Framework for Aboriginal Languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages

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Rationale

Nganki - ka Kardu thipmam - wa! I Murrinh warda ngatha. The nganthin ngumpanngerren. I ku ngakumarl, da ngarra ngugumingki wurran. The da matha nganthin ngala i da bere matha wangu ngumamath ngumpan ngarra magulkul nganki.

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Aims

The Australian Curriculum: Framework for Aboriginal Languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages aims to develop the knowledge, understanding and skills necessary to ensure that students:

communicate in the language

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What is the Framework?

The Framework for Aboriginal Languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages (the Framework) is the first national curriculum document Foundation to Year 10 to provide a way forward for all schools in Australia to support the teaching and learning of the languages indigenous to this country.

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Guiding principles

Appropriate consultations with relevant Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander communities are always central to the development of language-specific curricula and the provision of language learning programs in schools.

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Structure

Pathways
To cater for differences between the ecologies of languages and the communities who are owners and custodians of those languages, and to cater for students who come from a variety of learner backgrounds, the Framework has three pathways:

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Using the Framework

The Framework is general in its structure and approach because it needs to be applicable to all Aboriginal languages and Torres Strait Islander languages in Australia, across the full range of language ecologies.

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PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Languages -  Framework for Aboriginal Languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages are available as PDF documents.
Scope and Sequence 
Sequence of Achievement - First Language …

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Languages studied in the First Language Learner Pathway (L1) are typically used in spoken form as the language of everyday communication by whole communities across all generations.

Typically, but not exclusively, L1 programs will occur on Country/Place and will have constant involvement from a variety of speakers from the community. A key expectation in the L1 pathway is that of students having opportunities to interact with Elders and particular places on Country/Place.

Learners are typically Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander children who have learnt the language from their families as a first language and continue to use it naturally at home and play. Students may have varying skills in other languages, including varieties of English.

The First Language Learner Pathway provides students with an opportunity to study a first language at school. For these students, having the opportunity to learn their own language at school supports their cognitive development and signals recognition of the value and status of their language and ways of using and understanding language. Learning and using one’s own language at school also meets a widely held community aim to strengthen students’ sense of identity and their connection between families, community and Country/Place.

Students develop language skills to expand the domains of use in the language. This includes developing skills in registers and genres not normally encountered in their family and home community; in effect, this may involve the students in the creative development of new registers/genres, vocabulary and expressions in the language. As well as continuing to develop, extend and strengthen oracy, a key feature of the First Language Learner pathway is the development of written literacy.

The curriculum content and achievement standards in the First Language Learner Pathway are generalised in order to cater for the range of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander languages that may be learnt as a first language. The curriculum content and achievement standards will need to be adapted when developing language-specific curricula, and will need to be modified if the program occurs off-Country.

Summary of Key Features of the First language learner pathway:

First Language Learner Pathway

Spoken right through (full linguistic code)

Substantial range of speakers across all generations

Used as the language of community

Learners are typically Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander children who have learnt the language as a first language

Curriculum written on the assumption that L1 programs will occur on Country/Place

Years 7 to 10

Years 7 to 10 Band Description

The nature of the learner, the pathway and particular language

Languages studied in the First Language Learner Pathway (L1) are typically used in spoken form as the language of everyday communication by whole communities across all generations.

Typically, but not exclusively, L1 programs will occur on Country/Place and will have constant involvement from a variety of speakers from the community. A key expectation in the L1 pathway is that of students having opportunities to interact with Elders and particular places on Country/Place.

Learners are typically Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander children who have learnt the language from their families as a first language and continue to use it naturally at home and in social situations. Students may have varying skills in other languages, including varieties of English.

The curriculum content and achievement standards in the First Language Learner Pathway are generalised in order to cater for the range of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander languages that may be learnt as a first language. They will need to be adapted when developing language-specific curricula, and will need to be modified for programs occuring off-Country.

At this level, students bring a range of learning strategies to their language learning. They are increasingly aware of the world beyond their own and are engaging with broader issues of youth and society, land and environment, education and identity, while establishing a balance between increasing personal independence and social responsibilities. They are considering their future pathways and choices, including how their own language could be part of these.

Language learning and use

Learners work collaboratively and independently, exploring different modes and genres of communication, with particular reference to their current social, cultural and communicative interests. They pool language knowledge and resources to plan, problem-solve, monitor and reflect. They create and present more complex and varied texts, for example, shared stories, songs/raps, blogs, reports and journal entries, and plan, draft and present imaginative and informative texts. They use vocabulary and grammar with increasing accuracy and complexity, drafting and editing written work to improve structure and to clarify meaning.

Learners continue to expand their vocabulary to domains beyond their personal experience and interests. They use a range of grammatical structures and language features to convey more complex ideas and experiences. They use descriptive and expressive language to create particular effects and to engage interest. They make connections between texts and cultural contexts, identifying how cultural values and perspectives are embedded in language and how language choices influence how people, issues and circumstances are represented. They are increasingly aware of the nature of the relationship between languages and cultures, noticing how family, community values and behaviours, such as familiarity, mutual obligation, reciprocity, respect, caring for Country/Place, are conveyed in the language.

Contexts of interaction

Learning occurs largely through interaction with peers and the teaching team, while additional enrichment and authentication of the learning experience is provided through access to Elders and other speakers living in the community. Interacting with Country/Place to explore the environment and learn about Country/Place with Elders and other community members is essential to the learning of students at all stages.

