Framework for Aboriginal Languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages

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Rationale

Nganki - ka Kardu thipmam - wa! I Murrinh warda ngatha. The nganthin ngumpanngerren. I ku ngakumarl, da ngarra ngugumingki wurran. The da matha nganthin ngala i da bere matha wangu ngumamath ngumpan ngarra magulkul nganki.

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Aims

The Australian Curriculum: Framework for Aboriginal Languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages aims to develop the knowledge, understanding and skills necessary to ensure that students:

communicate in the language

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What is the Framework?

The Framework for Aboriginal Languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages (the Framework) is the first national curriculum document Foundation to Year 10 to provide a way forward for all schools in Australia to support the teaching and learning of the languages indigenous to this country.

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Guiding principles

Appropriate consultations with relevant Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander communities are always central to the development of language-specific curricula and the provision of language learning programs in schools.

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Structure

Pathways
To cater for differences between the ecologies of languages and the communities who are owners and custodians of those languages, and to cater for students who come from a variety of learner backgrounds, the Framework has three pathways:

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Using the Framework

The Framework is general in its structure and approach because it needs to be applicable to all Aboriginal languages and Torres Strait Islander languages in Australia, across the full range of language ecologies.

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PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Languages -  Framework for Aboriginal Languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages are available as PDF documents.
Scope and Sequence 
Sequence of Achievement - First Language …

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Languages studied in the Second Language Learner Pathway (L2) are typically languages used in spoken form as the language of everyday communication by whole communities across all generations.

The second language learner pathway has been written on the assumption that learning will occur off-Country, involving students who are typically not from the language community and have little or no experience of the language and culture. They are introduced to learning the language at school as an additional, new language.

The language chosen for curriculum development should have a sizeable set of resources in a variety of media, such as local documentaries, bilingual narrative and descriptive texts, and educational materials in print and digital form. Learning is enriched and authenticated by interaction with visiting Elders and community speakers, and where possible visits to Country/Place. Information and communications technologies provide additional resources to support a range of language and culture experiences.

The Second Language Learning Pathway provides students with an opportunity to study a language that is structurally very different from English, and from a culture quite distant from the English-speaking mainstream. Such study develops a deeper appreciation of the nature and diversity of languages and cultures, and requires the acquisition of knowledge and skills necessary to learn and understand an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander language and its cultural context.

For students who are from the language community but who did not grow up speaking the language, this pathway provides an opportunity to reaffirm their cultural identity through learning the language of their community.

The curriculum content and achievement standards in the Second Language Learner Pathway are generalised in order to cater for the range of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander languages that may be learnt as a second language. The content descriptions, content elaborations and achievement standards will need to be adapted for use with the particular language being taught; it will need to modified if the program occurs on-Country or if the learners are from the language community.

Summary of Key Features of the Second language learner pathway

Second Language Learner Pathway

Spoken right through (full linguistic code)

Substantial range of speakers across all generations

Curriculum written on the assumption that L2 programs will occur off-Country/Place and learners are typically not from the language community

Years 7 to 10

Years 7 to 10 Band Description

The nature of the learner, the pathway and particular language

Languages studied in the Second Language Learner Pathway (L2) are typically languages used in spoken form as the language of everyday communication by whole communities across all generations.

The second language learner pathway has been written on the assumption that learning will occur off-Country involving students who are typically not from the language community and have little or no experience of the language and culture. They are introduced to learning the language at school as an additional, new language.

The language chosen for curriculum development should have a sizeable set of resources in a variety of media, such as local documentaries, bilingual narrative and descriptive texts, and educational materials in print and digital form. Learning is enriched and authenticated by interaction with visiting Elders and community speakers, and where possible visits to Country/Place. Information and communications technologies provide additional resources to support a range of language and culture experiences.

The curriculum content and achievement standards in the Second Language Learner Pathway are generalised in order to cater for the range of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander languages that may be learnt as a second language. The content descriptions, content elaborations and achievement standards for the Second Language Learner pathway will need to be adapted for use with the particular language being taught and will need to be modified if the program occurs on-Country or if the learners are from the language community.

