Framework for Aboriginal Languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages

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Rationale

Nganki - ka Kardu thipmam - wa! I Murrinh warda ngatha. The nganthin ngumpanngerren. I ku ngakumarl, da ngarra ngugumingki wurran. The da matha nganthin ngala i da bere matha wangu ngumamath ngumpan ngarra magulkul nganki.

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Aims

The Australian Curriculum: Framework for Aboriginal Languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages aims to develop the knowledge, understanding and skills necessary to ensure that students:

communicate in the language

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What is the Framework?

The Framework for Aboriginal Languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages (the Framework) is the first national curriculum document Foundation to Year 10 to provide a way forward for all schools in Australia to support the teaching and learning of the languages indigenous to this country.

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Guiding principles

Appropriate consultations with relevant Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander communities are always central to the development of language-specific curricula and the provision of language learning programs in schools.

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Structure

Pathways
To cater for differences between the ecologies of languages and the communities who are owners and custodians of those languages, and to cater for students who come from a variety of learner backgrounds, the Framework has three pathways:

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Using the Framework

The Framework is general in its structure and approach because it needs to be applicable to all Aboriginal languages and Torres Strait Islander languages in Australia, across the full range of language ecologies.

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PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Languages -  Framework for Aboriginal Languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages are available as PDF documents.
Scope and Sequence 
Sequence of Achievement - First Language …

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Languages studied in the Second Language Learner Pathway (L2) are typically languages used in spoken form as the language of everyday communication by whole communities across all generations.

The second language learner pathway has been written on the assumption that learning will occur off-Country, involving students who are typically not from the language community and have little or no experience of the language and culture. They are introduced to learning the language at school as an additional, new language.

The language chosen for curriculum development should have a sizeable set of resources in a variety of media, such as local documentaries, bilingual narrative and descriptive texts, and educational materials in print and digital form. Learning is enriched and authenticated by interaction with visiting Elders and community speakers, and where possible visits to Country/Place. Information and communications technologies provide additional resources to support a range of language and culture experiences.

The Second Language Learning Pathway provides students with an opportunity to study a language that is structurally very different from English, and from a culture quite distant from the English-speaking mainstream. Such study develops a deeper appreciation of the nature and diversity of languages and cultures, and requires the acquisition of knowledge and skills necessary to learn and understand an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander language and its cultural context.

For students who are from the language community but who did not grow up speaking the language, this pathway provides an opportunity to reaffirm their cultural identity through learning the language of their community.

The curriculum content and achievement standards in the Second Language Learner Pathway are generalised in order to cater for the range of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander languages that may be learnt as a second language. The content descriptions, content elaborations and achievement standards will need to be adapted for use with the particular language being taught; it will need to modified if the program occurs on-Country or if the learners are from the language community.

Summary of Key Features of the Second language learner pathway

Second Language Learner Pathway

Spoken right through (full linguistic code)

Substantial range of speakers across all generations

Curriculum written on the assumption that L2 programs will occur off-Country/Place and learners are typically not from the language community

Years 3 to 6

Years 3 to 6 Band Description

The nature of the learner, the pathway and particular language

Languages studied in the Second Language Learner Pathway (L2) are typically languages used in spoken form as the language of everyday communication by whole communities across all generations.

The second language learner pathway has been written on the assumption that learning will occur off-Country involving students who are typically not from the language community and have little or no experience of the language and culture. They are introduced to learning the language at school as an additional, new language.

The language chosen for curriculum development should have a sizeable set of resources in a variety of media, such as local documentaries, bilingual narrative and descriptive texts, and educational materials in print and digital form. Learning is enriched and authenticated by interaction with visiting Elders and community speakers, and where possible visits to Country/Place. Information and communications technologies provide additional resources to support a range of language and culture experiences.

The curriculum content and achievement standards in the Second Language Learner Pathway are generalised in order to cater for the range of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander languages that may be learnt as a second language. The content descriptions, content elaborations and achievement standards for the Second Language Learner pathway will need to be adapted for use with the particular language being taught and will need to be modified if the program occurs on-Country or if the learners are from the language community.

