autonomous self-monitoring and reflecting strategies, such as online collaborating for translation, video documenting and discussion forums. Continued focused attention on grammatical and literary features supports learners in the reading, analysis and translation of texts.

The role of English

Classical Greek is the language of texts studied, such as narratives, drama, poetry, history or oratory. Classical Greek is also used for reading aloud, reciting or performing texts. English is used for translation, analysis, explanation, discussion, evaluation and reflection.


Years 9 and 10 Content Descriptions

Accessing the ancient Greek world through Classical Greek texts

Read, analyse and interpret Classical Greek texts, using vocabulary, grammar and textual cues, to engage with the ancient Greek world

[Key concepts: language, culture, meaning, experience; Key processes: reading, analysing, connecting] (ACLCLE016 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • predicting the context and content of Classical Greek texts through initial holistic reading, by identifying key words and phrases, for example, οἱ βάρβαροι μάλα φοβούμενοι
  • inferring meaning using knowledge of the text type and the author’s purpose and technique, for example, νῦν οὖν ἀτεχνῶς ἥκω παρασκευασμένος/βοᾶν, ὑποκρούειν, λοιδορεῖν τοὺς ῥήτορας/ἐάν τις ἄλλο πλὴν περὶ εἰρήνης λέγῃ. (Aristophanes’ Acharnians)
  • investigating and explaining the effect of word order in Classical Greek in producing emphasis and tone, for example, indignation, anger, suspense
  • examining and interpreting complex sentence structures, such as the use of the optative mood in indirect statements, for example, ὁ στρατηγὸς εἶπεν ὅτι οἱ σύμμαχοι δ’ ὁλίγου νικήσοιεν
  • reflecting on the particular use of tenses in Classical Greek and making comparisons with English, such as use of aspect, vivid use of the present in indirect speech, or use of the aorist in gnomic statements, for example, παθὼν δέ τε νήπιος ἔγνω
  • explaining how the coherence of complex texts relies on devices that signal text structure and guide readers, for example, οὖν, γάρ. μέντοι, δήπου
  • discussing conventions of Classical Greek texts, such as the inclusion of speeches in historiography
  • investigating how different conjunctions are used in complex sentences to extend, elaborate and explain ideas, for example, εἴχομεν ἡμεῖς Πύδναν καὶ Μεθώνην καὶ πάντα τὸν τόπον τοῦτον
  • explaining allusions to historical or mythological characters who exemplify Greek virtues, such as Achilles, Hector, Theseus, Solon, Socrates
  • recognising positive and negative connotations implicit in Classical Greek words, for example, τύραννος, δαίμων
  • examining cultural assumptions that influence ways in which meanings are expressed or interpreted, for example, the use of pompous or tragic language for comic effect in Aristophanes’ plays
  • discussing the function and power of cultural representations such as symbols, for example, the gorgon/aegis, the omphalos, Asclepius’ wand, the owl
  • justifying interpretations of texts, using examples or quotations from or references to the text, such as line numbers or a paraphrase of a longer section of text
  • constructing, editing and presenting interpretations of and responses to literary Classical Greek, using ICT collaboratively
Convey interpretations of information and ideas about ancient Greek society and culture, in oral, written and digital forms, using Classical Greek as appropriate

[Key concepts: information, culture; Key processes: interpreting, explaining, presenting] (ACLCLE017 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • discussing how cultural attitudes are conveyed in Classical Greek texts, such as attitudes to slaves or women, cleanliness, food, for example, conducting a role-play, forum on salient issues, ‘Q & A’ session
  • investigating legal rights and obligations of citizens, social classes or property rights, for example, building a digital representation of social strata
  • researching ancient Greek urban planning and architecture through the study of an archaeological site, and presenting findings, for example, by creating a virtual tour of the Agora or the Acropolis of Athens, with written or oral text in English or simple sentences in Classical Greek
  • examining architectural remains of ancient Greece, such as places of entertainment and worship, and discussing what they reveal about the values and attitudes of ancient Greeks
  • gathering and collating information about ancient Greek art, including sculpture, jewellery and painting, for example, producing and presenting an online exhibition catalogue
  • researching references in Classical Greek texts to historical or mythological characters, such as Themistocles or Achilles
  • exploring Classical Greek inscriptions to elicit and present information about ancient Greek society, for example, vases, funerary stelae, ostraka, and creating own examples in English or Classical Greek