At this level, students bring a range of language learning strategies to their learning. They are increasingly aware of the world beyond their own and are engaging with issues of youth, society and environment. They are increasingly independent and capable of analysis and reflection. They are considering their future pathways and choices, including how the language could be part of these.

Language learning and use

Learners interact using the target language in classroom routines and communicative tasks. They give presentations and participate in conversations, with some preparation and support, such as cue cards. They use the language more fluently, with a greater degree of self-correction and revision. They acquire skills in analysing and translating increasingly complex texts.

Learners are extending the range and quality of their writing through increased vocabulary and grammar knowledge, and by drafting and editing their own work and that of their peers. They use models to create a range of texts, including descriptions, recounts and reflections.

They are increasingly aware of connections between language and culture, noticing, for example, different language use according to kin relationships. They are learning to reflect on their own language and culture, and how identity impacts on intercultural experiences.

Contexts of interaction

Learning occurs largely through interaction with peers and the teaching team. Students may have some access to visiting Elders and community speakers, and may use technology to communicate with peers in the target language region, such as through a sister-school partnership. Some students may have opportunities to visit the target language region themselves or to view touring performances and art displays.

Texts and resources

Learners engage with a range of visual, spoken, written and digital texts, such as photographs, maps, bush calendars, seasonal charts, posters, songs, raps, dances, stories, paintings and visual design, video clips, and films.

Level of support

Learners are increasingly aware of and responsible for their own learning. They continue to access and use resources such as word lists, modelled texts and dictionaries. Teacher feedback continues to support their receptive and productive language use.

Learners require explicit instruction in the grammatical system of the target language, supported by comparisons with English and other known languages. They also require opportunities to discuss, practise and use their knowledge. They monitor their learning progress, for example by keeping records of their learning, such as journals, folios or blogs, and use these resources to reflect on their language learning and intercultural experiences.

The role of languages

The target language is used for classroom interaction, language learning activities and experiences, and reflection on learning. English is used to support analysis, comparison and reflection; it is also the medium for expressing personal views at a level beyond learners’ range in the target language, such as justifying a position on a social issue or exploring and comparing linguistic and cultural practices and learning experiences.


Years 7 to 10 Content Descriptions

Socialising

Engage with peers, the teaching team and visiting Elders/community speakers to share interests, experiences and aspirations, to exchange information about teenage life and to express opinions and feelings

[Key concepts: experience, aspiration; Key processes: recounting, exchanging, connecting] (ACLFWC109 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • expressing and exchanging personal experiences, feelings, plans, goals, aspirations and viewpoints, providing reasons or justification
  • asking and responding to open-ended questions, for example, why, how, when questions, using modelled sentence patterns
  • engaging in face-to-face or online discussions with peers about shared interests, cultural practices and experiences, such as sport, food, study, music or fashion, extending or elaborating meaning, for example, by using comparisons or contrasts
  • recounting experiences such as holidays, special events, milestones, sports events or celebrations
  • sharing and comparing information about teenage life, daily routines and responsibilities
  • sustaining and extending conversations by seeking additional information
  • exchanging opinions about family, friends, teachers, subjects, entertainment, sport and leisure
  • communicating with peers and other target language speakers in local or online communities, using active listening skills, turn-taking cues, requests for clarification and respectful language for agreeing or disagreeing
Engage in activities that involve collaboration, planning, organising and negotiating to take action

[Key concepts: event, experience, collaboration; Key processes: planning, organising, negotiating] (ACLFWC110 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • participating in planning, making arrangements and negotiating details, using language related to place and activity, for example, organising class events, such as holding a lunch, party or performance
  • creating displays, presentations or performances for family, friends or the school community to showcase progress in learning and using the target language
  • giving and following instructions to play games or follow procedures such as recipes or making everyday items used by the target language community
  • planning and preparing for a real or virtual visit to the target language community, preparing and rehearsing language forms, structures and vocabulary and considering appropriate behaviours
  • planning and participating in learning experiences that combine linguistic and cultural elements, such as an excursion to a target language art exhibition or performance
  • designing posters, displays and digital presentations to draw attention to issues relevant to the target language community, such as endangered wildlife, erosion, urban development, broadband access, roads and other infrastructure
  • promoting events in the target language community, such as music festivals or footy matches
Interact in class activities that involve making requests and suggestions, seeking clarification, negotiating changes and expressing opinions

