Framework for Aboriginal Languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages

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Rationale

Nganki - ka Kardu thipmam - wa! I Murrinh warda ngatha. The nganthin ngumpanngerren. I ku ngakumarl, da ngarra ngugumingki wurran. The da matha nganthin ngala i da bere matha wangu ngumamath ngumpan ngarra magulkul nganki.

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Aims

The Australian Curriculum: Framework for Aboriginal Languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages aims to develop the knowledge, understanding and skills necessary to ensure that students:

communicate in the language

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What is the Framework?

The Framework for Aboriginal Languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages (the Framework) is the first national curriculum document Foundation to Year 10 to provide a way forward for all schools in Australia to support the teaching and learning of the languages indigenous to this country.

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Guiding principles

Appropriate consultations with relevant Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander communities are always central to the development of language-specific curricula and the provision of language learning programs in schools.

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Structure

Pathways
To cater for differences between the ecologies of languages and the communities who are owners and custodians of those languages, and to cater for students who come from a variety of learner backgrounds, the Framework has three pathways:

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Using the Framework

The Framework is general in its structure and approach because it needs to be applicable to all Aboriginal languages and Torres Strait Islander languages in Australia, across the full range of language ecologies.

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PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Languages -  Framework for Aboriginal Languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages are available as PDF documents.
Scope and Sequence 
Sequence of Achievement - First Language …

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Languages studied in the First Language Learner Pathway (L1) are typically used in spoken form as the language of everyday communication by whole communities across all generations.

Typically, but not exclusively, L1 programs will occur on Country/Place and will have constant involvement from a variety of speakers from the community. A key expectation in the L1 pathway is that of students having opportunities to interact with Elders and particular places on Country/Place.

Learners are typically Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander children who have learnt the language from their families as a first language and continue to use it naturally at home and play. Students may have varying skills in other languages, including varieties of English.

The First Language Learner Pathway provides students with an opportunity to study a first language at school. For these students, having the opportunity to learn their own language at school supports their cognitive development and signals recognition of the value and status of their language and ways of using and understanding language. Learning and using one’s own language at school also meets a widely held community aim to strengthen students’ sense of identity and their connection between families, community and Country/Place.

Students develop language skills to expand the domains of use in the language. This includes developing skills in registers and genres not normally encountered in their family and home community; in effect, this may involve the students in the creative development of new registers/genres, vocabulary and expressions in the language. As well as continuing to develop, extend and strengthen oracy, a key feature of the First Language Learner pathway is the development of written literacy.

The curriculum content and achievement standards in the First Language Learner Pathway are generalised in order to cater for the range of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander languages that may be learnt as a first language. The curriculum content and achievement standards will need to be adapted when developing language-specific curricula, and will need to be modified if the program occurs off-Country.

Summary of Key Features of the First language learner pathway:

First Language Learner Pathway

Spoken right through (full linguistic code)

Substantial range of speakers across all generations

Used as the language of community

Learners are typically Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander children who have learnt the language as a first language

Curriculum written on the assumption that L1 programs will occur on Country/Place

Foundation to Year 2

Foundation to Year 2 Band Description

The nature of the learner, the pathway and particular language

Languages studied in the First Language Learner Pathway (L1) are typically used in spoken form as the language of everyday communication by whole communities across all generations.

Typically, but not exclusively, L1 programs will occur on Country/Place and will have constant involvement from a variety of speakers from the community. A key expectation in the L1 pathway is that of students having opportunities to interact with Elders and particular places on Country/Place.

Learners are typically Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander children who have learnt the language from their families as a first language and continue to use it naturally at home and play. Students may have varying skills in other languages, including varieties of English.

The curriculum content and achievement standards in the First Language Learner Pathway are generalised in order to cater for the range of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander languages that may be learnt as a first language. The curriculum content and achievement standards will need to be adapted when developing language-specific curricula, and will need to be modified for programs occuring off-Country.