Elders and community members may teach about gender-differentiated roles as encapsulated in language, working separately with male and female students as appropriate.

Students may also have some access to speakers in other regions through digital technologies and may have opportunities to participate in school excursions or camps.

Texts and resources

Country/Place and the community are the most important resources for learning. They are the origin of most of the texts and communicative situations that learners engage with.

Learners interact with a broad range of spoken, visual, written and digital texts, such as photographs, maps, oral histories, community texts such as posters from health clinics, community notices, songs, raps, dances, stories, painting and visual design, music, video clips and films.

They may also have access to community facilities and functions, such as the health clinic, art centre, coast patrol, local interpretative centre, community interpreters, and the office of the park ranger or land council.

Level of support

While learners at this level are less reliant on teacher support during interactions, continued provision of rich language input and modelled language are needed to consolidate and sustain their learning of the language in its extended spoken and written forms. The teacher provides both implicit and explicit modelling and scaffolding in relation to meaningful language use in a range of contexts, and explicit instruction and explanation in relation to language structures, grammatical functions, vocabulary and abstract cultural concepts. Opportunities for learners to discuss, clarify, rehearse and apply their knowledge are critical in consolidating language capabilities and in developing autonomy. Learners are encouraged to self-monitor, for example, by keeping records of feedback and through peer support, and to self-review and adjust language in response to their experiences in different contexts.

The role of languages

The language of study is the medium of instruction in First Language Learner Pathway classrooms. Other known languages play a complementary role, for example, when translating and creating bilingual/multilingual texts, and when comparing and contrasting writing systems, language structures, and language features and usage.


Years 7 to 10 Content Descriptions

Socialising

Discuss topics of interest to immediate and wider community, explaining, comparing, summarising and justifying points of view and responding to different perspectives.

[Key concepts: ways of talking, community issues, social, environmental, educational issues, aspiration, perspective; Key processes: comparing, explaining, discussing, summarising, justifying] (ACLFWC045 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • Sustainability
  • discussing their ways of interacting in a range of contexts and situations that involve different ways of talking, for example, using deferential speech styles with respected kin or authority figures and in relationships involving status, and more informal styles with friends and close family members
  • comparing personal reflections on shared experiences, such as visiting a metropolitan centre, a school excursion or a camp, noticing differences in their responses and perspectives
  • discussing community news items and events, such as local sport or celebrations, comings and goings of individuals and families, actions of community leaders, new infrastructure or extreme weather events, identifying facts from opinions and gossip and rumours from real events
  • discussing future learning and career pathways, comparing their aspirations and discussing and evaluating options
  • drawing on personal and community knowledge to participate in debates and discussions on social, environmental or educational issues that impact on their region/community, for example, effects of mining, farming, grazing or commercial fishing or tourism on community life, problems related to feral animals, endangered animals, introduced species, water quality, adequate infrastructure, public amenities, and health care, explaining and justifying points of view, and using strategies such as ‘story’ to make a point
  • canvassing differing opinions and perspectives on particular issues, for example, the challenge to traditional authority and transmission of knowledge posed by the technologies of literacy, the use of social media, the role of land councils in looking after Country/Place compared with traditional land and sea/water management practices, summarising arguments for or against particular points of view
  • critically analysing and discussing coverage in a range of news media of issues relating to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities
  • identifying and evaluating policies, actions and events that they believe contribute to the well-being of their community and other Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander communities, explaining and discussing their findings
Plan, participate in and evaluate events and activities that involve taking shared action, negotiating and problem-solving and that draw upon personal and community knowledge

[Key concepts: event, managing different perspectives; Key processes: organising, persuading, deciding, negotiating] (ACLFWC046 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • Sustainability
  • discussing plans for community initiatives, taking account of different participants’ roles and relationships, and deciding on appropriate and effective ways of communicating with the people involved
  • designing a campaign or developing a persuasive audio-visual text to promote awareness and invite action on an educational, community, social, environmental or health issue, such as the importance of learning the language at school or the benefits of being bilingual/multilingual
  • negotiating and planning a familiar and routine event, such as an excursion, celebration or social media forum
  • negotiating arrangements and solving problems that arise during collaborative learning tasks, weighing up alternatives, negotiating and managing different opinions and perspectives and reaching shared decisions
  • participating in a simulated job interview as either the employer or prospective employee
  • working with Elders to make their own hunting and gathering tools, for example, fishing nets, spears, digging sticks, baskets, and explaining special ways of cooking, cutting and sharing traditional foods, performing hunting activities in ways that are appropriate to local cultural traditions, including the use of signs and gestures
  • considering options and reaching shared decisions when planning performances or presentations to showcase their language and cultural Law learning
  • collaboratively planning and presenting a short documentary, for example, on an aspect of community life, a community, an environmental or ethical issue, a good news story or a community or school achievement
Engage in inclusive and respectful discussion that involves commentary, analysis and reflection on shared experience, such as that of learning and using the language in the school setting

