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Context statement

The place of the Chinese language and culture in Australia and the world
China's official language is Modern Standard Chinese, or Putonghua (the common or shared language) in Chinese.

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PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Languages - Chinese are available as PDF documents. 
Languages - Chinese: Sequence of content
Languages - Chinese: Sequence of Achievement - Background Language Learner Pathway - F-10 …

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Years 7 and 8

Years 7 and 8 Band Description

The nature of the learners

Students whose first language is Chinese learn about being Chinese in Australia and begin to develop their bilingual and bicultural identities as they learn to live and interact with the Australian community.

Chinese language learning and use

Students are immersed in Chinese, with the teacher using Chinese for instruction, explanation and interaction. Learners speak and write in Chinese to express their own interests and describe and discuss their life experiences in diverse contexts. To develop oracy and literacy, learners build metalinguistic awareness across both Chinese and English, identifying similarities and differences in language systems and framing. Given the high value placed on recital in Chinese culture, students are likely to have begun to develop this skill, and it should be further developed as part of their progress towards becoming high-level users of Chinese in a range of contexts. Students consciously apply a working knowledge of Chinese language systems to their language use in order to understand why they make certain choices in interactions and to access a wider range of written texts.

Contexts of interaction

Students use language in a range of contexts across family, school, community and social situations. They actively participate in the wider Chinese community, both locally and globally. They learn to adjust their communication for audience and purpose.

Texts and resources

Students access Chinese texts written in both simplified and traditional characters to obtain information on a range of subjects which support their learning in other areas. They engage with contemporary culture through film, music, and youth magazines, and use online and digital resources. They engage with traditional and contemporary Chinese language literature to enhance their appreciation of literary styles. They read texts in both simplified and traditional characters, comparing forms and identifying how key components are altered or transferred, and use this understanding to make informed predictions of meaning when they read new characters in the form that is less familiar to them.

Features of Chinese language use

Students use Chinese to write and speak with imagination to engage or persuade peers, justifying their perspectives by drawing on ideas or experiences of others. They apply linguistic expressions encountered in contemporary and traditional literature to develop their own ability to write in more expressive and creative ways while increasing accuracy in their use of simplified and traditional characters.

Level of support

First language learners often have limited experience of Pinyin but may use other romanisation systems. First language learners transcribe Pinyin and character texts from the sounds that they hear, with the support of Pinyin tables and component lists as required.

The role of English

Students make comparisons between Chinese and English as they develop their literacy and oracy skills in both languages.


Years 7 and 8 Content Descriptions

Socialising

Interact with peers and exchange opinions and preferences about new social and cultural experiences, adjusting tone, vocabulary and phrasing to influence others

[Key concepts: community, environment, culture shock; Key processes: comparing, exchanging] (ACLCHC226 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • sharing experiences and discussing how their own cultural practices are maintained or adapted in their new environment, for example, 来到澳洲以后, 我开始对土著人的艺术感兴趣了
  • identifying and challenging stereotypes about Chinese and Australian cultures
  • discussing the concept of friendship across cultures, and describing own sources of social support within the local community, for example, 我现在在一个羽毛球俱乐部打球, 认识了不少朋友, 挺开心的
  • using appropriate strategies to maintain communication, such as explaining concepts and ideas when other participants are not familiar with the topic of conversation, for example, 我很喜欢吃榴莲, 榴莲就是那种有点臭,身上长很多刺的水果
  • listening to a conversation about a new song, dance style or pop-culture phenomenon, and identifying the points being made, explaining the tone and manner of communication
Collaborate with peers to plan and organise multicultural projects and events that would benefit their school and local community