Responding to texts

Respond to Classical Greek texts by analysing themes, values and literary features, such as plot development and characterisation, and sharing and justifying opinions

[Key concepts: morality, characterisation, theme; Key processes: responding, analysing, discussing, explaining] (ACLCLE018 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • reading texts in Classical Greek and responding to questions in English to demonstrate understanding of content, context, purpose and technique
  • discussing how language is used to reveal character, values and key messages in texts such as narratives, dialogues, plays, poems, letters or speeches, for example, Pericles’ funeral oration
  • discussing epic plots and characters, such as the depiction of Croesus in Herodotus’ Histories, Dicaeopolis in Aristophanes’ Acharnians, for example, debating significant events and the author’s purpose
  • analysing plot development in texts such as plays and stories, discussing features, for example, use of comic episode, plot twist, climax, resolution
  • interpreting how particular stylistic effects are created, such as emphasis, doubt, irony or supposition, for example, through the use of particles πῶς γὰρ οὔ; καὶ γάρ, ἆρα οὐ/ἆρα μή
  • analysing how writers use language features to achieve particular aesthetic, humorous or persuasive purposes and effects, such as hyperbole, for example, μύριοι, or irony, for example, Socratic dialogue or dramatic irony
  • evaluating the effectiveness of texts, by considering the use of techniques, for example, simile, metaphor, personification or pathos, for particular purposes, such as to entertain or persuade
Read aloud, recite or perform Classical Greek texts to entertain others, using strategies such as phrasing and voice inflection to convey meaning and emotion

[Key concepts: performance, expression, emotion; Key processes: reading, presenting] (ACLCLE019 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • reading aloud passages or extracts from different genres of Classical Greek literature, such as Socratic dialogue, oratory, historiography, drama or poetry, with appropriate expression, phrasing, stress and tone to convey meaning
  • reciting or presenting extracts from Classical Greek texts to the class or school community, using expression and movement to illustrate meaning and to entertain, for example, excerpts from Homer’s Iliad, Pindar’s victory odes
  • performing extracts from Classical Greek plays for the appreciation of an audience, for example, from Sophocles’ Antigone or Euripides’ Medea

Translating

Translate a range of texts that incorporate complex sentence structures and extensive vocabulary from Classical Greek into Standard English, representing the style and purpose of the texts

[Key concepts: equivalence, meaning; Key processes: analysing, translating] (ACLCLE020 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • reading holistically to deduce the context and content of Classical Greek texts, by identifying key words and phrases
  • applying expanded knowledge of vocabulary, grammar and problem-solving skills to translate compound sentences and complex sentences with nested clauses
  • conveying shades of meaning of a range of subtle vocabulary, for example, inferring the different connotations of a word in a particular context, such as δίκη
  • inferring the meaning of new words and expressions, using knowledge of the text type and the author’s purpose and technique, for example, ὁ λόγος (word, speech, argument, reasoning, story, computation)
  • expanding the variety of English translations for verb tenses or moods, for example, to express aspect in a command, παύου (general/ongoing) compared to παῦσαι (once)
  • deducing the meaning of new words, by drawing on prior knowledge, derivatives and connections with familiar words, for example, σαρκοφάγος, κακοδαίμων
  • recreating mood, tone and dramatic impact in English translations by selecting appropriate vocabulary, comparing and contrasting potential choices, for example, τύχη (chance, luck, fortune), συμφορά (event, circumstance, mishap, misfortune)
  • refining translations by exploring print and online Classical Greek and English dictionaries and thesauruses to consider a variety of meanings and synonyms
  • conveying emphasis and tone, such as indignation, anger or suspense, embedded in Classical Greek word order, for example, χρυσόν τε καὶ ἄργυρον φέρει ὁ Ὀδυσσεύς ἐν τῷ ἀσκῷ
  • translating complex sentence structures, such as subordinate clauses and indirect speech, for example, causal, purpose, result, indirect questions, commands, conditionals
  • rendering the precise meaning of tenses in Classical Greek into idiomatic English, for example, ἐλάμβανον/ἔλαβον
  • conveying the meaning of idiomatic expressions and culturally specific terms, for example, ἀρετή, δαίμων/δαιμόνιον/εὐδαιμονία, τα πρόβατα θόρυβον ποιεῖ, γλαύκ’Ἀθήναζε/γλαύκας εἰς Ἀθήνας, by choosing appropriate English terms and expressions
  • constructing and editing translations collaboratively with peers, using a range of ICT
  • correcting own translations to increase accuracy and better reflect register, tone and relationships
  • translating, independently or in collaboration with peers, unseen texts with compound or complex sentences, drawing on familiarity with the style and language of texts already studied
Evaluate different translations and interpretations of Classical Greek texts, using metalanguage to discuss their effectiveness, and develop strategies for successful translations