At this level, children are developing awareness of their social worlds and of their membership of various groups. They are widening their social networks, experiences and communicative repertoires. They are gaining greater awareness of the world around them. They benefit from various forms of activity-based learning that build on their interests and capabilities, and make connections with other learning areas.

Language learning and use

Learners use formulaic phrases in the target language to participate in classroom routines, presentations and structured conversations with the teaching team, peers, visiting Elders and community speakers. They respond to teacher-generated questions about texts, participate in games, and follow instructions and procedures.

They focus on aspects of their personal worlds and are introduced to content related to the target language Country/Place and the communities where it is spoken.

The development of oral proficiency relies on rich language input. Learners engage in different types of listening and develop active-listening and comprehension skills using contextual, grammatical, phonic and non-verbal cues. They extend their oral fluency by focusing on sentence-level intonation and stress.

They participate in shared and guided reading and learn to apply their knowledge of key words and textual features to predict the meaning of unfamiliar language. Learners use modelled language to create new texts and to extend their language use through expanding and connecting sentences to express more complex ideas and situations. To support their developing knowledge of vocabulary and sentence construction, learners continue to build metalanguage for describing aspects of the target language and how it works.

Contexts of interaction

Learning occurs largely through interaction with peers and the teaching team. Learners may have some access to visiting Elders and community speakers, opportunities to communicate with peers in the target language region using technology, perhaps visit the target language region themselves, or view touring performances or art displays from there.

Texts and resources

Learners engage with a growing range of visual, spoken, written and digital texts, such as photographs, maps, bush calendars, seasonal charts, posters, songs, raps, dances, stories, paintings and visual design accompanying performance, video clips and films.

Level of support

The primary support for learners is the teaching team, which provides instruction, explanation, examples of modelled language use, repetition, reinforcement and feedback on student work. Learning experiences and activities are carefully scaffolded and resourced, with sufficient time allowed for experimentation, drafting and redrafting. Learners need practice and guidance in using resources such as dictionaries, word charts, vocabulary lists and exemplars when translating and creating texts.

The role of languages

Learners use the target language for classroom routines and language learning tasks, for listening to, reading and viewing texts and in interactions with the teaching team, visiting Elders and other community speakers.

The language of response varies according to the nature and demands of the learning experience, with the target language used primarily for communicating in structured and supported tasks and English and other known languages used for open-ended, comparative tasks that develop learners’ understanding of language and culture.


Years 3 to 6 Content Descriptions

Socialising

Interact with peers, the teaching team and visiting Elders/community speakers about aspects of their personal worlds, such as experiences at school, home, everyday routines and favourite pastimes, interests and activities

[Key concepts: relationship, kinship, family, experience; Key Processes: describing, sharing, responding, recounting] (ACLFWC088 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • describing self in relation to daily routines, family and friends, pastimes and aspects of school and home life, using familiar and modelled language
  • sharing and comparing their responses to learning experiences such as visits or school and class activities, using gestures, illustrations and graphics to support the elaboration of meaning
  • asking and responding to questions to identify or describe features of people, creatures and objects in the environment, for example, by referring to colour, size, number, location
  • corresponding with young target language learners in other contexts in print or digital form, asking and answering factual questions about self, their class, interests, leisure activities, likes and dislikes
  • giving opinions about aspects of their personal worlds, such as interests and leisure activities
  • describing other people, such as family members, friends and teachers, for example, by identifying their kin relationship, physical appearance and characteristics/qualities
  • showing interest in and respect for others, for example, by expressing praise or encouragement
  • expressing personal experiences, feelings and plans, using modelled sentence patterns
Participate in guided tasks that involve following instructions, making things, cooperating with peers, planning for and conducting shared events or activities or presenting at a school performance

