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Context statement

The place of the Chinese language and culture in Australia and the world
China's official language is Modern Standard Chinese, or Putonghua (the common or shared language) in Chinese.

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PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Languages - Chinese are available as PDF documents. 
Languages - Chinese: Sequence of content
Languages - Chinese: Sequence of Achievement - Background Language Learner Pathway - F-10 …

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Years 9 and 10

Years 9 and 10 Band Description

The nature of the learners

Students continue to develop their bilingual and bicultural identities. They explore how their identities are changing through their lived experience in Australia, identifying points of difference between their own values and those around them. They engage with the possibilities that being bilingual offers them now and in the future, and reflect on their potential as mediators of language and culture in local and global communities.

Chinese language learning and use

Students are immersed in Chinese. They present, debate and discuss issues, exploring their responses, positioning themselves in relation to events, and recognising and accepting others’ diverse perspectives. They read texts in both simplified and traditional characters, comparing forms and identifying how key components are altered or transferred, and use this understanding to make informed predictions of meaning when they read new characters in the form that is less familiar to them.

Contexts of interaction

Students use language in a range of contexts across family, school, community and social situations to further develop their skills in communicating with range of audiences and contexts. They actively mediate between languages and cultures within their school and local communities.

Texts and resources

Students read, view and listen to a range of print, digital and online text types and resources, including newspaper reports, news websites, magazines, teen fiction, films and documentaries.

Features of Chinese language use

Students learn how to write objectively in simplified and traditional characters and substantiate their ideas and perspectives in appropriate ways. They learn to transcribe complex spoken texts and develop skills in listening to diverse speakers of Chinese who vary in rhythm and pitch. Students experiment with western genre conventions in their Chinese speech and writing and with ways of expressing and developing their ‘Chinese voice’ effectively for diverse audiences.

Level of support

Students develop their understanding of Pinyin. They use Pinyin and characters to transcribe the sounds that they hear in a range of contexts, for example transcribing song lyrics and noting details from spoken texts.

The role of English

Chinese is the language of classroom instruction and interaction. Students make comparisons between Chinese and English language and culture as their sophistication in both languages grows.


Years 9 and 10 Content Descriptions

Socialising

Influence and engage others, debating ideas and opinions, selecting language, tone, culturally expected stylised gestures, pitch and pace for different audiences

[Key concepts: perspective, conflict, difference; Key processes: persuading, influencing] (ACLCHC245 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • applying strategies to engage in conversations with people of diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds, for example, using alternative terms to 吹牛、聊天 and initiating topics of mutual interest
  • monitoring the effectiveness of own communication skills when sharing ideas and interests with others, for example, when changing topics and taking turns in a conversation (听说…,刚才我们说什么来着?)
  • using emphatic and assertive language to defend a position, point out errors in others’ assumptions or strengthen own argument when negotiating with others, for example, 我想这种观点是站不住脚的/这种说法是没有根据的,是无稽之谈
Plan and negotiate actions to contribute to their local and global community, and suggest alternatives when planning and negotiating

[Key concepts: politeness, proactivity/initiative; Key processes: planning, contributing, negotiating] (ACLCHC246 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • displaying respect for others’ ideas in interactions, agreeing to disagree, or negotiating to achieve agreement, for example, 要么这样吧…; 你看怎么样…; 你说的很有道理,但是…
  • discussing multiple perspectives on topics such as 独生子女政策,言论自由,贫富差距,经济发展与环境保护, and raising awareness among peers and members of school community to enhance mutual understanding of others’ perspectives
  • comparing different learning environments and approaches to learning, for example, reflecting on prior learning experiences and suggesting the advantages and disadvantages of different educational systems (中国的教育是应试教育,注重死记硬背,澳洲的教育是启发式教育,培养的是学生的独立思考能力)
  • discussing issues encountered in their daily life when communicating across cultures, such as specific ‘cultural barriers’ and misunderstandings in communication, for example, 家长应不应该尊重孩子的个人隐私?
  • understanding the history of their local Chinese community and the multicultural nature of Australian society, for example, interviewing older migrants about their experiences as Chinese Australians (老一代的华人在餐饮、 木工、 香蕉种植等方面为澳洲做出了贡献,新一代的华人更多的是在金融、法律、医生等行业发展)
  • identifying areas of need within the local community and collaborating with others to provide support, for example, visiting aged-care facilities or helping to organise a cultural event to enhance understanding of Chinese culture within their own school and local communities (我们上个周末去华人养老院做义工,接触了很多很有意思的老人)

Informing

Identify and analyse the effects of how information is organised in authentic texts, and apply this knowledge to create purposeful texts that persuade and inform