[Key concepts: multiculturalism, community; Key processes: planning, socialising] (ACLCHC227 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • investigating Chinese cultural activities available for young people (for example, lion dance troupe, folk dance troupe), and discussing with peers details of the nature of the activity and the level of commitment involved
  • indicating agreement and disagreement in polite ways and expressing gratitude for time and services provided, for example, 太麻烦你了;这次多亏了你的帮助;这个不是太合适 吧, 我还想再看看,谢谢!
  • planning or participating in events which share popular aspects of Australian ways of life related to music, popular culture, climate, landscape and recreational activities, to members of their local Chinese-speaking community
  • introducing others to diversity within Chinese language and culture (such as diversity in language use and cultural practices across greater China, differences between urban and rural life, and regional cuisines) by participating in school cultural events or creating texts to inform others, for example, creating a poster for second language learners of Chinese
  • collaborating with others to organise a cultural day to support appreciation of linguistic and cultural diversity within the school community, using social media to plan the event and to encourage others to participate

Informing

Interpret the stated and implied meanings in authentic informative texts, and use evidence to support or challenge different perspectives

[Key concept: perspective; Key processes: challenging, interpreting, informing] (ACLCHC228 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • comparing a range of ideas on topics such as different generations’ perspectives on the importance of traditional festivals, the lifestyles of rural and urban communities, and the traditions and values of 少数民族
  • discussing and explaining own response to perspectives presented, for example, 有人说…还有人说…我认为他们站在不同的角度当然看问题不完全一样。我觉得… 因为…
Use and analyse a range of sources written in simplified and traditional script to identify relevant information, and use this information to create purposeful public information texts

[Key concepts: relevance, public life; Key processes: analysing, conveying] (ACLCHC229 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • accessing diverse sources such as blogs and social media, newspaper articles and educational texts, and discussing the relevance and credibility of information conveyed, for example, comparing information presented in blogs with newspaper articles
  • recognising multiple perspectives on an issue and identifying the factors that may influence a particular perspective (for example, nationality, religion, gender, ethnicity) to determine the perspective or credibility of sources
  • evaluating how different authors use language to achieve a particular effect, considering how values and personal views are implied in word choices, for example, 屡败屡战 (emphasis on the determination to overcome a failure) versus 屡战屡败 (emphasis on the fact of many instances of failure)
  • accessing information related to understanding their own experiences as Chinese students in Australia by searching both Australian and overseas digital media, such as 百度百科,雅虎等网站 to develop advice and supports for new students arriving at their school
  • accessing and organising information on educational and social topics, using techniques such as paraphrasing, summarising and quoting, and expressing own perspective on the information obtained, for example, 有些人认为…, 另一些人则认为…, 综上所述…

Creating

Compare how contemporary Chinese media and literature represent the notion of ‘being Chinese’ or ‘being other’, and use this knowledge to present a point of view for an identified audience

[Key concepts: culture, identity, representations; Key processes: comparing, expressing, responding] (ACLCHC230 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • comparing ‘being foreign’ in China and ‘being Chinese’ in Australia, for example, viewing or reading 汉语桥 performances, songs, films and fiction and discussing how Chinese-speaking foreigners are ‘celebrated’ in Chinese media
  • exploring representations of the overseas Chinese experience, both locally and globally, and the development of local Chinese identity in Australia through reading texts such as The Sojourners in Chinese translation (Zhang Wei, 2009)
  • investigating contributions made by Chinese individuals and groups in contemporary Australian culture and discussing the cultural values that are conveyed through these contributions, for example, the work of artists Ah Xian and Guan Wei, and author Sang Ye
  • exploring their own connections and responses to overseas Chinese literature, for example, the ideas and values reflected in 海外华人的文学作品 such as the song 《故乡的云》
Plan, rehearse and deliver presentations of classical Chinese literature and famous speeches and discuss how cultural values can be transferred

[Key concepts: 古文, entertainment values; Key processes: planning, rehearsing, delivering, transferring] (ACLCHC231 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • discussing the impact of Chinese traditional entertainment on contemporary Chinese culture, for example, 相声
  • analysing classical poems and the values they convey, and relating them to culturally significant events, for example, Chinese New Year in 宋代诗人王安石《元日》
  • comparing the Gettysburg Address with a speech of equal significance in Chinese and discussing why these speeches are important and what language features are used to convey messages
Use particular language features such as dialogue and imagery in short stories, literary essays and plays to create own imaginative representations of experience