[Key concepts: reflection, encouragement, literacy, learning strategies, respect; Key processes: discussing, analysing, reflecting, justifying] (ACLFWC047 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • reflecting on their experiences of giving oral presentations and considering ways to improve their delivery
  • developing language to support and extend discussion and debate, for example, by inviting opinions or further elaboration, clarifying or justifying their own statements, responding to others’ perspectives and using reflective language
  • providing encouragement or critical feedback to others in constructive ways
  • reflecting on the usefulness of particular learning tasks, discussing their comparative language and literacy development in the language and in English, and documenting their use of their language in school, for example, through recorded notes in a reflective journal
  • identifying and comparing learning strategies that have supported the study of their language in the school context, for example, learning vocabulary and language structures associated with different domains of language use
  • discussing the advantages of being literate in the language and being bi-literate or multi-literate
  • developing the language of reflection

Informing

Investigate, analyse and synthesise information obtained from a range of sources on topics and issues related to their Country/Place and community

[Key concepts: change, social and environmental issues, community initiatives/ projects, health and well-being; Key processes: researching, investigating, interviewing, comparing, summarising] (ACLFWC048 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • Sustainability
  • researching social and community issues from the past, evaluating and summarising information on selected issues, comparing them to issues that impact on present times and presenting findings, for example, writing a report, giving a presentation
  • investigating how practices have changed over time, for example, those associated with trading, how things such as ochre, sea shells and pituri were traded traditionally; travelling outside one’s country to trade; transitions from nomadic life to community settlements; changing land and sea management practices, such as the use of fire or waste disposal
  • interviewing key individuals and listening to local history stories about, for example, the coming of the Europeans, land rights, stolen generations, summarising findings in note form
  • explaining how language and culture help to promote sustainable care of the environment
  • investigating and explaining land and sea management practices for different times of the year, for example, burning time, waterhole maintenance, sea grass watch, turtle tagging, comparing these practices to western practices
  • investigating reasons for recent changes in elements of local ecologies
  • identifying, explaining, and evaluating practices adopted to support the protection and reintroduction of endangered species
  • developing a photographic record/portfolio of different animal and plant species with commentary/annotations to explain different parts and features, documenting and explaining the influence of seasonal changes and different uses
  • seeking information from Elders to assist in classifying living things according to Indigenous taxonomy systems, comparing these systems with those used in western approaches to the study of living systems
  • reflecting upon different ways that Indigenous and non-Indigenous people view land ownership and management, and on how such differences are reflected and realised in daily and seasonal practices, for example, firestick farming vs mechanised ploughing
  • working with rangers to record the GPS locations of places
  • giving a presentation of Country/Place by describing places and explaining how to get to various locations using directional and locational terms
  • reading and viewing local media reports and interviewing community members to gather information about current or proposed community initiatives and projects, evaluating pros and cons and likely impacts on community and environment; for example, new roads through to mine sites, community internet access, the construction of a swimming pool, new buildings, arts productions that involve marketing and royalties
  • researching social or environmental matters such as Indigenous Protected Areas, feral or endangered animals, using commentaries and information generated through community or media debates to construct and justify a personal position
  • gathering and presenting information about the nature of community roles and responsibilities, for example, by describing who has the rights for getting food from different places
  • researching and presenting biographies of significant identities from their community in oral, written or digital form
  • identifying, describing and evaluating various Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander organisations that provide services to their community
  • describing and explaining a range of practices relating to food gathering, such as the division and distribution of food from a hunting trip, for example, the awarding and use of different cuts of meat, special ways of cooking, cutting and sharing traditional food
  • investigating community store options in relation to nutritional value, value for money, impact on health and sustainability, making comparisons with traditional options for sourcing food
  • researching, recording and reporting on traditional ways of preventing sickness and staying healthy, including finding and preparing bush medicines under the supervision of Elders
  • describing how bush medicines and traditional healing practices can be used in conjunction with medicines from other cultures, such as Western medicine and different natural therapies
  • researching and presenting findings on different aspects of a selected business operating in the community, for example, enterprises related to arts, bush medicine, bush food, tourism, transportation, animal husbandry
  • researching and evaluating community health programs, outlining what they see to be associated benefits and challenges, and making suggestions/recommendations for possible improvements or modifications
  • collecting and presenting evaluations of various programs, initiatives and policies that contribute to the health and well-being of community, and analysing the significance of environmental factors, identity issues and connection with land/sea, water culture and language in relation to such initiatives
Convey information about events, experiences or topics of shared interest, using different modes of presentation to suit different audiences and contexts

[Key concepts: audience, Country/Place, community life; Key processes: describing, explaining, creating, annotating, reviewing, persuading, reporting, presenting, referencing] (ACLFWC049 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • writing a review/report or create a mock commentary of an event such as a football match, school camp, school dance or music festival, using expressive and specialised language
  • creating a short documentary to present information and stories, for example, about their school, their community, Country/Place and social and cultural events
  • planning, drafting and publishing informative and persuasive texts, selecting appropriate language, visual and audio features to convey information and ideas, raise issues, report events and advance opinions
  • designing websites, posters or presentations that include visual representations and supporting commentary
  • reporting on their own or others’ experiences of events using formats such as personal recounts, blogs or digital/oral presentations
  • interviewing and writing a biography of a significant individual or group from their region, for example, a sportsperson, community leader/negotiator/spokesperson, musician, artist
  • creating texts such as blog posts, contributions to school newsletters or letters to local media on social and environmental issues, using persuasive and emotive language to gain support from others in the community
  • producing fact sheets or informative videos about a current issue, an historical event, an aspect of their Country/Place
  • compiling a portfolio of texts in a range of modes/styles/genres related to a particular concept, purpose or audience, for example, a class anthology of stories from the community, a collection of procedural texts, histories of the region, profiles of community identities, using supporting evidence, and quotes and appropriate referencing conventions,
  • planning, rehearsing and giving presentations, selecting and sequencing appropriate content and incorporating multimodal elements to either promote a particular point of view or to reflect diversity of viewpoints
  • writing an article for a local newspaper or a letter to the editor or local council in relation to a community issue, using examples, stories and quotations to explain and substantiate a particular viewpoint
  • creating an interactive presentation for younger children or for the community that highlights the benefits of maintaining and strengthening their own/home/first language
  • creating spoken, written or multimodal texts, such as identity maps, timelines, digital presentations or family trees with captions and commentaries that describe key milestones and significant life influences, such as people, events, educational experiences, community affiliations, travel experiences, visits away from Country/Place, shifting place of residence, and considering how these shape identity

