Framework for Aboriginal Languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages

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Rationale

Nganki - ka Kardu thipmam - wa! I Murrinh warda ngatha. The nganthin ngumpanngerren. I ku ngakumarl, da ngarra ngugumingki wurran. The da matha nganthin ngala i da bere matha wangu ngumamath ngumpan ngarra magulkul nganki.

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Aims

The Australian Curriculum: Framework for Aboriginal Languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages aims to develop the knowledge, understanding and skills necessary to ensure that students:

communicate in the language

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What is the Framework?

The Framework for Aboriginal Languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages (the Framework) is the first national curriculum document Foundation to Year 10 to provide a way forward for all schools in Australia to support the teaching and learning of the languages indigenous to this country.

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Guiding principles

Appropriate consultations with relevant Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander communities are always central to the development of language-specific curricula and the provision of language learning programs in schools.

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Structure

Pathways
To cater for differences between the ecologies of languages and the communities who are owners and custodians of those languages, and to cater for students who come from a variety of learner backgrounds, the Framework has three pathways:

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Using the Framework

The Framework is general in its structure and approach because it needs to be applicable to all Aboriginal languages and Torres Strait Islander languages in Australia, across the full range of language ecologies.

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PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Languages -  Framework for Aboriginal Languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages are available as PDF documents.
Scope and Sequence 
Sequence of Achievement - First Language …

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The Language Revival Learner Pathway (LR) provides opportunities for students to study Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander languages that are being revived by their owners or custodians and are in various stages of revitalisation, renewal and reclamation.

The LR category covers a much broader range of language types and ecologies than either L1 or L2, and the vast majority of Aboriginal languages and Torres Strait Islander languages are included in the LR category.

Schools teaching the Language Revival Learner Pathway (LR) will most likely be located broadly within the region of the target language and culture, sometimes in towns and cities, and other times in rural and remote regions. Classes will likely include students who relate closely to the language and culture, as well as students with varying degrees of affiliation with the language and culture, including some who have no connections to either the language or the culture. A key expectation in the LR pathway is that of students having opportunities to interact with Elders and particular places on Country/Place.

The Language Revival Learner Pathway draws on the Australian Indigenous Languages Framework (AILF) and takes into account key variables such as: how much is known and documented of the language; the extent to which it is used or remembered, ranging from no longer being spoken (owners often use the term ‘sleeping’) to being spoken fluently by members of the older generations; and the extent to which it has been reintroduced into the community of owners and custodians.

These variables give rise to the following broad categories of language revival:

  • Language Revitalisation: where there are fluent L1 speakers (typically members of the older generation) but where intergenerational transmission of the language has been interrupted. Younger generations may understand some of the language and may use some words and phrases, but do not speak it as their first language. Examples of revitalisation languages include Walmajarri in the Kimberley, Yindjibarndi in the Pilbara, Meriam in the Torres Strait, Dyirbal in north-eastern Queensland, Wubuy (Nunggubuyu) in Arnhem Land, and Adnyamathanha (Yura Ngawarla) in the Flinders Ranges. .
  • Language Renewal: where there are a number of adult speakers who use the language to varying degrees in the community, but not ‘right through’, and where there are other language resources to draw upon. Examples of languages being renewed include Noongar in south-west Western Australia, Gumbaynggirr on the north coast of New South Wales, Ngarrindjeri on the Lower Murray Lakes in South Australia, Djabugay in the Atherton Tablelands in northern Queensland, and Yugambeh in southern Queensland.
  • Language Reclamation: where language revival, by necessity, relies primarily on historical documentation of the language in the absence of active community knowledge of it. Examples of reclamation languages include Kaurna from Adelaide, Narungga from the Yorke Peninsula, Dharuk or Eora (Iyora) from Sydney, Yuwibara from central Queensland, Wemba-Wemba and Woiwurrung from Victoria, and Awabakal from the Newcastle area in New South Wales,

A number of factors and variables will need to be considered when developing a language revival curriculum, including:

What is known and documented about the language:

Many languages may only be known from wordlists, which are typically of widely varying quality. Some may have sketchy grammars. Others may have recorded texts from which some grammar may be extracted. Others, which have slipped from everyday use, may have audio and film resources. In the case of poorly documented languages, where speakers no longer exist and sound or film resources were never made, there will be many gaps to fill. Source materials will need to be interpreted through comparison with each other and with closely related languages, if documentation of these languages exists.