[Key concepts: local, global, diversity, information; Key processes: transcribing, analysing, informing, persuading] (ACLCHC247 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • examining the ways in which information is presented across diverse Chinese-speaking communities, for example, viewing news reports of world events from Beijing, Taiwan and Singapore
  • evaluating how information is presented in diverse forms of media across cultures, for example, comparing the impact of live news reports involving interviews with witnesses, and newspaper articles on the same event
  • applying understanding of news articles and other formal text types to create own response to contemporary issues in Chinese-speaking communities
Evaluate the utility and reliability of sources when accessing information, and use this knowledge to present a point of view for different audiences

[Key concepts: bias, authorship; Key processes: conveying, evaluating] (ACLCHC248 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Sustainability
  • identifying bias in texts, examining the values that influence bias, and discussing how bias differs from opinion and perspective, for example, 什么是偏见? 偏见有哪些表现? 应该怎样纠正偏见?
  • reading news articles and historical accounts of world events such as natural disasters, Olympic games, celebrations or commemorations of historical significance (such as Anzac Day), and exploring how the author’s personal values and experiences influence their reporting on such events
  • recognising key ideas and reading between the lines, for example, identifying irony and sarcasm in texts (你可真是个气管炎(妻管严
  • presenting and discussing own position on issues such as attitudes towards recycling, education in rural communities, and impact of social media on young people
  • debating the pros and cons (for example, 这样做的好处是: …这样做的弊端是:…) and presenting a balanced and reasoned argument, for example, 综合各方面的意见, 我们认为…; 根据大家的意见, 我们想提出以下建议…
  • applying effective strategies in a debate, including the art of rebuttal and developing a team line

Creating

Recognise and explain differing viewpoints on the world, cultures, individuals and issues as represented in major forms of literature such as 散文,小品,小说, and use this knowledge to create analytical and imaginative responses for identified audiences

[Key concepts: difference, culture, viewpoint; Key processes: recognising, representing] (ACLCHC249 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • identifying various representations of multiculturalism in contemporary media and exploring the origins and nature of stereotypes commonly encountered
  • exploring cross-cultural influences in contemporary media, for example, examining the impact of Korean culture on Chinese entertainment in diverse contexts (Hong Kong, Taiwan, mainland China)
  • responding to films with a Chinese theme produced in other communities, for example, writing a personal response to a foreign film portraying Chinese-speaking communities
Compare performance features of major forms of classical literature, such as in 诗, 词, making thematic and intertextual connections

[Key concepts: culture, values; Key processes: connecting, performing, responding] (ACLCHC250 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • comparing how concepts such as love, bravery and friendship are expressed in Chinese and English poetry, for example, comparing 陆游的《钗头凤》 and Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s ‘How Do I Love Thee?’; comparing poems of national unity (after war) and Banjo Paterson’s ‘We’re All Australians Now’
  • comparing representations of particular concepts or experiences in different media, such as in novels and films, for example, 莫言小说《红高粱家族》 和张艺谋电影 《红高粱》
  • exploring how different forms of entertainment are used to express or reflect contemporary issues, for example, analysing 春晚小品 and how the topics are related to the ‘hot’ events of the year
  • collaborating to create a drama or comedy to depict their lives and the lives of other Chinese migrants in a new cultural environment
Create imaginative texts experimenting with genre, textual features and stylistic devices

[Key concepts: ancestry, culture, love, fear, inner world; Key processes: creating, expressing, experimenting] (ACLCHC251 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • comparing literature across languages and cultures and recognising features of entertainment, for example, identifying how magic and danger are used in Harry Potter and 《西游记》
  • discussing the features of range of genres, such as memoirs, poems and moral tales, for example, comparing 小诗 and 散文 to identify how different genres express similar ideas
  • creating own imaginative texts, using literary devices to achieve particular purposes, for example, foreshadowing events and building up to the climax in a story, and experimenting with 暗喻, 反复 and other 修辞手法

Translating

Interpret culture-specific concepts

[Key concepts: humour, equivalence, cultural assumptions, wordplay; Key processes: interpreting, translating, mediating] (ACLCHC252 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • comparing idioms and colloquialisms across languages and identifying the challenges in mediating the cultural values embedded in such sayings, for example, 胸有成竹 versus ‘have a well-thought-out plan’; 山穷水尽 versus ‘at the end of one’s rope’; 入乡随俗 versus ‘when in Rome’; 绕圈子 versus ‘beating about the bush’
  • mediating Chinese jokes or l to English speakers and vice versa
  • reflecting on the beliefs, generalisations and stereotypes held by other Australians about Chinese cultural practices or values, for example,中国人只工作不享受/ 他们都很聪明/很难和中国人一起工作/中国菜都很好吃
  • introducing people, places, events and ideas of cultural and historical significance to Chinese people, for example, explaining to Australian audiences the historical and contemporary significance of 孔子 (Confucius) and his idea of (humanity)
Create bilingual texts for a range of audiences, contexts and purposes