[Key concepts: translation; Key processes: evaluating, explaining and comparing, intertextualising] (ACLCLE021 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • evaluating the effectiveness of translations, using criteria such as selection of appropriate vocabulary, grammatical accuracy, fluency, conciseness, clarity, idiomatic expression
  • discussing how closely and effectively translations convey the author’s meaning and intent
  • critically analysing the merits of different translations of the same text, presenting and justifying opinions, and recognising skills of others
  • discussing strategies used to convey complex ideas and structures, such as subordinate clauses, rendering of mood and the use of correlatives, for example, τόσος/ὅσος, τοῖος/οἷος
  • evaluating strategies used to create fluent, accurate and idiomatic translations
  • applying identified strategies to the translation of seen and unseen texts

Systems of language

Understand and apply the principles of pronunciation for the reading of Classical Greek texts

[Key concepts: sound system, fluency; Key processes: reading, applying] (ACLCLU022 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • developing fluency in recognising sound and spelling changes, for example, those that occur when stops (β/π/φ, τ/δ/θ/ζ, κ/γ/χ) are followed by sigma, as in σπεύδω/ἔσπευσα, πέμπω/ἔπεμψα, διώκω/ἐδίωξα
  • using diacritical marks for accentuation, to distinguish between words with the same spelling, for example, interrogative and indefinite adverbs and pronouns, such as τις and τίς, or verbs, such as πονεῖ and πόνει
  • recognising the component parts of compound words involving transfer of aspirates, for example, κατά + ἵστημι = καθίστημι
  • recognising non-Attic versions of common words, for example, θάλασσα (θάλαττα), πονέω (πονῶ), ἐς (εἰς), μάτηρ (μήτηρ)
  • understanding the function of crasis and elision when reading aloud, for example, κἀγαθοί = καὶ ἀγαθοί, τἄλλα = τὰ ἄλλα
  • noting that iota subscript is given in the upper case when reading Classical Greek inscriptions
Understand concepts of accidence and syntax used in complex sentences in Classical Greek, including subordinate clauses, pronoun forms, mood, voice, and conventions of complex sentence structure