Students enter the early years of schooling with well-established skills in spoken forms of the language along with a growing knowledge of local community and culture. In addition they may have varying skills in other languages, including varieties of English. School is often the first place these children encounter written language as a systematic means of communication.

Language learning and use

As well as continuing to develop oracy, a key feature of the First Language Learner Pathway is the development of literacy and extending language use in additional domains, particularly relating to the school context. Children build a vocabulary for thinking and talking about school topics, routines and processes, and expand their knowledge and understanding by exploring Country/Place with Elders and community members and by engaging with stories and other texts in the language.

Children learn about the concepts of kin, social groupings and how these are connected to the natural environment. They learn about their own songs, stories, dances and designs and their own place in the kinship system.

From Foundation to Year 2 children are learning how to interact with people in new contexts, share with others, and participate in more structured routines and activities. They learn about school, teacher and community expectations in terms of ‘right’ behaviour and ‘right’ ways of talking.

The curriculum builds on children’s interests and sense of enjoyment and curiosity, with an emphasis on active and experiential learning and confidence building. Creative play provides opportunities for using the language for purposeful interaction in some less familiar contexts. Imaginative activities, games, music and songs, movement and familiar routines provide essential scaffolding and relevant contexts for language development.

Students are supported to use the language for different language functions and in different domains, such as asking and responding to questions on a range of topics, expressing feelings, following instructions, working together for a common purpose, and taking turns in games and simple shared learning experiences.

They learn to recognise how the sounds of the language and its intonation are encoded in writing. They begin to understand how the language works, comparing and contrasting it with other known languages and learning how it fits into the diversity of regional and national languages.

The transition from spoken to written language is scaffolded through shared exploration of simple texts and language features. Children progress from supported comprehension and use of a small number of high-frequency and personally significant sight words to more elaborated texts that take account of context, purpose and audience. They use grammatical, cultural and contextual cues to comprehend texts and engage in communicative interactions. They progress from writing by tracing and copying, to independently forming legible letters. Writing skills progress from the ability to label images and copy high-frequency words to co-construct simple texts using familiar vocabulary, language features and structures. Children begin to develop familiarity with different types of texts in different genres.

Contexts of interaction

Across Foundation to Year 2, learning occurs largely through interaction with peers and the teaching team, with access to Elders and other speakers living in the same community for additional enrichment and authentication of the learning experience. Interacting with Country/Place to explore the environment with Elders and other community members is essential to learning at all stages, but particularly in the early years, when learning is grounded in the familiar, and understanding of the role of language as lived experience is important.

Texts and resources

Country/Place and the community are the most important resources for learning and are the origin of most of the texts and communicative situations offered to learners.

Children engage with a variety of spoken, visual, written and digital texts. They listen and respond to teacher talk, share ideas, and join in with song, dance, story, rap, as well as with various forms of play, performance, conversational exchanges and activities mediated by language. Printed and digital texts include stories, shared Big Books, wall charts and teacher-generated materials such as games, flashcards and items from the community and local environment. They engage with visual texts such as designs on body, bark and sand, and etchings and carvings on wood and rock.

Level of support

Learning is supported through the provision of experiences that are challenging but achievable with appropriate scaffolding and support. This involves modelling, monitoring and moderating by the teacher; provision of multiple and varied sources of input; opportunities for revisiting, recycling and reviewing; and continuous cueing, feedback, response and encouragement. Use of recount, experiencing and retelling in oral and written formats assists in establishing early literacy.

The role of languages

The language of study is the principal medium of instruction in First Language Learner Pathway classrooms, while other known languages play a complementary role, such as for translating and creating bilingual/multilingual texts.