Where there are still speakers of the revival language, fewer gaps will need to be filled and fewer assumptions will need to be made. The remaining speakers of the language will be the arbiters of what is correct or not. In such cases, it is not unusual to have widely differing opinions about what is right, which may simply reflect underlying dialect differences or processes of language change. Where a language is only known from written, historical records, there will be more need for interpretation and the support of historical and comparative linguistics in rebuilding the language, with the understanding that the revived language will most likely never precisely match the original language in structure, vocabulary or usage.

The extent to which the language is used or remembered

Revival languages also differ in the extent to which they have been re-introduced into the community of owners and custodians, for example:

  • the range of functions for which the language is now used (for example, private conversations, written communication, digital messaging, social media)
  • the extent of its use in the public domain (for example, public speeches, Welcomes to Country, Acknowledgements of Country, naming of public entities and institutions)
  • its use in educational programs (for example, at school or post-school level, in community schools, involving both Indigenous and non-Indigenous people)
  • the degree of development of contemporary resources (for example, alphabet books, dictionaries, grammars, learner’s guides, readers, animations, radio shows, television shows, websites with online language lessons, phone apps).

Some languages have only just begun their journey of revival, while others have advanced to a point where initial generations of new first language speakers are emerging, as parents use the revived languages with their children.

For languages with limited documentation, English or another community language might be used in school programs in a complementary fashion, for example, to fill in for missing words or expressions. Alternatively, language owners and the community in general may decide to sidestep these gaps altogether, avoiding the use of English or other languages entirely.

Implications for developing language specific curricula and language programs

The curriculum content and achievement standards in the Language Revival Learner Pathway are generalised in order to cater for the range of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander languages that may be learnt within this pathway.

The Language Revival Learner Pathway is pitched approximately at middle-of-the-range revival languages; that is, those languages which no longer have fluent first language speakers but have sufficient resources, including a grammar and dictionary, to enable a comprehensive, cumulative, rigorous and meaningful teaching program to be developed. Where there are major gaps in knowledge or documentation relating to a particular language consideration needs to be given as to how far the curriculum content and achievement standards can be realised and sustained for long-term, cumulative learning. An Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander cultural studies program may be the better option under circumstances of severe constraint.

Many programs will use the LR pathway for languages that have few, if any, speakers or associated language community. It is conceivable, however, that over time a language functioning well in revival mode could develop a sufficiently substantial speech community across all generations for it to be taught and learned in either the L1 or L2 pathway. Until a revival language achieves this critical mass, however, the recommended language learning pathway remains LR.

The content descriptions, content elaborations and achievement standards for the Language Revival Learner Pathway will need to be adapted when developing language-specific curricula.

Language-specific curriculum development for languages that are being revived, still have first languages speakers, are regaining fluent speakers, or have substantial resources, could consider incorporating some aspects of the content and achievement standards from the First Language Learner or Second Language Learner pathways; or using the L2 pathway as a base for curriculum development. In these instances content descriptions, elaborations and achievement standards will need to be adapted and modified to ensure that the curriculum is appropriately pitched and reflective of the nature of the language, the nature of the learners and the context of learning.

Summary of Key Features of the Language Revival Learner Pathway

Language Revival Learner Pathway

Languages being revived by their owners and in various stages of revitalisation, renewal and reclamation

Language learners who relate closely to the language and culture, as well as learners with varying degrees of connection to the language and culture and some with no connections

Curriculum written on the assumption that LR programs will typically occur broadly within the geographical region of the language and culture

Curriculum pitched approximately at middle-of-the-range revival languages

Foundation to Year 2

Foundation to Year 2 Band Description

The nature of the learner, the pathway and particular language

The Language Revival Learner Pathway (LR) provides opportunities for students to study Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander languages being revived by their owners or custodians and which are in various stages of revitalisation, renewal and reclamation.

LR covers a much broader range of language types and ecologies than either L1 or L2, and the vast majority of Aboriginal languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages are included in the LR category.

Schools offering the Language Revival Learner Pathway (LR) will most likely be located broadly within the geographical region of the language and culture, sometimes in towns and cities, other times in rural and remote regions. Classes will likely include students who relate closely to the language and culture, as well as students with varying degrees of affiliation with the language and culture, and some students who have no connections with either the language or culture. A key expectation in the LR pathway is that of students having opportunities to interact with Elders and particular places on Country/Place.

