By the end of Year 8, students use spoken and written Chinese to interact in a range of familiar contexts. They respond to instructions, questions and directions. They use known phrases to exchange personal information (for example, 我叫…; 我的爸爸是澳大利亚人), seek clarification (for example, 对不起，我听不懂，你说什么？), and transact and make arrangements, for example, 你要来我家吗？ They use the question particle 吗 and familiar question words (什么，谁，哪儿，几). Students approximate tone, intonation and rhythm but meaning remains clear. They use gesture and some formulaic expressions to support oral interaction. They employ learnt vocabulary to express personal insights and compare experiences on topics of personal interest and significance. They connect ideas using basic cohesive devices (for example, 和，可是，所以), express opinions using 喜欢 and 觉得, and give reasons using 因为. In writing, students organise their ideas using time expressions and phrases which mark sequence, for example, 第一，第二… They apply 不 and 没有 in familiar phrases. They respond to and create simple informative and imaginative texts for known audiences and purposes. They use a range of verbs, including verbs of identification and existence such as 是, and a range of action verbs to describe interests and events, for example, 踢足球，打乒乓球，听音乐. They access and organise information from a range of spoken, audiovisual and printed texts. Students use simple sentences and paragraphs, and produce simple descriptions using intensifiers such as 很，非常，最. They reflect on their interactions when using and learning languages.
Students are aware of the key features of the Chinese writing system and its differences to the English writing system. They recognise the function of tone-syllables and Pinyin. They explain the word order of Chinese sentences and the layout and construction of simple familiar Chinese texts in comparison to their English equivalents. They recognise and describe diversity within the Chinese spoken and written language, and consider the influence of culture on everyday communication, for example, concepts such as respect, politeness and the importance of family. They are aware that literal translation between languages is not always possible, and that aspects of interpretation and translation are affected by context, culture, and intercultural experience.