Foundation to Year 2 Content Descriptions

Socialising

Interact with peers, the teaching team and visiting Elders/community members to share information, thoughts and feelings about family, friends, community, activities, events and experiences

[Key concepts: family, community, friendship, personal world, experience, responsibility, safety; Key processes: interacting, sharing, describing, recounting] (ACLFWC001 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • interacting with peers, the teaching team and visiting Elders and community members, using appropriate ways of talking, including terms of respect and forms of address, and using sign language as appropriate
  • sharing and describing recent events, favourite pastimes and personal experiences, for example, a sporting event, a fishing or hunting trip, a trip to a waterhole, calling in on family or visiting a neighbouring community
  • collaboratively recounting experiences they have shared together, for example, trips to the bush or town, school events, sports days, meeting special guests
  • engaging in class and small group discussions, listening to others and exchanging ideas on topics such as healthy eating, safe behaviours, who to ask for help, responsibilities at home, school and in the community
  • talking in appropriate ways about feelings, thoughts, wants and emotions, for example, looking at pictures of people and discussing how they might be feeling or what might have happened to them; talking about what makes them happy, embarrassed, ashamed, angry or afraid and discussing possible strategies or responses when they experience such feelings
  • identifying trusted people in their community who can help them stay safe and healthy, and rehearsing ways of asking for help in a range of different scenarios
Participate in shared tasks and activities that involve following instructions, making things and cooperating with peers

[Key concepts: family, cooperation, play; Key processes: participating, active listening, following instructions, making, turn-taking] (ACLFWC002 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • listening to, remembering and following instructions from an Elder/community member, for example, how to make traditional tools or prepare traditional foods
  • collaborating with others in art and craft activities, for example, gathering and using traditional materials such as ochre, nuts, twigs, bark, seeds, shells, feathers; decorating musical instruments/artefacts; making bush toys
  • participating in traditional and contemporary games, tasks and activities that involve turn-taking, guessing, matching and choosing objects, bush tucker collecting, sand story telling
  • working collaboratively with peers and the teaching team, for example, to adapt and perform action songs, make a class Big Book, design posters with a health or behavioural message, create a display, create and perform an item for school assembly
  • practising personal skills such as active listening and showing self-discipline and respect for others in interactive group situations
  • using appropriate phrases and expressions for turn-taking in games and activities
  • grouping and sorting bush food such as meat, food grubs, artefacts, leaves and tools into appropriate cultural categories
  • giving directions, for example, to guide others to locations or through an obstacle course
Participate in conversations and interactions that involve behaviours such as active listening, showing interest, asking questions and contributing ideas, information

[Key concepts: routine, consideration, contribution, appropriateness; Key processes: active listening, participating, responding, following instructions] (ACLFWC003 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • participating in routine classroom exchanges, such as responding to the class roll, asking and answering questions, making requests and expressing opinions in appropriate ways
  • encouraging and praising others using appropriate language and interaction behaviours
  • negotiating and following class rules and demonstrating understanding of class/school/teacher/community expectations in relation to respectful relationships, right behaviour, and right ways of talking in class and at school
  • negotiating with class members and members of the teaching team, using respectful language for agreeing or disagreeing and considering how others might respond before expressing their views
  • building vocabulary and language forms for thinking and talking about school topics and routines
  • participating in and contributing to class discussions using appropriate strategies for turn-taking
  • using ways of talking and listening that are appropriate to particular activities, for example, sitting and listening to a story, paying attention to what the teacher is doing, joining in interactions such as singing or playing
  • learning and using appropriate language and actions to communicate their feelings in different situations

Informing

Locate/ discover/identify key information about Country/Place and community by exploring Country/Place and listening to stories from Elders and community members