Creating

Interpret and respond to a range of texts, sharing and comparing personal views and reactions, describing, explaining and comparing aspects of artistic expression and how these relate to land, people, plants, animals and social and ecological relationships

[Key concepts: representation, imagination; Key processes: interpreting, explaining, describing, discussing; Key text types: songs, raps, dances, traditional and contemporary stories, paintings and visual design, video clips, films] (ACLFWC050 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • explaining concepts such as social responsibility or knowledge of History portrayed through characters in traditional texts, discussing the relevance of such concepts and their portrayal in contemporary life
  • listening and responding to stories from Elders explaining how the actions of ancestral beings created the landscape of their Country/Place
  • interpreting and responding to texts such as songs, stories, films or video clips by recording key vocabulary and expressions, identifying and explaining main ideas, themes and sequences of events, and sharing personal views and reactions with others
  • interpreting and comparing representations of values, people and events in a range of traditional and contemporary texts in a range of environmental, social and ecological contexts
  • discussing how key messages and beliefs are communicated through stories and through performing arts and visual design, for example, comparing the role and representation of animals, people and landscapes through different texts and media
  • describing and explaining aspects of artistic expression, for example, traditional and contemporary paintings, design, dance, the different roles of social groups in relation to traditional song and dance, the use of favoured materials and processes in the making of artefacts or the construction of headdresses
  • listening to, viewing and sharing personal responses to popular contemporary music, interpreting and analysing lyrics and dialectical variations, comparing key messages, themes and styles of performance and considering how they incorporate commentary on social issues
  • viewing films, identifying and describing the ways they portray Country/Place through elements such as language features, images, soundtrack
  • discussing, debating, evaluating or reviewing a film or contemporary performance, justifying and comparing their individual opinions
  • listening to and viewing television programs, IndigiTUBE clips, contemporary songs, or raps, identifying elements that suggest either shifts in social or cultural attitudes from those reflected in traditional texts or evidence of continuing values and belief systems
  • telling the story of a painting rock art or etching in their own words, comparing their interpretations of the visual design, including the use of symbols and colours
  • providing a live commentary of a dance performance, interpreting movements, commenting on the significance of body art and adornments and interpreting key messages of the performance
Create a range of spoken, written and multimodal texts involving real/imagined contexts and characters

[Key concepts: imagination, journey; Key processes: creating, collaborating, performing, composing; Key text types: raps, songs, dances, performances, stories, cartoons, advertisements, digital texts, video clips, skits, paintings and visual designs] (ACLFWC051 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • collaborating with peers to create their own dramatic or humorous representations of people, situations or events encountered in their own lives
  • using aspects of texts in imaginative recreations, for example by re-situating a character from a contemporary text in a new situation
  • creating a rap or skit, including in digital formats, to perform to their peers that provides commentary on a local social, environmental or community issue that is important to them
  • creating and performing sketches that involve characterisation, context and dramatic tension, for example, interviewing a celebrity or sports star, or appearing on a television show
  • composing, performing or presenting songs, jingles or advertisements to create new interest in existing or imagined situations, services or products
  • creating own art work (visual and performing) to convey a message, using selected arts elements, visual design and conventions as appropriate
  • taking on the role of a character from a contemporary story and responding to questions in-role, or interviewing a character from a contemporary story
  • creating and presenting a radio segment for a community radio station, for example, an imaginary broadcast of a footy match, an interview with a sports star or celebrity, a community news or events flash
  • composing expressive texts such as protest statements, personal letters or persuasive speeches that require careful use of emotive or powerful language, noticing how they select language or imagery and the basis for this selection
  • creating a short visual text of an aspect of Country/Place, accompanied by a sound track containing music and sound effects from the region
  • developing storylines, characters and settings that explore themes or concepts that are relevant to their own social worlds

Translating

Transcribe, translate and interpret texts from the language into other languages of the region and into English and vice versa, considering and explaining factors that influenced the translation from one language and discussing issues related to translating and interpreting