[Key concepts: collaboration, planning; Key processes: compiling, rehearsing, presenting, making] (ACLFWC089 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • working with others to take action, such as producing a poster or invitation for a special event or creating a bush tucker garden
  • interacting with Elders/community speakers, following instructions/procedures, for example, to make an artefact, create an art work or prepare bush tucker, including hand signs as appropriate
  • discussing young people’s interests and preferences in different contexts, such as favourite activities, foods, television programs, computer games, how they get to school, leisure activities at different times of the year, languages they speak at home
  • participating in national celebrations and significant events, for example, NAIDOC Week, Reconciliation Week, Harmony Day, then reflecting or reporting on the experience, for example by labelling and captioning photos for a class display
  • creating a skit, performance or action game to introduce a buddy class to aspects of the target language and culture, for example, protocols for introducing others, individual words or expressions that have particular social/cultural significance, common items and artefacts and gestures
  • engaging in shared tasks which involve planning and collaborating, for example, preparing, rehearsing and conducting public presentations and performances, such as an item for a school assembly or a digital presentation about a significant event
  • giving directions, for example, to guide others to locations or through an obstacle course
Participate in everyday classroom activities and routines, such as responding to questions and requests, asking permission, requesting help, praising or complimenting one another and apologising

[Key concepts: routine, interaction; Key processes: responding, contributing, enquiring] (ACLFWC090 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • initiating and responding to language for classroom routines and needs, such as requesting a drink, asking permission to leave the classroom, borrowing equipment, using rehearsed phrases and sentences
  • recognising and rehearsing interjections or fillers commonly used in conversations
  • asking and responding to questions with simple statements, for example, asking for/providing help, repetition or clarification, asking how/explaining how to say or write something
  • praising, complimenting and encouraging one another and apologising
  • enquiring about and describing the location of classroom items and materials
  • contributing to the creation and display of a set of class rules
  • participating in class activities such as word, board, movement or digital games
  • expressing preferences among different offered options

Informing

Gather, classify and compare information from a range of sources associated with the target language Country/Place, community and daily life

[Key concepts: community life, leisure, environment, Indigenous knowledge, health and well-being; Key processes: identifying, researching, compiling, presenting, tabulating, categorising, giving directions] (ACLFWC091 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • labelling, ordering and classifying natural objects from the environment using, Indigenous categories
  • obtaining information from a variety of sources about characteristic elements of the target language region, such as habitats and life cycles of different animals/birds or insects; bush plants, water supply, night sky and stars, for example, by listening to visiting Elder/community speakers and presenting findings in chart, poster, table, graphic or digital form
  • viewing, reading and interpreting texts such as bush calendars and seasonal charts, identifying features of seasons, weather patterns, plant cycles, animal behaviour and associated activities and comparing these with other seasonal calendars
  • reading, viewing or listening to simple community texts such as posters from health clinics, school magazines, community notices, answering questions by selecting from options and filling in gaps
  • viewing a demonstration, for example, cooking bush tucker, cooking in an earth oven, recording key words and phrases related to the processes of collecting and preparing
  • extracting key points from a range of spoken, written or digital texts such as posters, charts or brochures on topics such as health, well-being and cultural safety, discussing key messages and relating to them to issues in their own situations
  • giving and following directions, for example, how to get to key community facilities such as the store, football ground or school, using maps or images of the relevant area
  • locating information about social and cultural events in the target language community, such as the time of year they occur and associated activities, presenting findings in chart, poster or digital form
  • obtaining and compiling information from children in the target language community about aspects of their daily lives, using face-to-face or digital modes of communication, and presenting findings to others
  • surveying peers and community members on different topics, presenting results in chart, graph or digital format, for example, favourite television programs, video games, foods, football teams, sports or bands, after school activities/ hours spent in those activities, languages spoken in their homes and communities
Convey information on specific topics using formats such as oral or digital presentations, displays, diagrams, timelines and guided descriptions

[Key concepts: Country/Place, community life; Key processes: creating, presenting, profiling] (ACLFWC092 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • talking about Country/Place, using a range of location and direction terms
  • presenting information in spoken, print and digital form about the target language region, events and daily activities
  • using a range of methods to record and display information about the target language region, drawing on local practices used by the target language community to represent Country/Place
  • creating a profile of a prominent community figure, for example, a sports personality, community negotiator/spokesperson, musician, artist
  • organising and presenting information relating to aspects of target language traditional and contemporary culture, for example, art, dance, sports, artefacts, using simple sentence structures, familiar vocabulary and concrete materials