[Key concepts: Country/Place, natural environment, Indigenous knowledge, the past, community life, health and well-being; Key processes: listening, reading, mapping, reading Country/Place, exploring, observing, recording, describing, classifying] (ACLFWC004 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • listening and responding to Elders and community members telling stories about aspects of the past, for example, bush toys and children’s games, hunting, fishing and gathering food, how food was prepared and cooked, implements used, animals that were eaten, ways of travelling from place to place, kinds of dwellings, how water was found
  • describing and recording different weather and seasons of their Country/Place in a picture diary or a series of paintings, annotating them with changes that occur throughout a year, including the seasonal behaviour of animals and what plants grow in particular seasons
  • learning to read Country/Place with Elders’ guidance, for example, by looking for tell-tale signs such as animal tracks and fruit fall, migratory birds, turtle tracks, animal behaviour, fresh diggings around a lair
  • recognising and drawing and labelling different animal tracks
  • investigating/exploring Country/Place with Elders/community members or park rangers, for example, by identifying different trees, plants, animals and insects, making leaf and bark rubbings, observing how different bush foods grow and are used, observing different animal behaviour, such as hiding by camouflaging, taking photos or drawing and writing captions and comments to make a class book
  • observing and describing different plants, for example, parts of the plant, plant size and shape of leaves and seeds, where/how they grow
  • observing and describing animals/living creatures, how they move, where they live (for example, in burrows and nests), what they eat, naming body parts, how they reproduce
  • classifying animals, plants and natural objects from the environment, using appropriate cultural categories, for example, edible/non-edible, meat/non meat, salt water/fresh water, day/night animals, wood/rock, rough/smooth, hard/soft, things that live in trees, in water, plants that grow together/alone
  • identifying, naming, and labelling key places and topographical features such as creeks, springs, rocky outcrops, water sources, estuaries, reefs, desert landforms, using some location and directional terms such as up, down, near, north, south, east, west
  • describing the direction and location of familiar places (near and far, above and below, beside and opposite)
  • identifying and labelling some important places in the built environment, for example, dwellings, settlements, community store, health clinic, art centre, ranger station, school, places to play, roads and tracks, describing and explaining their purpose and role and who works there
  • naming and discussing key ceremonies and social and cultural events, the times of year at which they occur and associated activities in the community
  • viewing local photos, videos, books, IndigiTUBE, to find information about cultural practices such as musical instruments used, performance paraphernalia
  • recording how frequently/ for what purposes they visit particular places, representing information on a graph or table with teacher guidance
  • identifying, talking about and describing artefacts, describing how they are used, how they are made and maintained, what materials they are made from
  • labelling, drawing and matching inside and outside body parts
  • learning and using vocabulary and expressions related to healthy living and eating, personal hygiene and fitness
Give factual information about family, friends, Country/Place and community using simple statements and descriptions, captioned drawings and photos

[Key concepts: daily routines and activities, events, Country/Place, community life ; Key processes: labelling, captioning, describing, contributing, recounting] (ACLFWC005 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • representing aspects of their daily routines using different modes of expression, for example, by writing captions, descriptions or attaching word bubbles to drawings
  • creating a pictorial story to describe activities and routines they do at home, at school, in the community
  • contributing to a shared recount, such as a class photo story to report on an event, for example, a hunting trip, a school visit, an excursion or school or community celebration
  • creating posters to convey important messages, for example, in relation to health and well-being, caring for Country/Place

Creating

Participate in shared listening to, viewing and reading of texts, identifying and describing favourite elements, main characters and key events and responding through singing, dancing, drawing, movement and action

[Key concepts: storytelling, response; Key processes: responding, performing, sharing, expressing; Key text types: songs, raps, dances, traditional and contemporary stories, paintings and visual design, video clips (IndigiTUBE)] (ACLFWC006 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • participating in shared reading of traditional and contemporary stories and responding, for example, by sequencing and captioning pictures, drawing events in sequence, retelling and re-enacting with props or actions
  • predicting the content/meaning of narrative texts such as picture books, including titles, covers and illustrations, and giving reasons for their predictions
  • illustrating and describing main characters and key events in stories, songs and performances
  • discussing their favourite characters or events in familiar stories, songs, performances, making simple evaluative statements and comparing each other’s responses to the texts
  • identifying key animals, birds and other characters in stories, songs, performances and dances, recognising and describing particular patterns of movement and discussing the significance of particular dance elements
  • listening to Elders/community members telling stories from the local area, and responding by retelling parts of the story, for example, in the sand, in dot paintings, or through performance
  • listening to Elders/community members tell stories, identifying which stories belong to which natural features in the region/Country/Place and the significance of particular animals and natural species
  • identifying, naming and describing significant sites, landforms and other features of Country/Place through which a travelling story passes
  • identifying and discussing key messages expressed in stories, song, dance and visual design
  • reading contemporary texts and recreating elements in new imaginative ways, using oral language, visual design, dance, digital technologies and performance
Create and present shared stories, songs and performances using familiar words and expressions that allow for exploration and enjoyment of language