[Key concepts: opinion, discussion, respect; Key processes: requesting, negotiating, expressing, comparing, deciding, explaining] (ACLFWC111 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • stating opinions, making suggestions or providing clarification
  • negotiating with class members and members of the teaching team using respectful language when agreeing or disagreeing or negotiating changes
  • asking for clarification, such as the spelling or meaning of a word
  • making requests, offering and giving help and responding to instructions
  • asking and responding to closed and open-ended questions, for example, in relation to class assignments or due dates
  • expressing their responses to the experience of learning and using the target language, for example, by detailing preferences, likes and dislikes in relation to aspects/elements of the experience

Informing

Identify, analyse and summarise factual information obtained from a range of sources on a variety of topics and issues related to the region of the target language

[Key concepts: Indigenous knowledge, social and environmental issues, lifestyles, community initiatives and projects, community life; Key processes: summarising, synthesising, referencing] (ACLFWC112 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • interviewing an Elder/community speaker about topics such as community initiatives and projects or life histories, observing correct respect protocols and presenting findings in formats such as digital presentations, posters, wall charts or oral summaries
  • researching a social or environmental issue from the target language region, synthesising information and presenting findings on topics such as preservation of language, culture and land, health, education, transport, local food production and supplies, land management, feral animals, fish stocks, water supply
  • engaging with simple texts such as school and community magazines, interviews, TV programs, IndigiTUBE, to gather facts about events, social and cultural activities or people, and reporting the information to others, for example, by creating a profile/report and structured summary of a prominent community person or significant event
  • finding information and making comparisons between past and present ways of living in the target language community and presenting information using charts, pictures, PowerPoint presentations
  • comparing information accessed through photos, IndigiTUBE and talks by community speakers about lifestyles and activities in the target language communities, such as major events, footy matches, dance nights, road trips/distances travelled, modes of transport, entertainment
Convey information about events, experiences or topics of shared interest, using different modes of presentation to suit different audiences and contexts

[Key concepts: audience, Country/Place, community life; Key processes: describing, explaining, creating, annotating] (ACLFWC113 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • interpreting landscapes from photos or videos of the region and conveying information in spoken form
  • creating a video clip or a photographic or journal record to share with other target language learners of activities such as school camps, excursions, performances, sporting events or visits to the target language region
  • researching a social event from the target language region, such as a music festival, race meeting, sporting event, ceremony, anniversary of a key date, creating a multimodal text/resource that communicates key elements to other learners
  • creating a virtual introduction to their own school and neighbourhood for a sister school from the target language region

Creating

Interpret and respond to a range of real and imaginative texts by sharing personal views, comparing themes, describing and explaining aspects of artistic expression and how these relate to land, people, plants, animals and social and ecological relationships

[Key concepts: representation, imagination; Key processes: interpreting, explaining, describing, discussing; Key text types: songs, raps, dances, traditional and contemporary stories, paintings and visual design, video clips, films] (ACLFWC114 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • listening to stories told by Elders/community speakers, interpreting signs and gestures, using correct protocols to ask clarifying questions about the stories and to find out about the role of storytelling in traditional and contemporary times
  • interpreting and responding to texts such as songs, stories, films or video clips by recording key vocabulary and expressions, identifying and explaining main ideas, key themes and sequences of events and sharing personal views and reactions with others
  • discussing how key messages and beliefs are communicated through stories and through visual and creative arts, for example, comparing the role and representation of animals, people and landscapes in different types of texts
  • discussing and explaining how land, water, sea, sky, people, plants and animals and social and ecological relationships are expressed through arts, including stories, paintings, songs, dance
  • describing and explaining aspects of artistic expression to others, for example, traditional and contemporary paintings, design, dance and the different roles of social groups in relation to traditional elements of song and dance and in the use of favoured materials and processes in the making of artefacts or the construction of headdresses
  • listening to, viewing and sharing personal reactions/responses to popular contemporary music, identifying key messages, themes and styles of performance, and considering how they incorporate commentary on social issues
  • discussing how stories and songs often link neighbouring Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander groups and nations
Create a range of spoken, written and multimodal texts to entertain others, involving real or imagined contexts and characters