Creating

Listen to, read and view different real and imaginative texts, identifying and making simple statements about key elements, characters and events, and interpreting cultural expressions and behaviours

[Key concepts: visual design, representation, journey; Key processes: participating, describing, predicting, recalling, responding, listening, shared/guided reading; Key text types: songs, raps, dances, traditional and contemporary stories, paintings and visual design, video clips] (ACLFWC093 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • recalling, illustrating and describing main characters and events in stories, songs and performances, for example, by selecting descriptive modelled statements as captions to their pictures and responding to questions, such as, Who? Where? How long? What?
  • reading, listening to and viewing texts, using contextual and visual cues to make predictions about the development or flow of ideas, responding to questions and sharing opinions about characters, ideas and events
  • conveying understanding of plot and sequence in texts, for example, by re-creating a sequence using a storyboard, labelling key events or creating a timeline
  • mapping sites, landforms and other features of Country through which a travelling story passes
  • listening to Elders/community speakers tell stories, interpreting signs and gestures, retelling the story to others in spoken, written or multimodal form, using a combination of key words and phrases, illustrations and visual props
  • interacting/engaging with and interpreting artistic traditions and visual designs associated with the target language community, for example, paintings, sculptures, dance
  • discussing key messages, such as social values and rules for living, that are expressed in stories, songs and dance in oral, print, digital and performance formats, comparing to messages conveyed by similar texts in their own cultures
  • responding to a creative contemporary text by manipulating the original to create a new version, for example, by re-sequencing events, adding new elements, changing locations or characters, or creating alternative endings
  • understanding and discussing the cultural importance of story and the role of storytelling in transmitting language and culture
Create and present imaginative texts that use familiar expressions and modelled language for a range of audiences

[Key concepts: imagination, entertainment; Key processes: imagining, creating, experimenting, performing, storytelling; Key text types: raps, songs, performances, digital texts, video clips, skits, paintings and visual design] (ACLFWC094 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • creating and performing own stories, songs and skits, including the use of paralinguistic elements such as gesture and facial expression, to enhance audience comprehension and entertainment
  • experimenting with different ways of telling stories, using a range of different texts, for example, oral texts, photo stories, e-books, dance, visual design, drawings on soft and hard surfaces
  • creating, performing and presenting imaginative texts such as skits, songs and raps, using digital techniques and both rehearsed and spontaneous language
  • creating and presenting real or imaginary characters, places or animals through performance, digital display or visual representation
  • incorporating onomatopoeic sounds into written/performed texts to enrich the texts and entertain others
  • creating imaginative texts to entertain younger audiences, for example, audio Big Books, puppet plays, performances for the school or community, cartoons, short video clips or vokis, selecting language and images that enrich the visual or listening experience
  • creating shared art work (visual/ performing) to tell a story, using selected elements, symbols and conventions from the target language culture/community as appropriate
  • recounting stories about their own family and community, using different styles of presentation

Translating

Translate simple texts from the target language into English and vice versa, identifying elements which require interpretation rather than translation and involve cultural references

[Key concepts: equivalence, meaning; Key processes: translating, predicting, selecting, comparing] (ACLFWC095 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • using visual or print dictionaries, word lists and pictures to translate simple familiar texts, such as labels, captions, charts, posters, applying knowledge of grammatical rules and understanding of context to assist in translation, for example, by identifying word stems or removing affixes
  • translating texts, identifying culture-specific concepts and expressions that do not easily translate into English, for example, language related to artefacts, place names, kinship relations, name substitutes
  • interpreting terminology for parts of the body and their metaphoric use in relation to landscape and artefacts, drawing comparisons with English or other languages
  • identifying words and phrases that have more than one literal meaning
  • showing others how different signs and hand talk are used and explaining their meaning and symbolism
  • interpreting art works and performances to others, including the use of symbolism
Create bilingual texts for the classroom and the school community, such as songs, picture dictionaries, photo stories, captions for images and displays