[Key concepts: story, performance; Key processes: creating, narrating, retelling, singing, dancing, drawing, performing, shake-a-leg; Key text types: songs, raps, dances, stories, paintings and visual design, performance] (ACLFWC007 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • making a shared Big Book or digital text based on an event, experience or selected characters or elements of favourite texts, using drawing, labelling, captioning and describing
  • creating own stories by sequencing a series of pictures and adding captions or commentary, or by creating a storyboard with labels
  • re-enacting or retelling simple stories, episodes or interactions with props, actions and gestures
  • creating new versions of contemporary songs and raps, substituting words and phrases such as animal names, places, geographical features, changing settings and adding characters, incorporating non-verbal forms of support such as clapping, gestures and facial expressions
  • creating new dance sequences, paintings and visual designs to tell a story, incorporating elements of traditional design

Translating

Translate words and expressions used in everyday contexts and situations, from the language into other known languages and vice versa

[Key concepts: similarity, difference, gesture, sign language; Key processes: noticing, translating, explaining] (ACLFWC008 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • translating common words, expressions and gestures used in everyday contexts and situations from the language into other known languages and vice versa, using classroom resources such as word banks, wall charts, visual dictionaries, word lists and pictures
  • playing matching-pair games using words and phrases used in everyday conversations in the language and in other languages
  • showing others how different signs and hand talk are used if applicable and explaining basic signs for things from the natural environment, for example, water, animals
  • explaining symbols and their meanings to others
  • recognising that every language has its own words, sounds and gestures that it uses to make meaning
Create simple print, oral, digital bilingual/multilingual texts, such as songs, wall charts, labels for the classroom, class rules, timetables

[Key concepts: meaning, code, bilingualism; Key processes: creating, matching, captioning, sequencing] (ACLFWC009 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • creating bilingual/multilingual word lists, wall charts, picture dictionaries, using vocabulary encountered in texts such as school signs and notices, songs and storybooks
  • creating simple bilingual texts, for example, school/classroom signs, school/classroom rules, timetables, charts, labels for objects used in the classroom and in the community
  • creating sets of matching bilingual word cards
  • creating and performing short bilingual/multilingual chants, songs, raps that move between the language and other known languages
  • performing simple presentations for the school community that involve elements from both the language and other known languages, such as a contribution to an assembly or a performance for the wider community
  • writing bilingual/multilingual captions for a photographic display about a class event or experience, such as sports day, caring for the school environment, reading night

Identity

Learn about and understand the concepts of kin, social groupings and relationships, and how these are connected to the natural environment

[Key concepts: identity, relationship, kinship, family terms; Key processes: identifying, categorising, representing, explaining, creating] (ACLFWC010 - Scootle )

  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • creating poster/kinship chart/tree depicting own family and labelling with appropriate kinship terms for immediate and extended family members
  • using sign language for kinship terms and immediate families (if appropriate)
  • identifying self as belonging to part of a family and/or social group, such as a footy group, representing relationships through drawing pictures, adding captions to photos or creating digital presentations
  • identifying skin names of self and immediate family members
  • recognising their own clans and other sub-groupings and the symbolic representation of these, for example, totems and personal relationships with plant/ animal species and Country/Place
  • talking about family names, given name/s, skin names and moiety as appropriate, for example, maternal versus paternal grandparents, presence or absence of birth order names, and other ways of referring to people
  • categorising names of students in the class into clans, moieties and other sub-groupings, and where appropriate their affiliations with the natural environment, for example, salt versus fresh water, north versus south wind
  • learning from Elders appropriate ways of interacting with others and behaving according to kin and other social groupings
  • identifying elements of their behaviours or relationships that mark their individual or community identity
  • inviting grandparents from different family groups to come and talk about family
  • identifying relationships and connections between themselves and other students in the group, considering the nature of groups and sub-groups within the school and larger community
  • creating family history/life stories, identifying values and practices that keep families strong, such as working together
Identify with Country/Place and understand connections between Country/Place and individuals and groups