[Key concepts: journey, reality and fantasy, interconnectedness; Key processes: expressing, experimenting, analysing] (ACLCHC232 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • creating texts depicting the experiences of Chinese people in Australia, for example, writing a narrative reflecting a Chinese person’s adjustment to a new life in Australia based on an interview conducted with an older member of the local Chinese community
  • using examples or quotations from traditional literature in their own writing, such as 三人行,必有我师焉 from 《论语·述而》。
  • presenting the experiences of people in different eras, such as women in ancient China, through drama, poetry and literature
  • writing a story of an imagined scenario or an exciting adventure to entertain younger students at school

Translating

Identify challenges in and techniques for mediating between Chinese and English

[Key concepts: equivalence, paralinguistic cues; Key processes: responding, translating, mediating] (ACLCHC233 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • discussing cultural connotations of words that express emotions, such as 幸福 versus ‘happy’; 怎么回事? versus ‘What’s wrong?’
  • defining equivalence and finding examples of concepts in Chinese and English which are unable to retain the original meaning when translated into the other language
  • translating terminology from other learning areas from English into Chinese and vice versa, for example, science, mathematics and social science concepts and terms
  • viewing extracts of Chinese films with their English subtitles, identifying alternative English translations and hypothesising reasons for choices made by professional translators
  • exploring English translations of Chinese colloquial language and vice versa, and discussing the complexities of capturing the meaning and sentiment conveyed by the original
Create bilingual information texts for speakers of Chinese and English in Australia, recognising ‘code-switching’ and how specific vocabulary and terminology from other learning areas can be translated in different settings, such as for an expert or beginner audience

[Key concepts: equivalence, audience, context, bilingualism; Key processes: identifying, translating, interpreting] (ACLCHC234 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • comparing multiple ways of translating English terms and phrases into Chinese, and discussing the effectiveness and focus of these translations, for example, 苹果手机 or 爱疯
  • considering others’ responses in interactions and clarifying whether their own message has been understood as they intended, for example, 大家对这个问题还有什么疑议吗? 不知大家还有没有什么意见和建议?
  • producing own bilingual texts, for example, explaining aspects of Chinese culture to English-speaking audiences or interpreting concepts learnt in other learning areas to help Chinese-speaking peers understand course content
  • providing further explanation of concepts that are not immediately clear to second language learners of Chinese, for example, contrasting the concept of ‘culture’ in English with Chinese 文化 (which also includes the meaning of ‘literacy’) and starting to understand other 文化 in comparative terms

Reflecting

Reflect on adjustments they and others make in their everyday language use, and connect these adjustments to aspects of experience, culture and roles in Australian society

[Key concepts: bilingualism, identity, community, belonging, culture shock; Key processes: reflecting, adjusting, analysing] (ACLCHC235 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • reflecting on how meanings of certain words are understood in different ways, for example, the different implications of using the term 他的店很肮脏
  • exploring multiple aspects of the concept of ‘identity’ by contrasting ‘individuality’ (个体) with ‘collective identity’ (集体)
  • identifying how their knowledge of Chinese and English opens up opportunities to expand their own world views
  • discussing experiences of ‘returning to home country’ (回国) and how they feel about the lifestyle and practices of their old home
  • reflecting on how their sense of being Chinese is influenced by their experience of living in Australia, for example, by maintaining a journal or blog
  • identifying features of communication in Chinese that are interpreted differently when applied in English communication, for example, examining how adjusting from a tonal language to English sometimes results in miscommunication of emotion or a perception of being abrupt
  • examining and reflecting on interactions that did not achieve their desired goal, and identifying strategies to enhance the effectiveness of their communication with others
  • reflecting on the challenges of addressing cultural assumptions and stereotyping when discussing aspects of life in Australia, for example, 有的澳大利亚人说到中国人就会说中国人怎么怎么样...,难道一个中国人做的事情就代表了所有的中国人么?