[Key concept: equivalence, representation, meaning, interpretation, ethics; Key processes: translating, interpreting, transcribing, comparing, explaining, analysing] (ACLFWC052 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • translating and interpreting short texts from the language into other known languages including English and vice versa, comparing their translations of particular sentences or phrases with those of their classmates, noting variations and considering why these occur
  • translating and interpreting a range of texts, for example, narratives, stories, song lyrics, dialogues, posters, stories from the past, considering how to explain elements that involve cultural knowledge or understanding
  • discussing the nature of translation with reference to strategies such as decoding literal meaning (word-for-word), reading for meaning (sense-for-sense) and cultural reading (between the lines), and strategies such as back-translation
  • analysing published bilingual texts such as children’s stories, health charts or song lyrics, and commenting on how well the translations have captured original meaning
  • critically evaluating the effectiveness and accuracy of subtitles for films, video clips or documentaries, finding examples of meaning ‘lost in translation’
  • researching interpreting services in their area, for example, identifying services provided, the role of interpreters, qualifications required, ethical dimensions, and issues around interpreting and translating in specialised contexts, for example, in health, education or tourism
  • understanding and applying culturally appropriate and ethical behaviour when interpreting and translating, for example, explaining ways people should act in interpreting contexts and considering potential consequences of inaccurate interpreting
  • role-playing interpreting in a range of contexts, for example, healthcare, education, training programs, social services, administrative, Indigenous communications and media
  • researching the types of texts which are transcribed within the school and wider community, discussing reasons for this
  • transcribing a range of text types, for example, life histories, stories, information and procedures, explaining and following accepted procedures and protocols
Produce short bilingual/multilingual texts such as digital stories, comics, animations, blogs and contributions to community newsletters

[Key concepts: bilingualism, expression, interpretation; Key processes: creating, performing, designing, interpreting, annotating] (ACLFWC053 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • creating bilingual/multilingual texts for the wider community, for example, creating subtitles, captions or commentaries for texts such as brochures, life histories, slide shows or video clips that inform the wider Australian community of significant aspects of their culture, community and personal identities
  • interviewing community members about their life stories and experiences to create bilingual texts that incorporate photos, maps and timelines, stories and songs
  • performing a role-play, skit, song or dance for a visiting student audience, using their language for the performance and English for supporting explanations and commentary
  • creating a bilingual//multilingual display, for example, a photographic display to showcase shared events and experiences, such as a trip to other communities or to the city
  • creating a bilingual information pack in print and/or digital form about their school and local region for a visiting school
  • producing bilingual/multilingual fact sheets or informative videos about a current issue, historical event, aspect of their Country/Place
  • creating a bilingual/multilingual video clip, for example, to express the importance of maintaining and developing their own language for themselves and for the community
  • creating glossaries and annotations in English that provide explanations for cultural and contextual references in songs, stories and dance

Identity

Investigate, explain and discuss the relationship between kinship, Law, land, sea/water and sky

[Key concepts: identity, relationship, kinship, Law, connection, interrelatedness, rights, obligations; Key processes: exploring, discussing, investigating, describing, reflecting] (ACLFWC054 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • exploring the concepts of connection and interrelatedness and discussing associated rights and responsibilities
  • discussing kinship as it applies to adulthood and the resultant changes in practices, rights and obligations at this stage of life, for example, changes in ways of referring to people
  • describing kinship connections they have with the surrounding region and communities
  • understanding and discussing kinship as a system, and explaining its importance in maintaining and regulating social relationships
  • investigating and discussing how social groups form patterns across generations and determine relationships and behaviours, such as those associated with marriage, for example, classificatory in-laws, ceremonial peers
  • investigating how particular policies and practices affect the sense of individual and collective identity of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, for example, in relation to experiences such as language loss, separation from Country/Place/family/community, stolen generations
  • reflecting on how Indigenous Australians from different nations express their group identity, for example, through practices and symbols such as flags, Welcomes to Country, Indigenous rounds in sporting leagues
  • reflecting on how their biography, including family origins, traditions, beliefs, practices, interests and experiences, shape their sense of identity and ways of communicating
  • discussing the link between identity and connections to land/sea/water, culture and language and the health and well-being of individuals and community
Describe and discuss the relationship between people, community and Country/Place, and how individuals and groups demonstrate connections to areas of land and sea/water and their rights and obligations with respect to those areas

[Key concepts: Country/Place, land, water, sea, sky; rights and obligations, responsibility; Key processes: discussing, reflecting] (ACLFWC055 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • discussing with Elders how patterns of ownership and management of land, water, sea and sky and associated stories determine rights and responsibilities with respect to those elements
  • reflecting on how the language links the local, regional and national identity of its speakers with the land, water, sea and sky
  • talking about how family relationships are linked to looking after Country/Place
Investigate and discuss how connections between Law, story, ceremony, visual design, people and Country/Place are demonstrated and manifested in individual and community behaviour

[Key concepts: identity, Law, behaviour, story, ceremony, guidance; Key processes: investigating, explaining, discussing] (ACLFWC056 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • investigating and explaining the connections between rules, Law and kin systems, and how these can be demonstrated through visual design and performing arts
  • discussing Law for behaviour associated with cultural practices and traditions, for example, birth, naming and funeral ceremonies
  • learning from Elders different roles and responsibilities associated with ceremonies that are determined by kinship and social groupings
  • listening to and receiving guidance from Elders on how ceremony, place and Law and are connected through kinship, story and cosmology and how they are demonstrated in community behaviour
  • discussing how stories and songs often link neighbouring Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander groups and nations

Reflecting

Reflect on the relationship between language, culture and identity, and how this shapes and reflects ways of communicating and thinking