[Key concepts: imagination, journey; Key processes: creating, collaborating, performing, composing; Key] text types: raps, songs, performances, story, cartoons, advertisements, digital texts, video clips, skits, paintings and visual designs] (ACLFWC115 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • creating a rap or skit, including in digital formats, to perform to their peers that provides commentary on a social issue that is important or relevant to them
  • creating their own visual and performing art work (visual and performing) to convey a specific message, incorporating where appropriate elements and conventions of visual design from the target language community
  • taking on the role of a character from a story and responding to questions in-role
  • creating and performing real or imagined experiences, using expressive language, gestures and supporting materials to create dramatic effect
  • creating cartoons, short plays or stories to present in class or to share with a wider virtual audience about personal past or future imagined experiences
  • composing simple songs, jingles, posters and advertisements for real or imaginary situations or products
  • telling the story of a real or of an imagined journey involving a variety of characters, places and events

Translating

Translate and interpret a range of texts from the target language to English and vice versa, comparing their versions and considering how to explain elements that involve cultural knowledge or understanding

[Key concepts: equivalence, representation, meaning, interpretation, idiom; Key processes: comparing, explaining, interpreting] (ACLFWC116 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • translating and interpreting short texts from the target language to English and vice versa, comparing their interpretations and discussing possible reasons for differences
  • translating and interpreting a range of texts, such as narratives, song lyrics, dialogues, posters, using resources such as dictionaries and grammars and considering how to explain elements that involve cultural knowledge or understanding
  • identifying, using and explaining target language words and expressions that do not easily translate into English
  • demonstrating and explaining elements of non-verbal communication in the target language that require interpretation, such as hand talk, gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, lip pointing
  • analysing published bilingual texts, such as children’s stories, health charts, films with sub-titles, commenting on differences between how each language represents meaning
  • identifying and explaining concepts, practices and expressions in the target language which do not easily translate into English, and vice versa, for example, number systems, time, colour daily and seasonal cycles, kinship terms, environmental sounds/elements/items/processes, such as ‘waving of bark in the wind’, noises that birds make
  • understanding and applying culturally appropriate and ethical behaviour when interpreting and translating the target language
Create bilingual texts in collaboration with others for the wider community

[Key concept: interpretation, bilingualism; Key processes: designing, explaining, classifying, glossing, annotating, composing] (ACLFWC117 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • creating shared bilingual learning resources, such as print or digital word banks or glossaries of target language and English expressions used in everyday interactions
  • performing a role-play or skit for an audience, using target language for the performance and English for supporting explanations and commentary
  • creating bilingual texts, using subtitles and captions, to inform the school community about aspects of target language culture
  • creating a bilingual display, for example, a video-clip or photographic display showcasing events and experiences such as a trip to the target language community or a bush trip
  • creating bilingual digital texts, such as songs or dialogues, which allow display in either the target language or English or both
  • creating a bilingual information pack in print and/or digital form about their school and local region for a sister school in the target language region

Identity

Consider and discuss their own and each other’s experiences and ways of expressing identity, reflecting on how the target language links the local, regional and national identity of its speakers with the land