[Key concepts: bilingualism, expression; Key processes: performing, describing, code-mixing, captioning] (ACLFWC096 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • creating bilingual wall charts or picture dictionaries with captions, stickers and simple descriptions in English to explain target language words and related cultural ideas
  • performing bilingual versions of familiar songs, alternating between the two languages and switching key words in repeated phrases or refrains
  • creating bilingual texts for the classroom and the school community, for example, posters, songs and online newsletter items, discussing with others how to represent meaning in different languages for different audiences
  • creating bilingual texts such as brochures, posters or website posts to inform others about upcoming events

Identity

Interact with others, noticing how ways of communicating with and responding to each other shape and reflect identity

[Key concepts: identity, kinship, community, membership; Key processes: creating, representing, comparing] (ACLFWC097 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • developing a class wall chart or creating family trees, labelling with appropriate kinship terms for extended family members
  • using visual representations such as concept maps, posters or captioned slide presentations to identify group memberships, for example, friends, family, sporting, interests and community groups, discussing what such associations contribute to their sense of identity )
  • creating a profile to capture their sense of self, for example, through an avatar or montage, using key words and simple expressions to comment on the significance of particular events, relationships or experiences
  • considering how their own upbringing and experiences impact on assumptions they bring to in intercultural interactions, for example, in relation to concepts such as leisure and free time, family and community responsibilities, reflecting on whether these assumptions have changed in the process of learning the target language
  • noticing and comparing their own and each other’s ways of communicating, identifying elements that reflect cultural differences or influences of other languages
  • monitoring their own development as a learner of the target language, for example, by recording learning experiences and reflections in blogs, learning logs or journals
  • identifying markers of identity that may be important across all cultures, for example, family, community, location, language, age, gender

Reflecting

Notice and describe some ways in which the target language and associated communicative behaviours are similar or different to their own language(s) and forms of cultural expression

[Key concepts: language, culture, values, similarity, difference, communication; Key processes: noticing, comparing, describing, explaining, questioning, reflecting] (ACLFWC098 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • noticing how respect is shown to Elders in the community through practices such as terms of address and expressions of deference, and comparing to practices associated with their own languages and cultures
  • noticing and describing similarities and differences between target language and Australian-English language and communicative behaviours used in certain social situations, for example, forms of address, the use of body language, intonation, facial and vocal expression and eye contact; etiquette associated with meal times, expressions used when leaving or returning home
  • identifying elements of communication and cultural expression represented in target language stories, songs, visual design, dance or audio/visual media, such as IndigiTUBE, and responding by sharing/ comparing individual responses to these
  • comparing their own and each other’s reflections on the experience of learning the target language, considering whether their attitudes or understandings have changed in any respects

Systems of language

Produce sounds, stress, intonation patterns of the target language, using developing phonemic awareness linked to the writing system

[Key concepts; punctuation, upper and lower case letters, diacritics, intonation, spelling; Key processes: identifying, discriminating, noticing,listening, reading] (ACLFWU099 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • discriminating meaningful sounds, morphemes and intonation patterns in words, phrases, statements, questions, commands, requests and exclamations
  • using knowledge of sound–symbol correspondences in the language to identify morphemes, words and phrases in speech and to match these with their written forms
  • using appropriate conventions of the written language, including punctuation, capitalisation, diacritics, digraphs to support links with spoken language
  • paying attention to consistency in target language spelling with reference to the sound system of the language
  • using knowledge of sound–symbol correspondences to read familiar and new words out aloud from their written forms
  • noticing the various roles of the speech organs in the production of sounds in the language and comparing these with the pronunciation of English and other known languages
Expand vocabulary in the target language through word-formation and building processes, and recognise and use simple structures