The Language Revival Learner Pathway draws on the Australian Indigenous Languages Framework (AILF) and takes into account key variables such as: how much is known about and documented for the language; the extent to which it is languages used or remembered, ranging from languages no longer spoken (owners often use the term ‘sleeping’) to those spoken fluently by members of the older generations; and the extent to which it has been reintroduced into the community of owners and custodians.

These variables give rise to the following broad categories of language revival:

  • Language Revitalisation : where there are fluent L1 speakers (typically members of the older generation) but where the intergenerational transmission of the language has been interrupted. Younger generations may understand some of the language and may use some words and phrases but do not speak it as their first language. Examples of revitalisation languages include Walmajarri in the Kimberley, Yindjibarndi in the Pilbara, Meriam in the Torres Strait, Dyirbal in north-eastern Queensland, Wubuy (Nunggubuyu) in Arnhem Land, and Adnyamathanha (Yura Ngawarla) in the Flinders Ranges.
  • Language Renewal : where there are a number of adult speakers who use the language to varying degrees in the community, but not ‘right through’, and where there are other language resources to draw upon. Examples of languages being renewed include Noongar in south-west Western Australia, Gumbaynggirr on the north coast of New South Wales, Ngarrindjeri on the Lower Murray Lakes in South Australia, Djabugay in the Atherton Tablelands in northern Queensland, and Yugambeh in southern Queensland.
  • Language Reclamation : where language revival, by necessity, relies primarily on historical documentation of the language in the absence of active community knowledge of it. Examples of reclamation languages include Kaurna from Adelaide, Narungga from the Yorke Peninsula, Dharuk or Eora (Iyora) from Sydney, Yuwibara from central Queensland, Wemba-Wemba and Woiwurrung from Victoria, and Awabakal from the Newcastle area in New South Wales.

A number of factors and variables will need to be considered when planning for a language revival curriculum or program, and further information on these is presented in the context statement for this pathway and in the section Using the Framework.

Children enter the early years of schooling with established communication skills in one or more languages and varying degrees of acquisition of early literacy. Learning typically focuses on learners’ immediate world of family, home, school, friends and local environment. They are learning how to socialise with new people, share with others, and participate in structured routines and activities at school.

Language learning and use

The language is learnt in parallel with English language and literacy. Learning in the two areas progresses at very different levels, but each supports and enriches the other.

As the program is likely to be on Country/Place, links can be made to local places of significance, local families, and local histories.

The language is used as much as possible in classroom interactions, routines and activities, supported by the use of visual and concrete materials, gestures and body language. At this stage, there is a focus on play and imaginative activities, games, music, movement and familiar routines, which provide scaffolding and context for language development.

Oral language is developed through listening to the sounds, shapes and patterns of the language, through activities such as rhymes, songs, clapping and action games, and through imitating and repeating sounds in aural texts and as modelled by the teaching team, visiting Elders and community speakers.

Learners experiment with simple formulaic expressions, single-idea phrases and with one- or two-word responses to prompts and cues. As they progress to using language for interactions such as greetings, asking for help, talking about self, friends and family, or asking and answering questions, they notice that language behaves differently in different situations. Creative play provides opportunities for exploring these differences and for using language for purposeful interaction.

Students learn about Country/Place and community by interacting with Elders and community members, by exploring Country/Place, and by engaging with stories, songs and other texts such as videos, maps, and pictures. They learn about the concepts of kin and social groupings.

Students learn to use appropriate respect terms and to demonstrate respectful and appropriate behaviour when interacting with Elders, community speakers and community texts. Learners for whom the language is their heritage language develop a stronger sense of their own group and individual identity through the study of the language and culture.

Students learn to recognise letters that represent the sounds of the language. They write by tracing and copying, forming letters legibly. They learn to read and write words and sentences independently, using modelled language, for example, matching pictures with single words, labels and captions. The use of repetition and recycling in instruction helps children to identify high-frequency words and simple phrases and to recognise the purpose and intention of simple texts.

Students begin to understand how the language works, and compare it with English and other known languages. They understand its place in the context of broader regional and national language diversity. They learn about their role in developing resources for the language, for example by working with the community language team to create new games and songs in language, understanding how such efforts support the language to grow.

Contexts of interaction

Across Foundation to Year 2, learning occurs largely through interaction with peers and the teaching team, supplemented by some access to Elders and others affiliated with the language for additional enrichment and authentication of the learning experience. Interacting with Country/Place and exploring the environment with Elders and other community members is essential to language learning at all stages, but is particularly important during this early establishment phase, when learning is grounded in the familiar and understanding of language as lived experience is so important.