[Key concepts: grammatical system, case, conjugation, mood, voice; Key processes: identifying, explaining] (ACLCLU023 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • using the indefinite adjective τις with nouns to supply the meaning of the indefinite article in English, for example, κακόν τι πάσχει, νῆσόν τινα
  • conjugating verbs in perfect and pluperfect tenses, active and middle, indicative, imperative and infinitive forms, for example, εἴρηκα/εἴρημαι, ἑόρακα/ἑώραμαι
  • conjugating verbs in the passive voice in all applicable tenses including first and second aorist and future, for example, ἐλύθην/λυθήσομαι, ἐφάνην/φανήσομαι
  • conjugating contract verbs in all tenses and voices, including verbs in –οω, for example, δηλῶ, ἐλευθερῶ
  • conjugating -μι verbs, including δίδωμι, τίθημι, ἵστημι, ἵημι, δείκνυμι, φημί
  • conjugating common irregular verbs, for example, oἶδα, ἒοικα
  • forming the comparative and superlative degrees of common irregular adjectives, for example:
    • ἀγαθός/ἀμείνων/ἄριστος, ἀγαθός/βελτίων/βέλτιστος, ἀγαθός/κρείττων/κράτιστος
    • κακός/κακίων/κάκιστος, κακός/χείρων/χείριστος
    • καλός/καλλίων/κάλλιστος
    • μέγας/μείζων/μέγιστος
    • πολύς/πλείων/πλεῖστος
  • identifying the use of participles with the genitive absolute and the accusative absolute, for example, ἡμέρας γενομένης, ἔδοξεν ταῖς κόραις πρὸς τὸν κρήνην βαίνειν and δέον τὴν πόλιν ἀμύνεσθαι, οἱ ἄνδρες τὰ ὅπλα ἔφερον
  • recognising the forms and uses of the subjunctive mood, for example, ταχέως ἵωμεν (exhortation), τί ποιῶμεν; (deliberation), μὴ δέξησθε τὰ δῶρα (prohibition), οἱ στρατιῶται φεύγουσιν ἵνα μὴ ὑπὸ τῶν πολεμίων ληφθῶσιν (purpose clause), φοβοῦμαι μὴ ὁ δεσπότης οὐκ ἐθέλῃ παῦσαι τὸν πόνον (clause of fearing)
  • recognising the forms and uses of the optative mood, for example, εἴθε τὴν πατρίδα σῴζοιμεν (wish), βουλοίμεθα ἄν τοῦ ἀοιδοῦ ἀκούειν (potential optative)
  • understanding the structure and use of indirect statements with ὅτι, the infinitive or the participle, for example, ὁ ἄγγελος εἶπεν ὅτι οἱ πολέμιοι ἤδη προσχωροῦσιν/ὁ πάτηρ ἔφη ἀνάγκην εἶναι οἴκαδε ἐπανιέναι/οἱ παῖδες εἶδον λύκον μέγαν πρὸς τὴν οἰκίαν προσιόντα
  • understanding the structure and use of conditional clauses, for example, ἐὰν τῷ δημαγωγῷ πιστεύῃς, μῶρος εἶ/ἐὰν τὸν δοῦλον καλέσῃς, βραδέως ἀφίξεται/εἰ ὁ παῖς τοῦτο ἐποίησεν, ἐδέξατο ἄν τον ἔπαινον
  • understanding the structure and use of indefinite clauses, for example, ὅστις ἄν ἔξω τῶν τῆς πόλεως ὁρῶν εὑρεθῇ, ἐν κινδύνῳ μεγάλῳ ἔσται/ἐπειδὰν γένηται ἡ πανήγυρις, πάντες οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι εἰς τὴν ἀγορὰν σπεύδουσιν
  • identifying the articular infinitive, for example, ἀγαθὸς εἰς τὸ λέγειν τε καὶ πράττειν
  • identifying the verbal adjective in –τέος, for example, οὐ λεκτέοι εἰσὶν οἱ λόγοι
  • identifying verbs that take supplementary participles, for example, ἔτυχον παροῦσαι αἱ γυναῖκες/οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι ἐφαίνοντο οὐ βουλόμενοι ἀγορεύειν
  • understanding the sequence of tenses and moods in complex sentences (primary and secondary sequences), for example, λέγει ὅτι εἰ ὁ ἀνὴρ τοῦτο εἶπεν, ἐψεύδετο/εἶπεν ὅτι εἰ ὁ ἀνὴρ τοῦτο εἴποι, ψεύδοιτο ἄν
  • recognising creative variations in Classical Greek word order to focus on action, or to create suspense by delaying a key word, phrase or clause
  • elaborating strategies for building on prior knowledge and learning new grammar, for example, mnemonic devices, paradigms, drill exercises, online learning tools
Expand vocabulary by using a range of strategies, including knowledge of roots, cognates and derivatives, and use dictionaries to determine the meaning of unfamiliar vocabulary in specific contexts