[Key concepts: audience, context, social distance; Key processes: identifying, translating, interpreting] (ACLCHC253 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • acting as translator between Chinese and English speakers during school events, and reflecting on the linguistic and cultural issues encountered, for example, when sister-school teachers and students visit
  • translating texts for a range of audiences and contexts, identifying adjustments to language choices made according social position of audience and context
  • comparing bilingual editions of novels and discussing how authors and translators maintain the effect of stylistic devices across languages, for example, the use of metaphor

Reflecting

Reflect on the language choices they make when expressing their points of view to others and connect these choices to their identities in Chinese and Australian communities

[Key concepts: individual identity and collective identity, community, dynamism; Key process: reflecting] (ACLCHC254 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • discussing available choices in how they present their own identity to others and identifying times when they choose to express one aspect of their identity over another
  • reflecting on how their language choices, including the use of English, Chinese, a dialect or accent, are indications of their sense of identity within a particular context
  • considering the differences in their own sense of identity in Australia and when they ‘return home’ (回国) in terms of changes in social contexts and in their relationships with other participants in interactions
  • describing examples of when changes in identity are more evident, such as when they are compared to friends ‘back home’
  • identifying meanings implied in facial expressions, gestures, interjections and exclamations, for example, can be used to express surprise or dissatisfaction
  • reflecting on how one’s own world view is conveyed through language choices, for example, ‘naming’ China 华夏、九州、神州大地、中原 which reflects their understanding of their history, geography, ethnicity and place in the world

Systems of language

Compare features of prosody across languages and explore how they contribute to expression of meaning (ACLCHU255 - Scootle )
  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • comparing how prosody is used to enhance the aesthetic features/uses of language in different texts such as poems and essays when read aloud
  • evaluating the effectiveness of prosody in diverse contexts, for example, analysing the relationship between use of voice and character types in movies and television dramas, such as how the matriarch or patriarch of the family in Chinese dramas often has a stern and intimidating voice
  • using prosody with effect when communicating with others, such as in formal presentations and debates, and in imaginative or dramatic performances, for example, 众所周知/显而易见/总而言之
Identify and explain how Chinese orthography enables access to technical and unusual vocabulary, including specialised abstract nouns, and a wider range of texts, using orthographic knowledge to identify characters related to topics studied in other learning areas, such as chemical elements (periodic table) and mathematical terms (ACLCHU256 - Scootle )
  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • experimenting with the use of abstract nouns such as 物种 、 深春 、 微风 to create procedural texts
  • developing skills to comprehend simplified or traditional Chinese characters in print media and online texts
  • discriminating correct forms and sounds of 多音字 (polyphonic characters) such as (háng 同行 and xíng 行进), and appreciating multiple forms of 通假字 such as 反 - 返; 说 - 悦
Compare the nature of word formation, including subtle forms of adjectives such as 特有的 and 明朗, in the development of new words in Chinese and English, and evaluate their effectiveness in conveying new concepts (ACLCHU257 - Scootle )
  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • comparing the expression of new concepts across languages and analysing the representation of new ideas in contemporary media, such as 云电视、
  • comparing the functions of semantically related morphemes and discussing why one is preferred over others in the development of new words, for example, ways of expressing ‘green’: 碧、 翠、 绿 、 青、 (翠绿、碧绿、青翠、苍翠) and new words such as: 雪碧,绿化
Analyse and experiment with the use and effect of figurative and evaluative expressions, colloquial forms, and other language features in texts (ACLCHU258 - Scootle )
  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • identifying the appropriate context for using colloquial forms such as 多姿多彩; 恰恰相反; 来得快去得快; higher-order verbs such as 弥漫;using for 顺接; and adverbials, for example, 便是, 恰恰相反
  • experimenting with linguistic devices to enhance expression of emotions, for example, rhetorical questions, for example, 脸上的快乐,别人看得到。心里的痛苦又有谁能感到?
  • analysing the use of figurative language in literature, for example, 老舍《骆驼祥子》 中虎妞的一段话:“呕!不出臭汗去,心里痒痒。你个贱骨头!我给你炒下的菜,你不回来吃,绕世界胡塞去舒服?你别把我招翻了,我爸爸是光棍出身,我什么事都做的出来!明天你敢出去,我就上吊给你看,我说得出来,就行得出来!”
  • exploring examples of literary language and how grammatical features differ from everyday speech, for example, 鲁迅的小说和议论文
  • manipulating styles of language in communication to achieve certain effects, such as writing a journal with 语气词 such as and to make it more like a dialogue with the reader
Discuss key stylistic features of different text types, including classical literature (ACLCHU259 - Scootle )
  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • identifying stylistic features of formal text types, for example, 作业报告 ;倡议书;竞选演说
  • comparing the way an argument is developed in different languages, for example, in English the writer’s position is stated upfront whereas in Chinese it is generally left until the conclusion
  • analysing how to position oneself when writing for different purposes, for example, in persuasive and evaluative writing (说服: 独生子女政策给中国的发展带来了很多好处; 议论: 独生子女政策对中国的发展利弊参半)
  • exploring how to incorporate statistical data, quotations and research-based evidence in academic texts, for example, 据统计, 计划生育政策实行以来, 中国的人口少生了三亿
  • identifying features of classical writing such as 虚词 particles 之、乎、者、也, and word reductions such as 若 (犹如,好像) 父(父亲,爸爸)
  • exploring writing techniques in classical Chinese, such as the four steps in composing an essay (起承转合)
  • using terms derived from classical literature in their own writing, for example, 世有伯乐,然后有千里马;千里马常有,而伯乐不常有。(韩愈:《杂说(四)》)
  • determining the relevance and value of 成语 and 歇后语 in developing their own writing