[Key concepts: identity, perspective, biography; Key processes: sharing, comparing, considering, reflecting, analysing] (ACLFWC118 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • considering how their own biography, including elements such as family origins, traditions, beliefs, practices, interests and experiences, shapes their sense of identity and ways of communicating
  • creating spoken, written or multimodal texts, such as identity maps, timelines, digital presentations or family trees with captions and commentary, to describe key milestones and significant life influences, for example, key people, events, educational experiences, community affiliations, traditions or travel experiences, and considering how these different experiences and influences help to shape identity
  • comparing and reflecting on how identity is expressed across cultures and languages, for example by considering the idea of ‘belonging’ as expressed in different languages
  • discussing the role that language and culture play in the identity and well-being of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples
  • considering their identity as a ‘second language learner’ and whether it involves changes in aspirations, career considerations or social-networking opportunities
  • investigating how particular policies and practices affect the sense of identity of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, for example, through language loss, separation from Country/Place/family/community
  • reflecting on how the language links the local, regional and national identity of its speakers with land, water, sea and sky

Reflecting

Participate in intercultural interactions and consider own reactions when engaging with target language speakers and resources, and how these may reflect own language(s) and culture(s)

[Key concepts: intercultural experience, perspective, insight, self-reflection, ways of knowing and being, reconciliation, discrimination; Key processes: comparing, analysing, explaining, reflecting, choosing] (ACLFWC119 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • reflecting upon the experience of authentic or virtual interaction with the target language and culture, for example, through face-to-face or online interactions with other target language speakers, through visits to the target language community, or through interacting with visitors to their own school
  • reflecting on how their own ways of behaving may be interpreted when interacting with target language speakers, noticing their own body language and modifying certain behaviours, such as avoiding eye contact
  • reflecting and reporting on how learning the target language provides insights into language and culture in general, and how their own assumptions about target language speakers and ways of knowing and being are changing as a result of intercultural language learning
  • reflecting on how learning the target language provides a distinctive means of understanding the country in which they live, including the relationship between land, the environment and people, and issues of discrimination and reconciliation
  • keeping a journal of humorous, satisfying or challenging experiences) associated with learning and using the target language in various contexts, noting personal responses and reflections over time, and insights gained into their own language(s) and culture(s)
  • identifying and comparing how emotions or attitudes such as respect, shyness, exuberance or embarrassment are shown/displayed/expressed across different languages and cultures
  • sharing and comparing cultural and intercultural experiences and language capabilities, and exchanging views on the benefits of speaking more than one language, such as having a larger vocabulary to draw on, additional insights and perspectives and opportunities for new experiences

Systems of language

Produce sounds, stress, intonation patterns of the target language, using a developing phonemic awareness linked to the writing system

[Key concepts; metalanguage, patterns, phonetic articulation, syllable; Key processes: identifying, reading, investigating] (ACLFWU120 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • reading aloud to show comprehension of sound–symbol correspondences and flow of ideas
  • developing metalanguage to describe and talk about elements of sounds and phonology, for example, place and manner of articulation
  • investigating patterns such as consonant and vowel sequences and word level patterns, for example, allowable word final sounds, allowable consonant clusters
  • understanding the major categories of place of articulation in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages, for example, peripheral, laminal, apical and their realisation across different languages and regions in Australia
  • exploring writing systems based on principles such as syllabic or ideographic
Expand vocabulary and understand and use a range of grammatical structures in the target language, including inflectional and derivational processes