[Key concepts: intercultural experience, perspective, insight, self-reflection; Key processes: comparing, analysing, discussing, explaining, reflecting] (ACLFWC057 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • finding examples of interactions which are more appropriate in their own language than in English or vice versa, for example, using their first language to talk about community activities, family relationships, social and cultural activities, using English to talk about school work, excursions to other regions, towns, and considering why this is the case
  • monitoring and analysing their use of their own language(s) and English in different domains of language use, for example, by keeping a record of when they use each language for different functions or in different contexts
  • identifying and reflecting on instances when using both their own language and English in the same interaction makes for easier communication, and sharing their reflections with others
  • discussing the different things they need to consider, change and accommodate when interacting with speakers of different language backgrounds, for example, watching for signals of misunderstanding, being mindful of different perspectives and traditions
  • comparing how their relationships with people of different generations, gender and language backgrounds influence their ways of communicating
  • reflecting on intercultural learning at school and intercultural experience in and out of school
  • reflecting on the experience of using the language in the school context, for example, by identifying elements of experience that provide new challenges, such as having to adopt the full form of language as opposed to young people’s talk or regional varieties at home
  • discussing the concept of shared responsibility as it applies to intercultural communication, considering how effective interaction and exchange involves elements of noticing, analysing, reflecting, responding and adjusting
  • identifying ‘repair and recovery’ strategies that can be used to respond to miscommunication between speakers from different languages and cultural backgrounds, for example, self-correction, apology, asking for repetition and clarification, rephrasing
  • sharing and comparing cultural and intercultural experiences, and exchanging views on the benefits of speaking more than one language, such as having a larger vocabulary to draw on, additional insights and perspectives and opportunities for new/different experiences
  • identifying and comparing how emotions or attitudes such as respect, shyness, exuberance or embarrassment are shown/displayed across different languages and cultures

Systems of language

Understand and explain sound patterns in the spoken language, representing these patterns with an expanding repertoire of written symbols and conventions

[Key concepts: sound system, writing system, intonation, rhythm, punctuation, conventions; Key processes: listening, recognising, analysing, comparing, reading aloud, transcribing] (ACLFWU058 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • reading aloud extended text to show flow of ideas
  • understanding the conventions adopted when citing others in language written for wide readership, and different ways of referencing these
  • editing their own texts for word-choice, spelling, grammar and punctuation
  • recognising how quotation marks may be used to mark parts of text as having special status, for example, quoted (direct) speech, and experimenting with the use of this device in own writing
  • comparing speech-sound constraints in different languages, for example, sets of vowel and consonant phonemes, allowable combinations of sounds, rules for word stress
  • describing the articulatory basis of speech sounds in their language(s)
  • developing a metalanguage to describe and talk about sounds and phonology, for example, place and manner of articulation, intonation, and word and sentence stress
  • understanding the major place of articulation categories in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages, for example, peripheral, laminal, apical, and their realisation across different languages and regions in Australia
  • recognising phonological affinity in related languages that use differing spelling systems
  • using their expanding knowledge of alphabetic conventions to transcribe speech sounds, syllables and words from a wide range of languages
  • comparing published phonology charts for a variety of different languages, noting the associated writing systems
  • transcribing complete texts of spoken language, using a range of alphabetic and punctuation conventions, supported by their grammatical and vocabulary knowledge of the language
  • comparing and explaining the internal consistency of spelling systems for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages and English
Develop and use (meta)language to analyse a range of grammatical structures in their language(s) and English

[Key concepts: system, grammatical case, affixation, transitivity, particles, metalanguage; Key processes: explaining, discussing, making comparisons and connections] (ACLFWU059 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • explaining the full range of case marking in their language(s), such as the sharing of several case functions by single markers, the use of different markers for the same function
  • discussing the use of case and gender in English pronouns, comparing with their language
  • identifying and explaining how verbs are derived from nouns
  • explaining how references to people, places, things and events may be varied and modified by using extra words, or particles, or by using affixes, for example, expressions for ‘having’, ‘for want of’, ‘similar to’, ‘like’, and the various forms of negation
  • analysing and explaining the delineation of time, manner, attitude and place in their language(s), for example, temporal expressions such as ‘beforehand’, ‘afterwards’, ‘too late’, ‘originally’, and attitudinal elements such as ‘ought to’, ‘I wish’, and terms expressing endearment or disavowal
  • explaining issues of agreement with transitive and intransitive verbs, including devices such as embedding and serialisation
  • discuss the differing treatment of transitivity in the language(s) and in English
  • making comparisons and connections within and across languages, for example, case systems used within different languages in Australia and elsewhere, the use of tense markers in verbs
  • demonstrating the main topical areas of the vocabulary, for example, groupings of natural species, cardinal directions, kinship systems, and contrasting these with English
  • discussing relationships between their language and languages of the region, for example, common words and structures
  • discussing some contrasts between their own language and English in relation to grammar, discourse structure and figurative use of language
Investigate the ways people communicate using spoken, written and visual modes and analyse the form and structures of a range of texts, including their use, role and relationship to other social processes

[Key concepts: text, relationship; Key processes: analysing, investigating, linking and sequencing] (ACLFWU060 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • analysing a range of texts, their role, use and relationship to other social processes, for example, in respect to declaring identity, acknowledging traditional belief systems, acknowledging ancestors, passing on knowledge and information, mapping resources on Country/Place and managing natural phenomena such as weather
  • discussing ways songs function to fix language and meaning in ways similar to literature in other cultures
  • investigating the use of sign language in their community and its relation to spoken language
  • applying principles of text organisation when developing both oral and written texts to develop or present ideas, noticing differences in characteristic features of oral and written discourse
  • linking and sequencing ideas to form a cohesive text, using appropriate grammatical forms and language features, for example, serialisation, connectives, embedding, headings and paragraphs
  • experimenting with language appropriate to particular text types, such as descriptive language in documentaries, reflective language in diary and journal entries and persuasive language in advertisements