[Key concepts; word formation, word class, grammatical person and number, negation; Key processes: noticing, comparing, applying, understanding, modifying meaning] (ACLFWU100 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • understanding the concept of word formation, for example, how a word changes meaning and form with the addition/change of a suffix or prefix to convey different meanings
  • constructing expressions referring to people, places, things and events in building and varying messages, using:
    • nouns and adjectives in phrases for people, characters, places and objects, for example, compound nouns, reduplications and nominalisations, adjectives used without an associated noun
    • sentences without verbs, for example, ‘this (is) my bag’
    • different types of pronouns, for example, personal, kinship, demonstrative and interrogative in all persons and numbers
    • determiners and quantifiers, for example, ‘some’, ‘every’, ‘other’, ‘few’, ‘much’, ‘all’, and words for groups
    • marking to indicate possession and other types of association, for example, ‘let’s go for water’
    • appropriate use of transitive and intransitive verbs
    • verbs of stance used in existential expressions, for example, ‘there is a creek lying near the road’
    • verbs to talk about actions, processes, thoughts and feelings
    • moods of verbs including statements, questions, imperatives, commands, intention, purpose, likelihood, reported speech
    • negation
  • expressing time, manner, attitude and place, using:
    • tenses, including past, present and future/non-past
    • temporal expressions, for example, relating to day–night cycle, lunar and seasonal cycles, ‘before’ and ‘after’, ‘soon’, ‘recent’, ‘long ago’
    • expressions of frequency, for example, ‘often’, ‘always’, ‘once’, ‘briefly’
    • sentence-level attitudinal particles, for example, ‘maybe’, ‘it is said’, ‘what do you say?’, ‘would you mind?’, ‘you see’
    • locational cases, for example, ‘in’, ‘an’, ‘at’, ‘near’, ‘besides’, ‘to’, ‘towards’, ‘from’
    • adverbs of manner, location and time, for example, ‘again’, ‘more’, ‘in turn’, ‘too late’, ‘as well’
    • structuring and linking clauses, for example, relating to coordination, subordination, embedding
  • understanding that languages are rule-bound and systematic
  • understanding that rules vary between languages, for example, in relation to word-building and word order at phrase and sentence level
  • making comparisons and identifying patterns in and between languages, for example, in relation to free and fixed word order, tenses in verbs, the use of affixes versus prepositions
  • noticing similarities between particular vocabulary sets in languages from the same region, such as words for body parts
  • developing metalanguage for talking about elements of language, for example, noun phrases, suffixes, prefixes, tense, transitivity
Understand that texts such as stories, paintings, songs and dances have a distinct purpose and particular language features, and understand and apply text conventions

[Key concepts: purpose, genre, text features; Key processes: recognising, identifying, distinguishing, applying, linking] (ACLFWU101 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • distinguishing the purpose of a text and its features, for example, narratives are usually about journeys across Country and convey explanations about why features of Country exist and are important, while mud-maps are for conveying basic directions
  • investigating the purpose and use of sign language, for example, for hunting, for recent bereavements, for communicating at a distance, for restricting who can understand the message
  • understanding and using a combination of signs to convey a message
  • understanding that many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages are primarily oral and conventions of written text are being developed
  • applying emerging understanding of text conventions using classroom models, for example, determining points in written versions of oral texts at which commas, full stops and paragraph breaks might be used
  • accommodating features such as repetition and parallelism that characterises oral texts in written language
  • recognising language features typically associated with familiar texts, for example, the use of imperatives in games, instructions and procedures, and the use of past and habitual tense in traditional narratives and recounts
  • linking ideas using appropriate grammatical forms, for example, connectives, serialisation, embedding
  • recognising the role played by different elements in texts to contribute to meaning-making, for example, the layout, title, illustration and use of punctuation in a picture book or the use of speech bubbles in a cartoon
Understand the core role of the kinship system in social behaviour and the relationship between Place, History and society

[Key concepts: kinship system, ways of talking, human relationships, interrelatedness; Key processes: recognising, interpreting, discussing] (ACLFWU102 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • interpreting kinship charts to identify kin terms for wider family groupings and comparing these with their own languages and cultures, for example, maternal versus paternal grandparents, presence or absence of birth order names
  • recognising that individuals may belong to certain types of sub-groups, for example, moiety, clan and skin and identifying these
  • understanding that interactions and behaviour, including ways of talking, are patterned by kinship structures
  • discussing the links between ceremonies, people, stories and Country/Place and the social importance of connections to History
  • recognising that certain places have special significance to the community, representing special bonds between people, place and story
  • understanding that ownership of songs, stories, dances and designs is determined by traditional kinship, other social groupings, place, History and story

Language variation and change

Understand that speakers vary language forms according to kin relationship and context of situation

[Key concepts: kinship, respect, register, silence, taboo; Key processes observing, examining, explaining, investigating; noticing, recognising] (ACLFWU103 - Scootle )