[Key concepts: Country/Place, kinship, social groups, identity, connections; Key processes: identifying, naming] (ACLFWC011 - Scootle )

  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • identifying which Country/Place belongs to their mother’s side and which to their father’s side
  • identifying and naming features of Country/Place that belong to their own family and kinship groups, using drawings, photos or presentations to explain to others
  • using appropriate language and behaviour when approaching particular sites of significance and other elements of Country/Place, for example, whispering, silences, making one’s approach known
  • acknowledging that their first language is a birthright which establishes their identity with respect to their Country/Place and its traditions
Identify their own songs, stories, dances and designs and their links to kinship systems

[Key concepts: identity, kinship, History, story; Key processes: identifying, describing, talking about] (ACLFWC012 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • identifying, listening to and talking about stories, songs and dances from their own traditional Country/Place and sub-groupings
  • describing body markings, designs and paintings relevant to their own identity
  • talking about how people are linked to song, story, dance and design through kinship systems
  • describing how story links plants, animals, people and protocols for visiting country

Reflecting

Notice how using the language and other known languages, including English, involve some different ways of communicating and behaving

[Key concepts: language, culture, context, similarity, difference, respect; Key processes: noticing, describing, comparing, responding] (ACLFWC013 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • noticing which languages they use in which contexts, for example, at home, when playing with friends, when talking with grandparents, at school when talking to teachers, at the community store, during visits to specific places on Country/Place
  • describing how it feels to use the language in the classroom compared to using it at home or in the community
  • developing language for talking about language and culture, for example, using terms such as ‘difference’, ‘Country’, ‘behaviour’, two ways’, and considering questions such as ‘Why is … like this?’ and ‘Why do people….?’
  • considering how they communicate with different friends and family members who speak different languages

Systems of language

Use and recognise the sounds, intonation and rhythms in the spoken language and learn how sounds and words relate to written language

[Key concepts: sound system, writing system, sound‒symbol correspondence, conventions; Key processes: listening, recognising, reading aloud] (ACLFWU014 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • recognising the sounds and syllables of familiar spoken words
  • learning with the visual support of writing how speech sounds join to form syllables, morphemes and complete words and phrases
  • learning that the writing system represent sounds and meanings, associating individual sounds or a range of sounds with particular letters and combinations of letters
  • recognising the letters of the alphabet and knowing that there are lower and upper-case letters and that letters are arranged from left to right
  • noticing that different languages may share similar speech sounds
  • using knowledge of sound–symbol correspondences to isolate and read syllables, morphemes and familiar words
  • recognising high-frequency sight words and morphemes
  • recognising special alphabetic conventions, for example, digraphs representing a single sound, diacritics that alter the regular value of a letter
  • using morphemes and syllabification to break up simple words and using visual memory to write more complex or less familiar words
  • checking for inclusion of relevant punctuation, including capital letters for sentence beginnings, full stops, question marks and exclamation marks
  • learning that written text in the language has conventions relating to words, spaces between words, layout on the page
  • using known words in writing and spelling new or less familiar words using developing visual and morphemic knowledge
  • reading texts aloud showing knowledge of sound–symbol relationships
Understand and use a developing vocabulary including topical and classificatory language, recognising the function of different word types in the language