Language variation and change

Analyse variations in language use that reflect different social and cultural contexts, purposes and relationships

[Key concepts: respect, silence, kinship, body language, code-switching; Key processes: examining, explaining, analysing] (ACLFWU061 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • explaining how elements of communication, such as gestures, facial expressions, choice of language and use of silence, vary according to context, situation and kin relationships, for example, eye contact, pointing with lips
  • analysing the constraints that guide language use, for example by identifying and explaining why words become taboo, for example, the use of Kumunjayi and other word substitution as part of sorry business
  • recognising that there are specific ways of communicating that are associated with particular relationships and situations, for example, ways of behaving during sorry business, public events or meetings, topics only suitable for young fellas and girls, use of hand signs and body language, such as speaking to the side, using indirect references, silences, gestures or eye contact
  • distinguishing different registers of language, for example, language of ceremony, mother in-law language, talk used when communicating with older people
  • analysing intergenerational differences in language use, for example, young people’s language when talking about popular culture, the strong ‘right through’ language of the older generation
  • explaining variations in language use that reflect different levels of formality, authority and status, for example, ways of talking to Elders at formal community events compared to everyday interactions
  • understanding connections between land, language and culture which are expressed by shifting/switching between languages and varieties of language, for example, differences between parents’ clan languages
Understand that languages and cultures change continuously due to contact with one another and in response to new needs and ideas, popular culture, media and new technologies

[Key concepts: contact, change; Key processes: exploring, observing, reflecting] (ACLFWU062 - Scootle )

  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • exploring forms, usage and history of contact languages in their broader region, including creoles, pidgins and Aboriginal Englishes
  • observing changes to language that reflect changing lifestyles, cultural trends and emerging needs, for example, youth language, new technologies, language associated with music, media and technology
  • reflecting on changes in their own use of their language over time, noticing how and when new ways are adopted or existing ways adapted

Language awareness

Investigate and compare the ecologies of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages with indigenous languages in other countries, and consider issues such as languages policy, language rights, language loss, advocacy, reform and multilingualism

[Key concepts: environment, boundaries, policy, revival; Key processes: researching, investigating, exploring, considering] (ACLFWU063 - Scootle )

  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • investigating the geographical location of the language and the number of its speakers historically and in contemporary times
  • considering what might be future challenges facing their language in the context of its current linguistic ecology
  • exploring the use of English, Aboriginal English and creoles in their community
  • researching the impact of historical events, government policies, legislation and judicial processes, such as stolen generations, mission schools and advocacy on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages
  • identifying social and government policies and practices linked to particular geographical regions that have impacted positively on language acquisition, for example, the performing of Welcome to Country and the Acknowledgement of Country at events, on television programs and in films, efforts to raise the profile of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages in the wider Australian community
  • investigating the situation of indigenous languages in other countries, for example, New Zealand, Hawaii, North America, Japan, Latin America, considering issues such as language rights, language endangerment and revival and reclamation efforts, drawing comparisons with the situation of Aboriginal languages and Torres Strait Islander languages in Australia
  • understanding how the process of language-building expands existing linguistic and cultural resources in the Australian community
  • investigating and comparing the ecologies of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages with those of Indigenous languages in other countries, considering issues such as languages policy, language rights, language loss, advocacy and reform and multilingualism
Understand and apply cultural norms, skills and protocols associated with learning, using and researching Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages

[Key concepts: ownership, protocols, ethical behaviour; Key processes: acknowledging, investigating, applying] (ACLFWU064 - Scootle )

  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • acknowledging the cultural and intellectual property rights and copyright of the sources of their language work
  • understanding that permission and consent of the owners of languages must be sought by others when visiting their Country/Place
  • accessing, eliciting, recording and storing information appropriately according to cultural norms/mores

Role of language and culture

Reflect on how ways of using language are shaped by communities’ ways of thinking, behaving and viewing the world, and the role of language in passing on knowledge

[Key concepts: Indigenous knowledge, values transmission; Key processes: reflecting, exploring, analysing, comparing] (ACLFWU065 - Scootle )

  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • explaining the role of language in relation to culture and identity, and in passing on knowledge, such as sustainable care of the environment, rules for living, ways of behaving, spiritual and cultural functions and History
  • reflecting on the way their culture divides the natural and cultural world and comparing these to other systems such as other indigenous systems and western systems
  • analysing concepts related to cultural values in their language, for example, naming systems, kinship terms, nicknames, substitute words and pronoun systems, comparing to practices in other languages and cultures
  • exploring how language is important in maintaining traditional culture and society in relation to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and to all Australians
  • analysing and discussing core cultural concepts reflected in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages, such as respect, avoidance, reciprocity, obligation, responsibility
  • understanding that culturally significant attitudes and beliefs conveyed through language are related to the past, and to land, flora and fauna and ceremonies
  • considering how they use conversational strategies to avoid disrespect, such as using indirect language
  • drawing on their own experiences of using their own language(s) and English in different contexts to consider how language can be either empowering or disempowering and inclusive or exclusive
  • identifying and comparing how emotions or attitudes such as respect, shyness, happiness or embarrassment are expressed across different languages and cultures
  • recognising that there are multiple views on and partial explanations for events and issues
  • reflecting on the ways culture is interpreted by others, for example, by identifying how stereotypes influence ways of thinking