[Key concepts: vocabulary, connections; Key processes: analysing, interpreting, applying] (ACLCLU024 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • developing vocabulary lists pertinent to particular reading, for example, philosophical words, poetic words and military words, such as στρατός, στρατηγός, στρατιώτης, στρατόπεδον
  • using a dictionary to investigate how vocabulary choices in Classical Greek and English can express shades of meaning, ὑπεροράω (‘look down on’, ‘overlook’, ‘despise’)
  • extrapolating knowledge of word origins, roots and cognates to interpret unfamiliar vocabulary, for example, δίκη/δίκαιος, λάμπω/λαμπρός, φοβοῦμαι/φοβερός
  • extending vocabulary through word-building from Classical Greek roots, for example, τιμῶ/τιμή, ἔργον/ἐργάζομαι, πόλις/πολίτης/πολιτικός/πολιτεία
  • identifying and interpreting compound words, for example, προσβάλλω/καταβάλλω/ἐκβάλλω
  • recognising common patterns of vowel change to identify words from the same root, for example, γίγνομαι/γένεσις, λέγω/λόγος
  • expanding vocabulary by using connections between conceptually related words, for example, chronology, chronic, anachronism
Analyse the structure and features of different text types in Classical Greek, exploring how they relate to context, purpose and audience

[Key concepts: text organisation, genre; Key processes: analysing, explaining and comparing, intertextualising] (ACLCLU025 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • identifying the purpose and specific features of prose and verse texts, such as in the structure of Classical Greek plays, for example, πρόλογος, πάροδος, ἐπεισόδια, στάσιμα, ἔξοδος
  • making connections and comparisons between a new text and familiar texts of the same type
  • analysing texts to understand how different points of view are expressed, for example, the response of several characters to a dramatic decision, such as the recall of military generals to Athens to stand trial after the Athenian victory at Arginusae in 406 BCE
  • recognising different ways of presenting the same story, for example, from the viewpoint of different characters or in the form of a flashback
  • analysing language features used to influence the intended audience, such as imagery, rhetorical devices

The powerful influence of language and culture

Understand that Greek became the dominant language of the ancient Mediterranean world and facilitated the spread of Greek civilisation and culture, and that Classical Greek continues to enrich English through specialist vocabulary and abstract concepts embodied in the language

[Key concepts: linguistic evolution, power, ancient/modern, influence; Key processes: analysing, conceptualising, explaining and comparing] (ACLCLU026 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • recognising that, from the Hellenistic period onwards, Koine Greek developed from Classical Greek to become the lingua franca of Eastern Mediterranean lands and the language of the New Testament
  • discussing the spread of Greek influence across the Mediterranean and Black Sea, including the use of Greek as the common language for government, trade, commerce, education and law
  • investigating how the Greek language allowed the spread of innovative Greek ideas in the areas of science, medicine, mathematics, historiography, geography and philosophy, for example, μαθηματικά, γεωγραφία, ἱστορία, φιλοσοφία
  • recognising that there were many dialects of Greek spoken in antiquity, such as Doric, Aeolic, Arcado–Cypriot
  • exploring famous centres of Greek learning and culture such as Alexandria, Antioch and Ephesus
  • recognising the spread of Greek ideas in the Roman world, shown by the use of borrowed Greek vocabulary in Latin to denote such concepts as stadium, palaestra, rhetor theatrum, comedia, stoica, philosophia
  • exploring abstract concepts derived from Classical Greek, such as philanthropy, idol, autonomy, paradox, aesthetics, nostalgia, agony
  • exploring and discussing the meaning of Classical Greek sayings used in literature, such as μηδὲν ἄγαν, γνῶθι σαυτόν, μολὼν λαβέ
  • recognising words in English that are a hybrid of Classical Greek and Latin, for example, metalanguage, quantum physics, teleconference, television, automobile
  • discussing Classical Greek derivatives that are used in fields such as business and education, for example, macroeconomics, monopoly, pedagogy, syllabus
  • examining the Classical Greek roots of English words in subjects across the school curriculum, such as theorem, metaphor, photosynthesis, chlorine, atom, planet, geophysical, ecosystem, orchestra, music, scene, dialogue, chorus, athletics
  • identifying Classical Greek roots in English scientific, technical and medical terminology, for example, catalyst, aerodynamic, pathogen, bacteria, atherosclerosis, acne, asthma, chromatography, symmetry, thermometer, seismic
  • exploring how Classical Greek is used to coin terms for new technology and new discoveries in science and medicine in the modern world, such as gigabyte, nanotechnology, antioxidant, polymer, genotype, triglyceride
  • applying knowledge of Classical Greek to form plurals of borrowed English words, for example, criterion/criteria, phenomenon/phenomena, crisis/crises, thesis/theses, stigma/stigmata
  • discussing the enduring use of Classical Greek in religious contexts, for example, κύριε ἐλέησον, Χριστὀς, ἐκκλησία, βάπτισμα, συναγωγή, κλῆρος, ἄγγελος, πρεσβύτερος, ὕμνος, βίβλος, εὐαγγέλιον
Discuss how the ancient Greek world has influenced the modern world, in its social, political and legal structures; philosophy; literature; arts; and medical and scientific practices