[Key concepts: word function, word order, patterns, rules; Key processes: identifying, recognising, noticing patterns, observing] (ACLFWU015 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • understand and use vocabulary relating to familiar and unfamiliar topics, including synonyms and older words that might not currently be used so often
  • understanding that words have different functions, for example, words for things, words for actions
  • identifying common word classes, for example, noun, verb, using available terminology from the language as appropriate
  • recognising that sentences are key units for expressing ideas
  • recognising common prefixes and suffixes in the language and how they change a word’s function
  • learning new words for everyday contexts and for a growing number of school and community contexts
  • recognising that the language may have words in common with nearby languages
  • observing some words in the language that are not found in English and vice versa
Recognise there are many ways of communicating messages in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages

[Key concepts: communication, narrative; Key processes: recognising, identifying, comparing] (ACLFWU016 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • understanding that there are different ways of telling a story, such as Elders yarning, through song, dance and music and associated visual design and spectacle, and through painting (body, bark, rock, sand)
  • recognising that communication also occurs through sign language
  • understanding that texts have a purpose, for example, traditional stories, including hunting and travelling stories, paintings, songs and dances
  • understanding Country/Place as a text
  • identifying some features of narratives, for example, they are usually about journeys across Country/Place, involving landforms, people, animals and plants
  • recognising that writing, like speech, is rule-bound and involves following the conventions of different types of text
  • noticing how texts such as storybooks are sequenced and organised, for example, by identifying the main title and connections between pictures and written text
  • understanding that texts can take many forms; that they can be very short, for example, a sign, or quite long, for example, a story, song or multimodal presentation
  • recognising that written texts are made up of words, groups of words and illustrations or images that together make meaning

Language variation and change

Recognise that different words and language forms are used to address and communicate with people according to relationship and situation

[Key concepts: kinship, context; Key processes: noticing, recognising, comparing] (ACLFWU017 - Scootle )

  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • noticing that different forms of address and kinship terms are used depending on the relationship between participants
  • recognising that the way a person is related to another affects how he or she speaks and behaves with that person, as in the case of mother-in-law talk or avoidance relationships, such as poison cousins
  • recognising that ways of speaking vary according to context and situation, for example, language used when interacting with peers during playground games is different to that used with the teaching team in school
  • recognising that language used in particular interactions can vary between cultural contexts, for example, the different use of kin categories in the language
  • learning to use a different tone and style of language with different people
  • recognising that there may be different languages spoken in the community which can be distinguished by listening carefully
Recognise that languages borrow words from each other

[Key concepts: relatedness, word-borrowing; Key processes: identifying, recognising, comparing] (ACLFWU018 - Scootle )

  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • recognising words in the language that are borrowed from English
  • recognising that some words in the language have come from other Indigenous languages
  • noticing that some words used in Australian English have come from Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander languages, for example, ‘billabong’, ‘dingo’, ‘kangaroo’

Language awareness

Recognise that their language is part of broader regional and national language diversity

[Key concepts: linguistic diversity, language shift; Key processes: identifying, recognising] (ACLFWU019 - Scootle )

  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • identifying regions, places and communities where the language is spoken
  • mapping the different languages spoken in the class to create a language map or wall chart
  • identifying immediate neighbours and the languages they speak, recognising shared vocabulary across groups of neighbouring languages
  • recognising that there are many different Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages in Australia, for example, by viewing Language maps of the region, the state and the whole of Australia
  • recognising the ecological regions of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages, for example, desert, coastal, rain forest, sub-alpine, riverine and seas
  • recognising that some Indigenous languages in Australia are strong, while others are endangered or in the process of being revived or reclaimed
Understand that language belongs to communities, and that language learning requires respectful and appropriate behaviour

[Key concepts: ownership, belonging, respect; Key processes: demonstrating, applying] (ACLFWU020 - Scootle )

  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • understanding that each Aboriginal language or Torres Strait Islander language is recognised as belonging to a group of people who are the language owners or custodians
  • demonstrating and applying respectful and appropriate behaviours, including appropriate language forms, in the presence of visiting Elders/community members

Role of language and culture

Notice that people use language in ways that reflect their culture, such as where and how they live and what is important to them