Texts and resources

Country/Place and its associated community are the most important resources for learning. They are the origin of most of the texts children engage with.

Texts include a variety of spoken, visual, written and digital resources, which are short, clearly structured, and supported by visuals and paralinguistic elements such as tone of voice, facial expression, body gesture. They include repetition and recycling of structures and vocabulary. Children listen and respond to teacher talk, share ideas and join in with songs, stories and different forms of play, performance, conversations and other language-mediated activities. Print and digital texts include word lists, place names, stories, shared Big Books, songs, photos, videos, environmental maps and wall charts. Teacher-generated materials include games and items from the community and local environment. Some texts involve English or another community language in a complementary role, filling in for items or expressions that have not yet been reconstituted in the language. Other texts will be bilingual, with no mixing of languages.

Level of support

Learning is supported via the provision of experiences that are challenging but achievable with appropriate scaffolding and support. This involves modelling, monitoring and moderating by the teacher; provision of multiple and varied sources of input; opportunities for revisiting, recycling and reviewing learned language; and continuous cueing, feedback, response and encouragement.

The role of languages

Learners are encouraged to use the language whenever possible in class interactions and daily routines with the teaching team, Elders and community members. Maximal use of the language will increase learners’ language proficiency and enhance the language revival process.

English and other known languages are used for explanation and discussion, allowing learners to talk about differences and similarities they notice between the language and their first language(s) and culture(s), to ask questions about language and culture, to consider how they feel when they hear or use the language, and to talk about how they view different languages and the people who speak them. This introduction to the ‘meta’ dimension of intercultural learning develops the ability to consider different perspectives and ways of being as mediated by language.

For revival languages that are at the ‘beginning’ end of the revival spectrum, English or another community language might be used in a complementary fashion, for example, to fill in for missing words or expressions. Alternatively, language owners and the community in general may decide to side-step these gaps altogether, thus avoiding the need to use other languages for these purposes.


Foundation to Year 2 Content Descriptions

Socialising

Interact with each other, the teaching team and visiting Elders/community members, using language and gestures to greet and talk about self and family

[Key concepts: self, family and relationships; Key processes: interacting, sharing] (ACLFWC130 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • participating in everyday exchanges, such as greeting and leave taking
  • interacting with the teaching team and visiting Elders/community speakers, using appropriate protocols such as respect terms, behaviour and forms of address
  • introducing and describing self, family, friends, favourite objects and pets, using familiar and modelled language, supported by visual props such as drawings, photos
  • listening to questions (such as what, who, where) about self, family, friends and immediate environment and responding with words and actions, including gesture
Participate in guided group activities, such as games, songs and simple tasks, using movement and gestures to support understanding and to convey meaning

[Key concepts: cooperation, play; Key processes: turn-taking, matching, choosing, cooperating, following instructions] (ACLFWC131 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • participating in games, tasks and activities that involve turn taking, guessing, matching and choosing objects using modelled questions and responses
  • participating in action games and songs by matching actions to words
  • following instructions by moving around or locating objects in the classroom
  • accompanying Elders to gather traditional materials, such as nuts, twigs, bark, seeds, shells for use in craft related language activities
  • working collaboratively on a class performance or activity
  • working collaboratively to adapt and perform action songs, for example, by changing lyrics, substituting words and phrases based on modelled patterns, rehearsing and performing songs with appropriate gestures and actions
  • grouping and sorting natural objects from Country/Place, for example, leaves, stones, shells according to culturally appropriate categories
Interact in classroom routines and respond to teacher instructions

[Key concepts: routine, instruction; Key processes: participating, responding, following instructions] (ACLFWC132 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • participating in routine exchanges, such as, asking and answering questions, responding to the class roll, describing the weather, requesting classroom objects, participating in school and class creeds/affirmations
  • responding to and using routine classroom language, for example, ‘sit down’, ‘stand up’, ‘listen!’ ‘look this way’, ‘tidy up’
  • following instructions in language related to transition activities, for example, ‘form a circle’, ‘get into groups of three’, ‘put on your hat’, ‘line up’
  • responding to requests and instructions in verbal and non-verbal ways, such as movement, gesture and action, for example, in class and outdoors, in games and songs, or on visits and excursions

Informing

Discover key information about Country/Place by exploring Country/Place and listening to stories from Elders and community members

