By the end of Year 10, students use spoken and written Chinese to initiate and sustain interactions in familiar and unfamiliar contexts. They exchange information, ideas and opinions and enquire into the experiences and opinions of others, using question words such as 为什么，怎么，怎么样 to elicit more information. They summarise and collate information from different sources and perspectives to compare how ideas and concepts are expressed and organised in Chinese texts and contexts. Students observe how texts are created for different purposes and audiences. They respond to narratives, identifying language features that do not translate easily between cultures, mediating these ideas and expressing insights in Chinese while adjusting language use for different audiences. They justify their opinions with reasons and specific examples (比如), using tone and rhythm emphatically. Students respond to and create a range of informative and imaginative texts for different purposes and audiences, including Chinese audiences, and describe adjustments they have made in their language use for these different audiences. They use prepositions of time and place, and prepositions to show relationships with other people, for example, 给，跟，对. They make comparisons using 比, and describe people in terms of appearance, personality and behaviours, and places in terms of scenery. They use a range of cohesive devices (for example, 不但…而且；除了…以外; 如果…就) with the support of models and cues. In writing, they organise their ideas according to themes or sequence events using specific time words, temporal markers such as 的时候，以前 and connectives, for example, 先…然后. They also indicate changes in tense with tense markers such as 了，过, and use verbs to express modality (for example, 可以，要，会，应该) or intention, for example, 希望，想，打算.
Students discern differences in patterns of sound (for example, ‘qing’, ‘qin’) and tone in extended speech for different contexts and audiences. They apply knowledge of character components and morphemes to assist their understanding of new characters and words encountered. They analyse grammatical rules, use language appropriate to the form of communication, and compare textual features. Students recognise the key features of grammar and sentence structure that are distinctive to Chinese, such as measure words, and varied uses of verbs (是，有 and attributive 的), and apply them in new contexts. They are aware of particular issues relating to translating between Chinese and English and recognise that certain concepts cannot be translated readily from Chinese to English and vice versa. They are aware that language use varies according to context, purpose and mode. Students explain how culture and language shape their own and others’ communication practices, and reflect on how their own cultural experience impacts on interactions with Chinese speakers.