[Key concepts: Country/Place, Language, Culture, symbol; Key processes: noticing, recognising, questioning, making connections] (ACLFWU021 - Scootle )

  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • exploring culture as an essential part of human life, understanding that it is shared and passed on between generations; that it includes observables such as ways of cooking and ways of greeting, symbols such as flags and colours, and unobservable elements such as beliefs and values, ways people think about themselves and others and relationship with the environment
  • recognising that beliefs and behaviours are woven into languages and cannot be separated from them
  • noticing how respect for Elders and Country/Place is built into the language
  • recognising significant symbols and features in the language and culture, for example, in song, visual design, dance moves
  • recognising that languages encapsulate values held about land and Country/Place, for example, caring for Country/Place
  • noticing how gestures and body language differ between cultures, for example, in relation to the use or avoidance of eye contact
  • noticing similarities and differences in language that relate to culture, such as the names of foods and animals particular to the climate and environment, and in cultural practices, such as the sharing involved in extended families, special times, story-telling and yarning
  • noticing that using the language and using English involve different ways of communicating, and considering what this reveals about cultural values or traditions

Role of language building

Recognise how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages are transmitted from generation to generation

[Key concepts: oral transmission, language maintenance and development; Key processes: noticing, recognising, considering, valuing] (ACLFWU022 - Scootle )

  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • recognising that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages have been maintained through an oral rather than a written tradition
  • recognising that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages have been maintained and passed down through generations by means of storytelling, performances, songs and viewing Country/Place as text
  • recognising that language speakers are the most important primary source of language knowledge
  • considering why learning an Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander language at school is important in maintaining and strengthening language use

Foundation to Year 2 Achievement Standards

The achievement standards for the Framework for Aboriginal Languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages First Language Learner Pathway are generalised in order to cater for the range of languages that may be learnt as an L1 in the school context. The achievement standards will need to be adapted for use for specific Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages.

By the end of Year 2, students interact with the teaching team, Elders, community members and each other to share information about family, friends, community activities and events. They use appropriate ways of talking, including terms of respect, forms of address and sign language. They participate in routine classroom exchanges and collaborative activities, such as pair, group and class discussions, asking and responding to questions and taking turns. They make relevant suggestions during class writing activities when the teacher is acting as a scribe. They identify key information about Country/Place under the guidance of Elders and community members and demonstrate this understanding by describing habitats, plants, animals and seasonal changes, by classifying plants, animals and natural objects into categories, and by naming and describing key social and cultural events. They respond to texts such as stories, songlines, dance and visual art through singing, dancing, drawing, action and movement, demonstrating understanding by identifying and describing characters, sequencing events, and retelling parts of the story. Students use familiar words and expressions to create and present shared stories, songs and performances, drawing on their own experiences and knowledge and providing details about characters or events. They make short presentations consisting of a few connected sentences on familiar and learned topics. They read aloud short shared texts with familiar vocabulary, high-frequency sight words and supportive images. They use knowledge of sounds and letters, high-frequency words, sentence boundary punctuation and directionality to help them make meaning when reading. Students use family terms and skin names for immediate family members as appropriate and demonstrate appropriate ways of interacting and behaving according to kinship structures and social groupings. They demonstrate understanding of connections between Country/Place and individuals and groups by identifying and naming features of Country/Place that belong to their own family and kinship groups. They identify their own links/cultural affiliations, for example, to stories, totems, dances and designs.

Students link most sounds of the language to written symbols and conventions. They use knowledge of sound‒symbol relationships to read and recognise high-frequency words and use simple metalanguage to describe basic elements of language forms and structures. They recognise that messages in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages can be communicated in a number of ways, such as Elders’ story-telling or through song, dance, visual design and signing. Students know that different words and language forms are used to address and communicate with people according to relationship and situation. They recognise that there are many different languages spoken in their class, community and region. They describe how the language has been passed down from one generation to the next, and recognise that language use reflects where and how they live and what is important to them.