[Key concepts: system, grammatical case, affixation, voice, transitivity, particles, Key processes: explaining, constructing, compounding] (ACLFWU121 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • understanding case and case marking, for example, of nouns, pronouns and adjectives, noting the sharing of several case functions by single markers, the use of different markers for the same function
  • explaining how verbs can be derived from nouns and vice versa, and comparing with similar processes in English and other known languages
  • understanding how to construct concepts referring to people, places, things and events in building and varying the message, using:
    • suffixes, including ‘having’, ‘for want of’, ‘similar to’, ‘like’
    • verbless sentences, for example, equative, descriptive, possessive
    • verb categories, including intransitive, transitive, causative, inchoative, reflexive–reciprocal
    • verb aspect, including continuous, transitory, perfective, imperfective
    • verb-stem morphology, including compound verbs, reduplicated verbs, habitual/characteristic, derivation (for example, nouns into verbs).
  • expressing time, manner, attitude and place, using:
    • elaborations of past tense
    • temporal expressions, for example, ‘beforehand’, ‘afterwards’, ‘too late’, ‘originally’
    • expressions of frequency, immediacy and duration, for example, ‘persistently’, ‘at once’, ‘a few times’, ‘for a while’
    • attitudinal words, particles and interjections, for example, ‘ought to’; ‘I wish’; terms expressing endearment, embarrassment, ‘shame’, pity, including ‘Don’t know!’, ‘Really!’, ‘That’s all!’
    • locational cases as used in locative phrases, and extensions of these, for example, expressing origin, causation
  • structuring and linking clauses, focusing on issues of agreement with transitive and intransitive verbs and using verb-linking devices such as serialisation
  • discussing relationships between the target language and other languages of the region, for example, shared words and structures
Investigate spoken, written and visual modes of communication and analyse the form and structures of different types of texts, including their use, function and relationship to social processes

[Key concepts: text structure, relationship; Key processes: analysing, investigating, linking, sequencing] (ACLFWU122 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • analysing a range of texts, identifying their function, use and relationship to different social processes, for example, declaring identity, acknowledging traditional belief systems and ancestors, passing on knowledge and information, mapping resources on Country and managing natural phenomena such as weather
  • understanding that Country/Place can be interpreted as text by a community
  • discussing ways in which songs function to stabilise language and meaning in ways similar to literature in other cultures
  • investigating the use of sign language in the target language community and its relation to spoken language
  • applying principles of text organisation when developing both oral and written texts and presenting ideas, noticing differences in form and function between the two modes of expression
  • linking and sequencing ideas to form cohesive texts, using appropriate grammatical forms and elements, for example, serialisation, connectives, embedding, headings and paragraphs
Investigate how connections between Law, story, ceremony, people and Country/Place are demonstrated and evident in community behaviour

[Key concepts: interconnectedness, human relationships, ownership, rights, responsibilities; Key processes: describing, explaining, investigating, exploring] (ACLFWU123 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • describing how ceremony, place and Law are connected through kinship, story and cosmology, and how these connections are demonstrated and reflected in community behaviour
  • explaining how art forms such as body markings, designs, paintings, funeral poles, songs and dances serve to identify people and places
  • investigating how social groups form patterns across and through generations and determine relationships, behaviours and marriage practices
  • understanding and discussing kinship as a system, and explaining its importance in maintaining and regulating social relationships in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities
  • exploring how patterns of ownership, management of land and associated stories determine rights and responsibilities with respect to that land
  • understanding that different roles and responsibilities in ceremonies are determined by kinship and social groupings

Language variation and change

Analyse variations in language use that reflect different social and cultural contexts, purposes and relationships

[Key concepts: respect, silence, kinship; Key processes: examining, explaining, analysing] (ACLFWU124 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • examining how elements of communication such as gestures, facial expressions, choice of language and use of silence vary according to context, situation and kin relationships, for example, eye contact, pointing with lips
  • recognising there are specific ways of communicating messages that are linked with particular relationships, for example, in situations of bereavement or childbirth
  • distinguishing different registers of language, for example, mother-in-law language
  • investigating constraints that guide forms of address and social interactions such as in certain kin relationships
  • analysing intergenerational differences in language use, for example, young people’s language when talking about popular culture, the strong ‘right through’ language of the older generation
  • explaining variations in language use that reflect different levels of formality, authority and status, for example, speech styles used with respected kin, ways of asking questions of different people
  • understanding connections between land, language and culture which are expressed by shifts between languages and varieties of language
Understand that languages and cultures change continuously due to contact with one another and in response to new needs and ideas, popular culture, media and new technologies

[Key concepts: contact, change; Key processes: exploring, observing, reflecting] (ACLFWU125 - Scootle )