[Key concepts: natural and built environment, community life, Indigenous knowledge; Key processes: listening, observing, identifying, sorting, matching, labelling] (ACLFWC133 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • discovering places in the local area that have Indigenous names, such as streets, suburbs, parks, rivers, public institutions
  • visiting Country/Place to identify and name key topographical features, for example, creeks, springs, rocky outcrops, estuaries, reefs, desert landforms, taking photos and labelling them to create a class book
  • listening to Elders/community members sharing knowledge about Country/Place, identifying and recording key words and vocabulary
  • identifying, naming and labelling salient features of the built environment, for example, dwellings, public buildings, school, places to play, ports and roads
  • recording the weather and seasons of the Country/Place throughout the year in a picture diary or through a series of captioned paintings, including the seasonal behaviour of animals and what plants grow in particular seasons
  • naming, labelling and sorting into culturally appropriate categories elements from the environment such as bush foods, animals, plants and natural objects, classifying in terms of distinctions such as, edible/non-edible, meat/non meat, salt water/fresh water, day/night animals, rough/smooth, hard/ soft,
  • learning to read Country/Place with Elders’ guidance by looking for signs such as animal tracks and fruit fall, migratory birds, turtle tracks, animal behaviour, fresh diggings around a lair, appearance of whales
  • locating specific words and familiar phrases in texts such as charts, lists, photos, maps, and using the information to complete guided oral and written tasks
  • naming, labelling, drawing and matching outside body parts
  • learning and using vocabulary and expressions related to healthy living and eating
Give factual information using simple statements, gestures and captions

[Key concepts: Country/Place, community life; Key processes: labelling, describing, presenting, recounting] (ACLFWC134 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • using some location terms to talk about the Country/Place for example, up, down, near, far and using topographical words such as swamp, soakage, reef
  • presenting information about elements associated with Country/Place, for example, animals, plants, food, artefacts, using modelled sentences, matching captions to pictures and filling-in-gaps activities
  • contributing to a shared recount about an event such as sports day, an excursion, a class visit from an Elder, a visiting performance group from the Country/Place, a community celebration, for example, by making a Big Book, creating a display, digital presentation or class photo story
  • labelling aspects of daily routines, selecting captions or attaching word bubbles and sharing information with others
  • developing a pictorial story to describe activities and routines at home, at school, in the community

Creating

Participate in shared listening to, viewing and reading of texts and respond through singing, miming, play-acting, drawing, action and movement

[Key concepts: storytelling, response; Key processes: responding, performing, sharing, expressing; Key text types: songs, dances, stories, paintings and visual design, video clips (IndigiTUBE)] (ACLFWC135 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • performing songs or stories that include repeated phrases, rhythms and non-verbal forms of expression, such as clapping, gestures, facial expressions and dance
  • participating in shared reading of stories, responding through mime captioned drawings, dance, play-acting and other forms of expression
  • visiting important sites on Country/Place and listening to Elders/community members tell stories, and responding by drawing, labelling, re-enacting with puppets, props or actions
  • identifying key animals, birds and other characters in stories, songs, performances and dances
  • listening to Elders/community members tell stories and identifying which stories belong to which natural features in their region/Country/Place, including animals and natural species and recognising their significance
  • identifying and naming significant places, landscapes and topographical features on Country/Place through which travelling stories/storylines pass
  • identifying key messages expressed in stories, song, dance and visual art, for example, rules for living
  • predicting the content/meaning of narrative texts such as picture books, including titles, covers and illustrations, and giving reasons for their predictions
  • responding to simple questions about characters and events in imaginative and expressive texts such as stories, songs, dances
Create and present shared stories, songs and performances, using familiar words and patterns and support materials

[Key concepts: story, performance; Key processes: retelling, singing, re-enacting, dancing, drawing, performing; Key text types: songs, dances, stories, paintings and visual design, performances] (ACLFWC136 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • making a shared Big Book based on an event, experience or performance, labelling, captioning and drawing key elements
  • creating own stories by sequencing a series of pictures with captions or by creating a storyboard with labels, using modelled language and repetitive phrases
  • re-enacting or retelling simple stories, episodes or interactions, using puppets, props, actions or gestures and modelled language
  • creating digital texts based around familiar contexts and characters using images and captions
  • creating their own songs/raps, or new versions of contemporary songs/raps by substituting words and phrases such as animal names, places, geographical features, adding elements such as characters or places, incorporating non-verbal supporting elements such as clapping, gestures and facial expressions
  • creating dances, paintings and visual designs appropriate to the Country/Place

Translating

Translate frequently used words and phrases, using visual cues and resources such as word lists