[Key concepts: ancient/modern, aesthetics, time (the past in the present); Key processes: analysing, connecting, conceptualising] (ACLCLU027 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • discussing the ancient origins of modern political and legal structures and concepts, such as jury service, elections, trials
  • exploring modern social issues, such as class, the role of women and civil rights, and making comparisons with the Classical Greek period
  • researching the influence of leading Greek intellectuals, such as Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, on modern Western philosophy
  • discussing influences of Classical Greek literature on modern novels, poetry, drama and film, such as World War I poetry, David Malouf’s Ransom, Anouilh’s Antigone, A Dream of Passion (Medea)
  • recognising the importance of literary genres such as epic, tragedy, comedy, epigram, ode, history, myth
  • viewing artworks to investigate the incorporation of classical techniques and themes by later artists, for example, Botticelli, Michelangelo, Bernini
  • investigating ancient practices in medicine and science still relevant in the modern world, such as the theories of Hippocrates, Democritus, Pythagoras, Archimedes, Eratosthenes, Aristarchus

Role of language and culture

Identify how cultural values, attitudes and beliefs of the ancient Greeks are embedded in their language

[Key concepts: language, culture, interdependence, values; Key processes: analysing, explaining and comparing, conceptualising] (ACLCLU028 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • discussing ancient Greek values that are embedded in terms such as such as σοφία and ξενία and considering their significance in the modern world
  • understanding how language and cultural practices are interconnected, for example, by explaining religious origins or connotations associated with words and expressions such as ἱερόν/τέμενος/ἡρῷον/ἄβατον/μυστήρια/εὐσέβεια
  • investigating the use of dialects to denote differences in ethnicity and social status in ancient Greece, for example, Aristophanes’ use of Doric to ridicule a Spartan character
  • exploring the formal language that ancient Greeks used for greetings, or responding to the challenges of public life, such as ἔρρωσθε καὶ ἐδαιμονεῖτε, ἀσπάζομαι, ὦ ἄνδρες Ἀθηναῖοι, ὦ δικασταί, and making comparisons with own language use in formal contexts
  • reflecting on how language, texts and artefacts provide a means of understanding the social and cultural practices of ancient Greeks and how they conceptualised their world

Reflecting

Question and explain own and others’ reactions to and assumptions about the language, culture and values of ancient Greek society, discussing how these relate to own language and culture

[Key concepts: attitude, value and belief; identity; Key processes: reflecting, decentring, empathising, mediating, explaining] (ACLCLU029 - Scootle )

  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • discussing how values, attitudes and practices of people living in ancient Athens or Sparta are similar to or different from their own
  • exploring how cultural identity was manifested in the ancient world, and making comparisons with own cultural identity in modern Australia
  • exploring the identity and loyalty of the ancient Greeks as members of separate city-states and members of a broader Greek world and relating this to their own identity as a member of a local community, a state/territory/nation and as a global citizen
  • describing and comparing own public and private lives with those of people in ancient Greece
  • considering how cultural diversity has continued to be an integral feature of society since ancient times
  • exploring the process of decentring from own linguistic and cultural standpoint and considering how own ways of behaving and communicating may have been perceived by people of the past
Reflect on self as a language learner, explaining how the study of Classical Greek influences own communicative behaviours, ways of thinking and viewing the world