Role of language building

Investigate programs, initiatives and techniques that keep Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages strong

[Key concepts: language maintenance and development; Key processes: discussing, exploring, investigating, evaluating, language building, language engineering] (ACLFWU066 - Scootle )

  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • analysing the domains of language use where language building has occurred, considering why this is the case and investigating some of the techniques used, for example, language engineering, adapting sounds, coining new words
  • understanding the importance of intergenerational collaboration and transmission in keeping languages strong and discussing some of the associated challenges
  • investigating programs and initiatives that serve to maintain and strengthen language use, for example, school languages programs, bilingual education, research programs, recording and archiving of material, websites, databases, documentaries, language nests and Master-Apprentice programs
  • exploring the role and importance of advocacy in supporting the maintenance and development of language and culture
  • identifying keeping places for language texts, for example, in the community or national archives
  • understanding the importance of strong and viable Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians alike
  • considering domains where their language may grow in the future
  • understanding their role as contemporary documenters and users of the language, for example, by interviewing Elders and transcribing stories, reminiscences, advice, ways of doing things, rules for living

Years 7 to 10 Achievement Standards

The achievement standards for the Framework for Aboriginal Languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages First Language Learner Pathway are generalised in order to cater for the range of Aboriginal languages and Torres Strait Islander languages that may be learned as an L1 in the school context. The achievement standards will need to be adapted for use for specific Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages.

By the end of Year 10, students use written and spoken language to communicate with the teaching team, peers, Elders, community members and others in a range of settings and for a range of purposes. They use language to access and discuss information on a broad range of social, environmental, educational, cultural and community issues. They summarise and justify points of view, and respond appropriately to the opinions and perspectives of others using reflective language. They use strategies to initiate, sustain and extend discussion by inviting opinions, elaborating responses, clarifying and justifying statements with supporting evidence. When interacting in different social situations and with different social groups, students use appropriate ways of talking, for example, using appropriate speech styles with respected kin or authority figures and in situations involving seniority and status, and more informal styles with friends and close family members. They use respectful language to negotiate, problem-solve and to manage different opinions and perspectives and to reach shared decisions in collaborative tasks. Students investigate, analyse and evaluate information from a range of sources and perspectives on topics and issues related to their Country/Place and community; they present their findings using different modes of presentation to suit different audiences and contexts. They employ effective presentation strategies, including degrees of directness and length of utterance appropriate to the situation, and an appropriate restatement in accordance with spoken norms or developing written styles. They summarise main ideas and include varying amounts of supporting detail. They apply appropriate cultural norms and protocols when learning, using, recording and researching Aboriginal languages and Torres Strait Islander languages, and when engaging with cultural property. Students respond to stories, songs, dances and forms of artistic expression by describing main ideas, key themes and sequences of events and explaining how these relate to land and water, sky and weather, plants and animals, and social and ecological relationships. Students create a range of informative, persuasive, and procedural texts, as well as texts based on real and imagined experiences, in written, spoken and multimodal forms, such as reviews, reports, stories songs, conversations, brochures, blogs, and procedures for traditional activities. They use appropriate vocabulary and grammatical forms to link and sequence ideas to form meaningful texts, for example, serialisation, connectives, embedding; and apply typological conventions such as headings, paragraphs, fonts, formatting. Students apply culturally appropriate protocols and ethical behaviour to create, transcribe, translate and interpret texts, providing alternative expressions when equivalence is not possible and explaining elements such as language choice and variation due to dialect or register. They analyse and compare translations and interpretations of texts, explaining factors that may have influenced the translation/interpretation. They understand their role as contemporary documenters and users of the language, for example, by interviewing Elders and transcribing stories and placing them in safe-keeping places. Students explain how the kinship system maintains and regulates social relationships, and provide examples of how connections between Law, Lore, story, ceremony, visual design, people, and Country/Place are reflected in individual and community behaviour. They describe how individuals and groups affirm connections to areas of land and water and to individual places. They explain the rights and obligations associated with these connections and how these contribute to individual and social identity and a patterning of community roles. Students identify the relationship between language, culture and identity, describing how personal and community identity are expressed through cultural expression and language use. They reflect on their own ways of communicating, discussing how these might be interpreted by others.

Students use metalanguage to describe isolated speech sounds and the phonology of languages as a whole, and to analyse a range of grammatical structures in the language. They edit their own work and use appropriate conventions to cite others and to reference external information. They explain variations in language use that reflect social and cultural contexts, purposes and relationships, different registers of use (for example, mother-in-law language), intergenerational differences, and constraints that guide social interactions, such as word avoidance and substitution. They provide examples of how languages and cultures change continuously due to contact with one another and in response to new needs and ideas, popular culture, media and new technologies. Students make comparisons between the ecologies of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages and indigenous languages in other countries, in areas such as language policy, language rights, language loss, advocacy and reform, language revival and multilingualism. Students identify factors that serve to maintain and strengthen language use such as intergenerational collaboration and transmission, programs and initiatives in school and community, and explain associated challenges. They demonstrate their role as contemporary documenters of the language, for example, by interviewing Elders and transcribing stories, reminiscences, advice, ways of doing things, rules for living, and by placing documents in safe keeping places.