Language variation and change

Explain how changes in context impact on how language is adapted to convey meaning within and across languages (ACLCHU260 - Scootle )
  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • exploring how living in the Australian context impacts on how they present their ideas in Chinese, for example, considering how essays written in Chinese in Australia often follow the accepted organisation and formatting of essays in the Australian education system rather than the Chinese education system
  • analysing what is valued across cultures and discussing the impact of this on how meanings are conveyed in Chinese and English, for example, quoting 孔子 or using 成语 is evidence of a higher level of literacy in Chinese, but quoting modern-day experts or using technical vocabulary is considered to be reflective of a higher education level in many English-speaking communities
  • understanding the historical traditions behind the differences between oral and written language in Chinese ( 文言 and 白话)
  • reflecting on their own different ways of communicating and how they adjust language, gesture and content to suit different contexts, cultures and languages, for example, considering topics that are acceptable in one culture but taboo in another
  • identifying differences in pronunciation and/or tone across different Chinese-speaking environments, for example, is pronounced ‘’ in mainland China but can be pronounced as ‘hàn’ in Taiwan
Research the phenomenon of language change in Chinese-speaking communities and monitor language use in a range of contemporary contexts (ACLCHU261 - Scootle )
  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • comparing the language of previous generations to their own language use and discussing the nature of the differences between them
  • exploring how language change reflects the values of the time, or how language use can be seen as emblematic of an era, for example, the use of respectful terms such as 老革命 and 硬骨头 in China in the 1960s
  • examining new words added to Chinese dictionaries or introduced to social media and considering the reasons behind their development
  • considering the impact of digital communication on language use, for example, that LOL in English now means ‘laugh out loud’ not ‘lots of love’, and that weibo has a 140-character word limit
Analyse the language of different media and examine the ways in which media use language to persuade and influence others (ACLCHU262 - Scootle )
  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • evaluating the impact of word choices (for example, 百衣百顺 for steam iron; 自然最健康,绿色好心情 for instant noodles) and discussing features of advertising language (广告词), for example, 简洁, 对仗,谐音,and how it relates to the brand and product
  • viewing samples of 公益广告 for charity and non-profit organisations, and analysing the different ways in which imagery, voice and language use are combined, and the effect of these stylistic choices, for example, 好感型,优质型 and 励志型

The role of language and culture

Analyse and discuss the ways in which language is used to position authors, readers and participants in texts (ACLCHU263 - Scootle )
  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • identifying choices in words and phrasing that influence a reader’s response to texts, such as language to persuade readers to endorse the writer’s views, for example, 难道不是每一个有良知的人都会认同的吗?
  • examining ways in which authors use characterisation to incite sympathy or antagonism towards characters in literary texts, for example, directly describing a character’s personality compared to indirectly portraying the character’s personality through their actions or through the reactions of others

Years 9 and 10 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 10, students sustain extended interactions with diverse individuals and groups, selecting spoken and written language for precision and for effect on participants. Students collate and evaluate a range of spoken, written and multimodal sources to convey different perspectives to different audiences. They select and organise ideas, adapting language, style, register and textual features to mediate these ideas for a range of audiences who speak Chinese or English or both. They respond to authentic texts and create a range of persuasive, informative and imaginative texts. Students apply features of prosody in their own speech. They apply understanding of character components and morphemes to their own writing. They reflect on their own experiences of interacting across diverse linguistic and cultural contexts, and move readily between languages and cultures.

Students demonstrate metalinguistic awareness across Chinese and English and identify similarities and differences in the structure and framing of both languages. They make and justify choices on how they present themselves and their ideas to audiences who speak either language. They analyse how language features and devices are used to achieve different purposes. Students explain how language and languages vary with time and according to situation and context. They identify evidence showing how texts reflect the cultural background and values of the author and different perspectives.