  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • exploring forms, usage, history and impact of contact languages, including creoles, pidgins and Aboriginal Englishes
  • observing changes to language that reflect changing lifestyles, cultural trends and emerging needs, for example, youth language, words and expressions associated with new technologies, the impact of music, popular culture and media
  • reflecting on changes in their own use of their first language(s) over time, noticing how and when new ways are adopted or existing ways adapted

Language awareness

Investigate and compare the ecologies of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages with Indigenous languages in other countries, and consider issues such as languages policy, language rights, language loss, advocacy, reform and multilingualism

[Key concepts: environment, boundaries, policy, revival; Key processes: researching, investigating, exploring, considering] (ACLFWU126 - Scootle )

  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • investigating the geographical location of the target language and the number of its historical and contemporary speakers
  • considering the future prospects of the target language in the context of its current linguistic ecology
  • exploring the use of the target language, English, Aboriginal English and creoles in the speech community, and understanding the nature of Indigenous multilingualism
  • researching the impact on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages in general and on the target language in particular of historical events, government policies, legislation and judicial processes, such as stolen generations, mission schools and advocacy
  • identifying social and government policies and practices that have impacted positively on processes of language acquisition, for example, the performing of Welcome to Country and the Acknowledgement of Country at events, on television, in films; efforts to raise the profile of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages in the wider Australian community and in particular geographical regions
  • investigating the situation of indigenous languages in other countries, for example, New Zealand, Hawaii, North America, Japan, Latin America, considering issues such as language rights, language endangerment, revival and reclamation, drawing comparisons with the situation of Aboriginal languages and Torres Strait Islander languages in Australia
  • understanding how the process of language-building expands existing linguistic and cultural resources in the Australian community
Understand and apply cultural norms, skills and protocols associated with learning, using and researching Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages

[Key concepts: ownership, ethical behaviour; Key processes: acknowledging, investigating, applying] (ACLFWU127 - Scootle )

  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • using culturally appropriate protocols when engaging with and learning from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and communities
  • acknowledging cultural and intellectual property rights and copyright over language work, in relation to song holders, story keepers, language informers, composers and choreographers
  • understanding that permission and consent of the owners of languages must be sought when visiting Country/Place, investigating processes for seeking permission from cultural authorities to visit or to gain information about Country/Place/particular sites, stories and family histories
  • accessing, eliciting, recording and storing information appropriately according to cultural norms/mores

Role of language and culture

Reflect on how ways of using language are shaped by communities’ ways of thinking, behaving and viewing the world, and the role of language in passing on knowledge

[Key concepts: Indigenous knowledge, value transmission; Key processes: reflecting, exploring, analysing, comparing] (ACLFWU128 - Scootle )

  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • explaining the role of language in relation to culture and identity and in passing on knowledge, such as sustainable care of the environment, rules for living, ways of behaving, spiritual and cultural functions and History
  • reflecting on ways the target language community divides the natural and cultural worlds and comparing this to other indigenous and western systems of classification
  • analysing concepts related to cultural values in the language, including naming systems, such as kinship terms, nicknames, substitute words and pronoun systems, comparing to similar conceptual characteristics of their own language(s) and culture(s)
  • exploring how aspects of traditional culture and society have been preserved through the target language, and discussing the importance of maintaining Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages, for their speakers and for all Australians
  • identifying and discussing core cultural concepts reflected in Aboriginal languages and Torres Strait Islander languages, such as respect, avoidance, reciprocity, obligation, responsibility
  • understanding that culturally significant attitudes and beliefs conveyed through the target language are related to the past, to land, plants, animals and celebrations
  • identifying and comparing how attitudes or emotions or such as respect or embarrassment are shown/displayed/concealed across different languages and cultures
  • comparing non-verbal elements of communication such as the use of silence or eye contact in different cultural contexts and exchanges
  • considering how and why target language speakers use particular conversational strategies, such as indirect language to avoid conflict
  • recognising that there are multiple views on and partial explanations for many events and issues
  • reflecting on ways culture is interpreted by others, for example, by identifying how stereotypes influence perceptions among different groups and communities
  • understanding that each Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person inherits language as part of their birthright, along with membership of a particular group and attachment to Country or Place, and that they become custodians and owners of land, water/ sea and language