[Key concepts: similarity, difference, meaning; Key processes: translating, noticing, identifying, explaining] (ACLFWC137 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • using classroom resources such as word banks/lists, wall charts, visual dictionaries, and pictures to translate the meaning of single words and common expressions
  • playing matching-pair games using everyday words and expressions from the language and from English
  • translating and explaining in English the meaning of words, phrases and gestures used in everyday contexts and situations
  • noticing elements of the language that are the same in English, such as the alphabet and some sounds
  • explaining symbols and their iconographies
Create simple oral, print or multimodal bilingual texts for the classroom environment, such as captions, signs, labels and wall charts

[Key concepts: meaning, bilingualism; Key processes: labelling, captioning, displaying, matching] (ACLFWC138 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • creating bilingual picture word lists, dictionaries, and class reference books of words and their meanings
  • creating bilingual texts for the school community, such as signs or notices
  • performing presentations for the school community that involve elements from the language and from English, such as a contribution to an assembly or a performance for Grandparents’ Day
  • creating bilingual resources for classroom learning activities, such as sets of word cards for matching games
  • writing captions for a photographic display to show parents/others about a class event or experience, such as sports day or caring for the environment activities

Identity

Describe aspects of self, such as family, school/class and language/s spoken, considering how these contribute to their sense of identity

[Key concepts: identity, self, family, belonging; Key processes: describing, explaining, identifying] (ACLFWC139 - Scootle )

  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • describing self and their family, for example, by drawing pictures of immediate family members or creating a family tree and labelling it with appropriate kinship terms
  • identifying self in relation to different groups, such as family, class or peer group, and representing these relationships through drawing captioned pictures, photos or digital presentations (Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students may be able to depict their totems/moieties and other affiliations)
  • exploring the idea of collective identity through symbols and practices such as Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander flags, items of dress, use of colours and patterns
  • noticing and comparing their own choices and use of words or expressions from different languages when communicating in English
  • recognising the relationship between language, place and family in the formation of identity in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities

Reflecting

Notice how using different languages involves some different ways of communicating and behaving

[Key concepts: language, culture, similarity, difference, respect; Key processes: noticing, comparing, responding] (ACLFWC140 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • capturing and sharing their impressions when singing songs, dancing, reading stories or playing games in the language, for example, by responding to teacher prompts in language or English, such as, What do you hear? What do you see? What do you notice about…? Why do you think that? How is this similar/different to…?
  • noticing similarities and differences between the language and English/other known languages in relation to cultural elements, such as the names of foods and animals particular to the climate and environment; and in cultural practices, such as sharing in extended families, special times, story-telling, yarning
  • considering how they communicate with different friends and family members who have different language backgrounds
  • describing how it feels to use the language in the classroom and with visiting Elders and community members

Systems of language

Learn the different sounds of the language and link these to written symbols and conventions

[Key concepts; pronunciation, intonation, writing; Key processes: imitating, noticing, distinguishing, reading aloud] (ACLFWU141 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • noticing and distinguishing sounds of the language and matching these with written symbols
  • recognising when the language is being spoken and distinguishing sounds of the language from English sounds and other known languages
  • experimenting with sound patterns in song, noticing how words and expressions can be separated into syllables to fit different tunes and rhythms
  • reading texts aloud to strengthen their familiarity with sound–symbol relationships, experiment with rhyme and alliteration and with written representations of these features
  • recognising and imitating intonation patterns associated with statements and questions, and understanding how these are distinguished in writing
  • learning that writing systems represent sounds and meanings, and becoming familiar with how the alphabet associates individual sounds/ a range of sounds with particular letters/ combinations of letters
  • noticing the shared alphabetic base of the language, English and other languages, with some differences
  • learning the conventions associated with the written form of the language, such as spaces between words, direction of writing and page layout, and comparing these with written forms of English and other known languages
  • associating written forms of morphemes, words and phrases with spoken forms of the language
Recognise the function of different word types and understand basic elements of language structures