[Key concepts: identity, interconnection across concepts, influence; Key processes: connecting, reflecting, explaining] (ACLCLU030 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • exploring own sense of identity, challenging own and others’ assumptions about family and civic responsibilities, traditions, values and attitudes
  • drawing on knowledge of ancient society to examine and interpret own world, including aspects such as ancestry, values, traditions, social status, family and national pride
  • reflecting, such as in discussions, blogs and journals, on experiences in the course of learning Classical Greek and their impact on perceptions of own cultural experience and ways of communicating
  • identifying challenges and achievements associated with learning Classical Greek, for example, learning to ‘read between the lines’ to identify thought implicit in the use of language
  • reinterpreting own experience of learning Classical Greek, listening to others’ perspectives and comparing these with own experience
  • discussing how learning Classical Greek impacts on own ways of thinking and viewing the world

Years 9 and 10 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 10, students analyse a range of Classical Greek texts to obtain information and ideas about ancient Greek society and culture. They use vocabulary, grammar and textual cues to analyse and interpret language use and cultural references in Classical Greek texts, such as poetry, plays or narratives, for example, by deducing the meaning of complex sentence structures, such as those with subordinate clauses or indirect speech, for example, ὁ ἄγγελος λέγει ὅτι οἱ πολέμιοι προσέρχονται, and explaining the impact of word order on emphasis and tone, for example, ὁ δὲ ἀνεξέταστος βίος οὐ βιωτὸς ἀνθρώπῳ, ἓν οἶδα ὃτι οὐδὲν οἶδα, πρῶτον μὲν γάρ, and implicit values, concepts and assumptions embedded in language use, for example, ἀριστεία, μίασμα. They convey their interpretations of information and ideas about ancient Greek society and culture, in oral, written or digital forms, such as role-plays or debates in English about how cultural attitudes are conveyed in Classical Greek texts, or a digital presentation of an archaeological site, using simple sentences in Classical Greek, for example, τὸ μαντεῖον τῶν Δελφῶν. They share their responses to Classical Greek texts, such as narratives, dialogues, plays, poems or letters, by describing themes, values and literary features, such as plot development and characterisation, and expressing and justifying their opinions with support from the text. They read aloud, recite or perform Classical Greek texts, such as oratory, history, drama or poetry, to entertain different audiences, conveying meaning and emotion effectively by using appropriate phrasing and voice inflection. Students translate a range of texts that incorporate complex sentence structures and extensive vocabulary, from Classical Greek into Standard English that represents the style and purpose of the texts, applying their knowledge of roots, cognates and derivatives to infer the meaning of unfamiliar vocabulary, and using dictionaries to select the appropriate meaning of words. They analyse how the language is used in grammatically complex sentences, including subordinate clauses, non-finite verb forms, pronoun forms, mood and voice, such as case usage of nouns, pronouns and adjectives, for example, τούτων τῶν ἀνθρώπων, τὰ μείζονα κακά, perfect and pluperfect conjugations, for example, λέλοιπα/ἐλελοίπη, subjunctive and optative moods, for example, μὴ κρύψῃς τὴν μάστιγα ὦ δοῦλε, ὁ δεσπότης ἠρώτησε τὶς λύσειε τοὺς βοῦς, and passive voice, for example, ὁ ἳππος ἐλύθη, τῷ οἰστῷ βληθείς. They evaluate the effectiveness of different translations of the same Classical Greek text, and identify strategies for successful translations.

Students apply the principles of pronunciation for the reading of Classical Greek texts. They identify the structure and organisation of different text types in Classical Greek, such as prose and verse, and explain how they relate to context, purpose and audience. They explain the role of Classical Greek in facilitating the spread of Greek civilisation and culture across the Mediterranean world, and the contribution of Classical Greek to the enrichment of English through the transfer of specialist vocabulary, for example, antithesis, ellipsis, euphemism, hyperbole, abstract concepts, for example, enthusiasm, patriotism, democracy, idiosyncrasy, and the coining of vocabulary for new technology and new discoveries, for example, thermodynamics, epigenomics. Students describe ancient Greek values, attitudes and beliefs that are embedded in particular language use, such as μέτρον and κλέος. They explain how the ancient Greek world has influenced social, political and legal structures, philosophy, literature, the arts, and medical and scientific practices in the modern world. They share reactions to and assumptions about the language, culture and values of ancient Greek society, explaining how these relate to their own language and culture. They compare ways of communicating and living in the ancient world with those of the modern world, and explain how learning Classical Greek influences their own ways of thinking and viewing the world.