  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • observing how language is used to establish, maintain and reflect kin-based relationships
  • recognising that there are specific ways of communicating messages that are linked with relationships, for example, deference and respect within families and for respected kin, such as speaking on the side, using indirect references, silences, gestures, eye contact, different registers and modes
  • investigating word taboo and reasons for their existence
  • observing that expressions can be made more or less formal and more casual to suit the relationship between speakers, for example, relaxed, joking styles used between brothers-in-law
  • noticing differences in the ways in which both target language speakers and English speakers communicate with different people, for example, with young children, with unfamiliar adults or with Elders
  • reflecting on how they communicate with their own family and friends and with people less close to them, noticing differences in language use and communicative behaviour
Recognise that languages change over time

[Key concepts: regional languages, language shift, language loss, borrowing and relatedness; Key processes: identifying, recognising] (ACLFWU104 - Scootle )

  • Intercultural Understanding
  • identifying words that are the same as or similar to words in neighbouring languages
  • understanding ways in which languages influence one another, for example, language shift, language loss, shared writing systems and concepts, loan words
  • discussing loan words that have been incorporated from other languages to describe new concepts, for example, words for new things, including technological innovations
  • understanding that language and culture together continually change as a result of contact with other languages and cultures

Language awareness

Explore the language situation of target language communities and the diversity of language situations in Australia

[Key concepts: language communities, language transmission, language maintenance and development, language revival, change, sign; Key processes: recognising, discussing, investigating] (ACLFWU105 - Scootle )

  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • investigating the nature of the distribution of target language speakers across Australia, the nature and extent of target language use in Australia, the use of the target language in the media, for example, TV programs, films, IndigiTUBE
  • learning about the current situation of the target language: its state of health and the nature of the speech community, particularly in relation to generational differences
  • recognising that many community members are multilingual and discussing the reasons for this
  • recognising that Aboriginal languages and Torres Strait Islander languages may have two or more regional varieties and consider reasons for this
  • recognising how the target language has been transmitted across generations and how it has been recorded, understanding reasons for different spellings of words within the target language
  • recognising that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages are in various states of maintenance, development and revival and investigate the diversity of historical reasons for this
  • investigating language revival programs, for example, associated processes and protocols, success stories and challenges, and what these efforts mean to the communities
  • understanding that the target language is among the small number of languages still spoken across all generations
  • investigating the intergenerational transmission of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages
  • exploring how physical and biological environments affect linguistic ecology
  • recognising that some words are shared across several Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages, understanding why there might be differences in spelling
Understand that the use of stories and names in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages is culturally determined

[Key concepts: cultural safety, protocol; Key processes: recognising, observing, discussing] (ACLFWU106 - Scootle )

  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • understanding that there are open and closed versions of stories and ceremonies
  • observing and discussing protocols surrounding the retelling and sharing of stories
  • recognising and using principles and protocols of cultural safety when engaging with cultural material/property, such as names of things, peoples and places, visual and aural recordings, including art work and family homes

Role of language and culture

Explore connections between identity and cultural values and beliefs and the expression of these connections in an Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander language

[Key concepts: Country/Place, cultural expression and transmission, values, beliefs, spirituality; Key processes: observing, making connections, discussing, investigating] (ACLFWU107 - Scootle )

  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • understanding the role of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages and cultures in caring for Country/Place and the environment
  • investigating how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples express their relationship with the natural environment through language, for example, in relation to seasons, stars, reef, rivers, waterholes, plants and animals
  • understanding the importance and significance of Welcome to Country/Place, for example, through discussions with Elders
  • understanding that Aboriginal languages and Torres Strait Islander languages are storehouses of cultural, environmental and social knowledge
  • recognising that song and song language play a central role as storehouses of knowledge
  • understanding that Aboriginal languages and Torres Strait Islander languages have a rich oral literature, which recounts the epic journeys and events associated with totemic ancestors/cultural heroes, and understanding that these stories map the land and embody the values and mores of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures
  • understanding and discussing the importance of story and the role of storytelling in transmitting language and culture
  • recognising ways cultural values are expressed in language, for example, through forms of address, speech prohibitions and styles, respect, land–language associations and non-verbal communicative behaviours
  • observing that concepts may be culture-specific, for example, capturing how relationships are structured; how time and quantity are expressed; how land, water, sea and sky are viewed, spatial awareness
  • recognising that Aboriginal languages and Torres Strait Islander languages have various social, spiritual and cultural functions in communities
  • identifying how the target language categorises things differently from English, for example, generic words and specific words for animals and plants, such as ‘kangaroo’ and ‘tree’, and consider reasons for this