[Key concepts: word function, word order, patterns, rules; Key processes: identifying, recognising, noticing] (ACLFWU142 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • understanding that words in the language have different functions, for example, words for things, words for actions, and that these functions are also found in other languages, such as English
  • identifying people, places, things and events using:
    • nouns, for example, family, kinship, plants/ animals, items in immediate natural and built environments
    • pronouns, for example, personal, interrogative, kinship, demonstrative
    • verbs for simple actions, states and processes
    • terms to qualify, quantify, classify or compare things, for example, size, colour, number
    • adverbs, for example, of location, time and manner
    • simple forms of negation
  • becoming aware of how word order may differ from English, for example, noun + qualifier vs qualifier + noun, ‘child happy’ vs ‘happy child’
  • recognising the use of common affixes on nouns, for example, the man’s dog’’, to the river’’, in the sea’’
  • learning the use of common affixes on verbs, for example, to indicate tense or mood
  • understanding and using metalanguage to describe word types, for example, noun, pronoun, verb
  • understanding that some parts of the language may have fallen into disuse and not be known today
  • noticing that new words can be formed from within the language itself, rather than borrowed from other languages
  • noticing that compared to English some words may be left out (ellipsis), or must be included or repeated in phrases and sentences, for example, “(it) went”, “big (dog) ate (it)”
Recognise there are many ways of communicating messages in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages

[Key concepts: communication, narrative; Key processes: recognising, identifying] (ACLFWU143 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • understanding that there are different ways of telling a story, such as Elders yarning, through song, dance, music and associated visual design and spectacle, and through painting (body, bark, rock, sand)
  • understanding that texts have a purpose, for example, greetings, Welcome to Country/Acknowledgement of Country/Place, traditional stories, paintings, songs and dances that convey community-wide messages
  • identifying some features of stories, for example, the fact that they are often about journeys across Country/Place, involving landforms, animals and plants
  • noticing how texts such as storybooks are sequenced and organised, for example, by identifying the main title and the connections between pictures and text
  • recognising that communication can also occur through sign language
Identify elements of the kinship system and its links to place and natural species

[Key concepts: kinship and totemic relationships, place, ceremonial expression; Key processes: identifying, recognising] (ACLFWU144 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • using kinship charts to identify kinship terms for immediate family, comparing with terms used in own family
  • recognising that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples have their own personal relationships with animal species and natural phenomena
  • recognising that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples have a personal relationship with language and place
  • identifying skin names, moieties and other groupings where appropriate
  • identifying which stories belong to which natural features, including animals, plants, topographical features and recognising their significance

Language variation and change

Recognise that different words and language forms are used to address and communicate with people according to relationship and context

[Key concepts: kinship, context; Key processes: noticing, recognising] (ACLFWU145 - Scootle )

  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • noticing that different forms of address and kinship terms are used depending on the relationship between participants
  • recognising that the way someone is related to others affects how he or she speaks to them
  • recognising that ways of speaking vary according to context and situation, for example, language used when interacting with peers during playground games is different to that used with the teaching team and with visiting Elders/community members
  • recognising that language used in particular interactions can vary between cultural contexts, for example, the use of titles in English compared to kin categories in the language
Notice that languages borrow words from each other

[Key concepts: relatedness, borrowing; Key processes: identifying, recognising, comparing] (ACLFWU146 - Scootle )

  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • noticing Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander words and phrases used in everyday Australian life, for example, koala, euro, billabong, dingo
  • recognising that some words in the language have come from other languages
  • recognising words in English that have been borrowed from other languages

Language awareness

Recognise that the language is part of the broader regional and national language diversity

[Key concepts: linguistic diversity, relationship; Key processes: identifying, recognising] (ACLFWU147 - Scootle )

  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • identifying/recognising Indigenous languages in the environment, for example, street names, names of parks
  • recognising that there are many different Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages in Australia, for example, by viewing Language maps of their region, their state and the whole of Australia
  • identifying neighbouring Indigenous languages of their region
  • recognising that linguistic diversity in contemporary Australia includes Indigenous as well as non-Indigenous languages, and that Australia has many languages, for example, by identifying languages used by different classmates by creating a class profile or language map
  • recognising that some Indigenous languages in Australia are strong, while others are endangered or in the process of being revived or reclaimed
  • recognising shared vocabulary across groups of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander languages, for example, words such as ‘hand’, ‘water’, ‘crow’
Understand that language belongs to communities, and that language learning requires the application of respectful and appropriate behaviour

[Key concepts: ownership, custodianship, belonging, respect; Key processes: demonstrating, applying] (ACLFWU148 - Scootle )

  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • Sustainability
  • understanding that each Aboriginal language or Torres Strait Islander language is recognised as belonging to a group of people who are the language owners or custodians
  • demonstrating and applying respectful and appropriate behaviours, including appropriate language forms, in the presence of visiting Elders/community members and during visits to important sites
  • understanding the purpose of Welcomes to Country/Acknowledgements of Country, and talking about their experiences of participating in Welcomes and Acknowledgements, for example, at school, sporting events, festivities