Role of language building

Investigate programs, initiatives and techniques that keep Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages strong

[Key concepts: language maintenance, development, building; Key processes: discussing, exploring, investigating, evaluating, language building, language engineering] (ACLFWU129 - Scootle )

  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • analysing domains of language use where language building has occurred, considering why this is the case and investigating some of the techniques used, for example, language engineering, adapting sounds, coining new words
  • understanding the importance of intergenerational collaboration and transmission in keeping languages strong, and discussing associated challenges
  • investigating programs and initiatives that maintain and strengthen language use, for example, school languages programs, bilingual education, research programs, recording and archiving of material, the creation/development of websites, databases and documentaries
  • exploring the role of advocacy in supporting the maintenance and development of languages and associated cultures
  • identifying keeping places for language texts and the contexts in which they exist, for example, in the community, national archives
  • understanding the importance of strong and viable Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages for both Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians
  • considering domains where the target language may grow in the future

Years 7 to 10 Achievement Standards

The achievement standards for the Framework for Aboriginal Languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages Second Language Learner Pathway are generalised in order to cater for the range of languages that may be learnt as an L2 in the school context. The achievement standards will need to be adapted for use for specific Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages.

By the end of Year 10, students use the target language to initiate, sustain and extend interactions and to express feelings and opinions. They share interests, experiences and aspirations and exchange information about teenage life. They use spontaneous language to participate in activities that involve taking action, collaborating, planning, organising and negotiating. They use culturally appropriate norms, skills and protocols when engaging with and learning from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and communities. When interacting in the classroom, they make requests, make suggestions and seek clarification. They locate, analyse and summarise factual information from a range of sources on topics and issues related to the target language region. They demonstrate understanding of the target language region, community, culture, way of life and History by presenting information on social and environmental issues, past and present community initiatives, projects and lifestyles. Students listen to, view and share personal responses to a range of texts such as stories, songs, visual and creative arts, films and procedural texts. They demonstrate understanding by identifying and explaining main ideas, key themes, sequences of events, and by comparing the role and representation of animals, people and landscapes. They link and sequence ideas and use expressive language, gestures, artistic and iconographic elements and conventions to create spoken, written and multimodal texts that involve real or imagined contexts and characters. They apply culturally appropriate and ethical behaviour to translate and interpret a range of texts from the target language to English and vice versa, and explain culture-specific concepts, practices and expressions. They create bilingual texts to inform the wider community about aspects of the target language region and culture. Students share experiences and ways of expressing identity, and they reflect on how the target language links the local, regional and national identity of its speakers with the land. They describe how they feel and behave when interacting with target language speakers and resources, and they reflect on how their reactions may reflect their own languages, cultures and perspectives.

Students know the sounds, stress, intonation patterns, writing systems and grammatical elements of the target language and apply this knowledge to construct extended spoken, written and multimodal texts. They use metalanguage to explain sound, writing and grammatical systems, including inflectional and derivational processes. They analyse the form and structure of a range of spoken, written and visual texts and explain their function, form and relationship to social processes, such as declaring identity, acknowledging ancestors and traditional belief systems, and passing on knowledge and information. Students demonstrate their understanding of kinship as a system by explaining its importance in maintaining and regulating social relationships in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and links with Country/Place. They explain how and why language use is adjusted to suit different social and cultural contexts, purposes and relationships. They explain the dynamic nature of language and cultures, and identify factors that influence change, such as contact with other languages or response to new ideas and technologies. Students make comparisons between the ecologies of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages and indigenous languages in other countries, in areas such as language policy and rights, language loss, advocacy and reform, and language revival. They identify the role of language in passing on knowledge, and explain how communities’ worldviews and ways of thinking and behaving shape how language is used. They identify factors that serve to maintain and strengthen language use, such as intergenerational collaboration and transmission, programs and initiatives, and explain challenges associated with such practices and initiatives.