Role of language building

Understand ways the target language and culture can be maintained and strengthened in changing contexts

[Key concepts: language maintenance, and development ; Key processes: discussing, exploring, considering, investigating, language building] (ACLFWU108 - Scootle )

  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • exploring ways that language and culture have been maintained and strengthened in the target language communities, for example, using the language in families and school language programs, story-telling, writing, recording, archiving material, media services, songs and music, visual design
  • recognising that there are target language materials, such as audiotapes, visual and historical documents, available through community organisations and in local, state and national archives and libraries
  • exploring some of the complexities and challenges involved in keeping oral traditions strong

Years 3 to 6 Achievement Standards

The achievement standards for the Framework for Aboriginal Languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages Second Language Learner Pathway are generalised in order to cater for the range of languages that may be learnt as an L2 in the school context. The achievement standards will need to be adapted for use for specific Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages.

By the end of Year 6, students share information about aspects of their personal worlds, such as their family and friends, interests, everyday routines and experiences, using familiar language and modelled sentence patterns. They interact appropriately with Elders and community speakers, and apply principles and protocols of cultural safety when engaging with cultural material such as artefacts, works of art, texts and performances. When interacting in the classroom, they ask and respond to questions, request help, repetition or clarification, and respond to requests and instructions. Students locate key points of information and messages in a range of spoken, written, visual and multi-modal sources associated with the target language region, community and culture. They demonstrate their understanding of the language region, community and culture, for example, by labelling, organising and classifying natural objects, plants and animals from the environment, identifying and describing key features and landforms, seasonal characteristics, and aspects of traditional and contemporary ways of life. Students view, read and listen to stories, songs, dances and artistic traditions, and demonstrate understanding, for example, by describing characters and events, creating timelines, explaining iconographies and identifying key messages, comparing these to messages conveyed by stories in their own cultures. They recognise that ownership of songs, stories, dances and designs is determined by kinship and other social groupings. They know that song and story carry Indigenous knowledge in the context of Country/Place and family. Students use simple and formulaic language, with the support of structured models, to create short informative and imaginative connected texts in various modes and formats. They translate a range of community texts, such as signs, notices, health charts, posters, relying on key words, and they identify and describe culture-specific concepts and expressions. They create bilingual texts for the classroom and school community that explain target language words and related cultural ideas. They identify markers of identity across cultures and recognise the importance of language, Country/Place and culture to the identity and future aspirations of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Students reflect on their own cultural identity in light of their experience of learning the language, explaining how their ideas and ways of communicating are influenced by their own cultural backgrounds.

Students know that the target language has its own pronunciation, spelling and grammar, and they apply this knowledge to predict the sound, spelling and meaning of new words and expressions. They use metalanguage for language explanation, for making comparisons with English forms, and for reflecting on the experience of learning the target language and culture. They identify the distinct purpose, language features and conventions of texts such as stories, paintings, songs and dances. Students demonstrate understanding of core elements of the kinship system and its role in social behaviour, by identifying and explaining kin terms, recognising that everyone belongs to certain types of sub-groups and recognising that interactions are patterned by these structures. Students know that language use must be adjusted to suit different contexts, situations and relationships. They provide examples of how languages change over time by identifying words and phrases borrowed from English and other languages, including words that are similar to or borrowed from neighbouring Indigenous languages. Students recognise that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages are in various states of maintenance, development and revival and can give some historical reasons for this. They identify connections between identity and cultural values and beliefs, and explain the importance of maintaining and strengthening Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages for the particular community involved and for the broader Australian community. They make connections with their own experience when talking about languages and cultures.