Role of language and culture

Notice that people use language in ways that reflect their culture, such as where and how they live and what is important to them

[Key concepts: Country/Place, language, culture, symbol; Key processes: noticing, recognising, questioning, making connections] (ACLFWU149 - Scootle )

  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • exploring culture as an essential part of human life, understanding that it is shared and passed on between generations; that it includes observable elements, such as ways of cooking or greeting, symbols such as flags and colours, as well as things that are not observable, such as beliefs and values, people’s ways of thinking about themselves and others and relating to their environment
  • recognising that in each culture there are general rules of what to say and do, when, where and with whom, and that these rules differ from culture to culture
  • recognising that beliefs and behaviours are woven into and expressed through languages, and cannot be separated from them
  • noticing how respect for Elders and Country/Place is built into the language
  • recognising significant cultural symbols and features in the language, for example, in song, visual design, dance moves
  • recognising that languages encapsulate values held about lands, waters and sky, for example, in expressions and concepts such as Caring for Country

Role of language building

Recognise that learning Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages can provide language revival benefits to communities

[Key concept: language ownership, language revival; Key processes: identifying, engaging] (ACLFWU150 - Scootle )

  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • understanding that language is communally owned and therefore owners must be consulted regarding any use of it, including learning it in school
  • identifying and engaging with local identities/personalities/people who are involved in language revival efforts
  • considering why learning an Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander language is important in Australia
Build the resources of the language by creating, performing and recording new texts, and by creating new contexts for its use

[Key concepts: language ownership, language revival; Key processes: noticing, building resources] (ACLFWU151 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • using the language in performances at school and wider public community events
  • building language resources, for example, by creating posters and/or language/cultural displays, and by working with the community language team to create new games and songs in the language
  • noticing that new words can be formed from within the language itself, rather than through borrowing words from other languages

Foundation to Year 2 Achievement Standards

The achievement standards for the Framework for Aboriginal Languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages LR pathway are generalised in order to cater for the wide range of languages which may be learnt as an LR within the school context. The achievement standards will need to be adapted for use for specific Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Languages.

The Achievement Standards in the Language Revival Learner Pathway will be shaped by the current progress of language revival for a particular language, and by the amount of vocabulary and variety of language structures available for teaching and learning.

By the end of Year 2, students interact with the teaching team, Elders and community members to talk about themselves and family, using familiar modelled language and gestures. They use appropriate protocols when interacting with Elders and community speakers, such as appropriate forms of address, terms of respect and behaviour. They use movement, gestures and modelled questions and responses to participate in guided group activities, for example, collaborating to adapt and perform action songs. They interact in familiar classroom exchanges, using routine classroom language, movement, gesture and action, for example when requesting objects, responding to simple questions, following instructions. They identify key information about Country/Place, under the guidance of Elders and community members. They use simple statements, gestures and written captions to demonstrate their understanding of Country/Place, for example, by naming bush foods, animals, plants and natural objects, and by classifying and labelling these into culturally appropriate categories. They identify places in the local area which have names in the language. They respond to texts such as stories, songs, dance and visual art through singing, miming, play-acting, drawing, action and movement. They demonstrate their understanding by identifying key animals, birds and other characters or by retelling/describing elements of images, performances or stories. Students use familiar words, patterns and support materials to create and present shared stories, songs and performances. They translate and explain the meaning of symbols, words, simple phrases and gestures used in everyday contexts and situations. They create simple bilingual texts for the classroom environment. They identify markers of their own identity, such as family, school/class membership and language/s spoken, and compare these to the importance of Place, family and relationships in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. Students identify similarities and differences in the ways people communicate and behave in different languages and cultures

Students are familiar with most sounds in the target language and can link these to written symbols and writing conventions. They use metalanguage to describe basic structures of the language, recognising that some elements may have fallen into disuse and be unknown today. They understand that messages in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages can be communicated in a number of ways, such as Elders’ story-telling, or through song, dance and visual design. Students identify elements of the kinship system when appropriate, and recognise that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples have their own personal relationships with Place, natural species and phenomena. They identify which stories belong to which natural features, including animals and plants. They know that different words are used to address and communicate with different people, depending on relationship and situation. They identify words in the language that have been borrowed from other languages. They recognise that many different languages are spoken at their school, in their local community, and in other parts of Australia. They identify how language use reflects where and how they live and what is important to them. Students identify the importance of learning Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages, including the benefits to communities of language revival. They recognise that new words can be formed from within the language itself and work with the community language team to build resources for the language, such as new games and songs.