Systems of language

Discuss features of Chinese phonology and compare their own pronunciation with that of other speakers of Chinese (ACLCHU236 - Scootle )
  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • comparing the features of spoken English and the features of Chinese phonology
  • identifying features of spoken Chinese by comparing their own speech to the pronunciation and speech patterns displayed in examples of Modern Standard Chinese, such as in news broadcasts
  • explaining the use of the neutral tone and non-tonal suffixes such as
  • preparing a mock lesson for non-Chinese-speaking friends about Chinese phonology
Identify and explain the differences between traditional and simplified characters, inferring meaning and sound of unfamiliar characters from knowledge of components and positions (ACLCHU237 - Scootle )
  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • analysing relationships between characters and meanings in phrases representing auspicious meanings such as 年年有鱼-年年有余;年糕-年年高升; 枣栗子-早立子; 8-发.
  • applying understanding of orthographic principles to correct mistakes in own character writing
Apply understanding of word morphology and vocabulary choices to interpret and convey meaning (ACLCHU238 - Scootle )
  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • examining the relationship between characters in a word, identifying subtle differences in meaning to enhance their own communication, and determining the appropriate context for related words such as 帮助 and 帮忙
  • differentiating 形近词 based on the meanings of each morpheme (for example, in 走进 and 走近) and applying in own writing
  • analysing how words containing a common morpheme are related, for example, how is used in 乘车 (‘take a ride’), 乘机 (‘take a chance’) and 乘法 (‘multiplication’)
Compare how grammatical features such as tense and passive voice are constructed in English and Chinese, and identify distinctive features of Chinese grammar, for example, in tense marking (了、过), possession, plurality (ACLCHU239 - Scootle )
  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • enhancing their understanding of how information is organised to achieve particular communicative purposes, for example, 是…的 and structure
  • experimenting with the use of different sentence patterns when composing own messages, for example, 让步句 and 转折句
Compare writing styles between Chinese authors to identify and explore the purposes and features of text structure and organisation of ideas (ACLCHU240 - Scootle )
  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • exploring diverse examples of writing and identifying features of particular styles such as 辞藻华丽 , 平实质朴 , 口语化
  • discussing own preferences for writing styles of particular popular authors
  • experimenting with different ways of sequencing and organising ideas for different audiences and purposes
  • exploring text structure and format in classical literature, for example, 五言 and 七言 in poetry; the absence of a subject in 李白《静夜思》
  • comparing the organisation and substantiation of ideas in essays in classical and modern literature, for example, comparing 周敦颐《爱莲说》 and 余光中《莲恋莲》

Language variation and change

Explore assumptions and challenges for language use in new environments, identifying and comparing ways in which sensitive topics are introduced and discussed across languages, for example, comparing the Chinese custom of asking direct questions about age, income and other personal matters with the contexts in which these questions are asked in English (ACLCHU241 - Scootle )
  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • recognising clichés, examining cases of ‘breaking’ a cliché and the impact it might have, such as 脑筋建转弯 questions
  • identifying how language use can be varied for different participants in different contexts, for example, the use of slang and abbreviations between teenagers
  • using classical terms and expressions including 成语、歇后语、俗语 appropriate to context, such as using 亭亭玉立 to describe young girls
  • discussing ‘taboo’ terms across languages, and using terms suitable for the context, such as different words for (‘to die’), for example, 驾崩 (皇帝)、 仙逝 (长辈 ) 、去世(一般人) 、香消玉殒 (女性)
Analyse features of classical literature in their original and contemporary forms, and apply features of 文言文 and 古文 in their own language use, identifying rules of intonation in classical poems and the impact of these rules on modern poetry (ACLCHU242 - Scootle )
  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • exploring symbolism in classical literature and in modern pop culture, such as the connotations of key terms such as 凤凰
  • discussing the revival of the study of traditional texts (国学) and the reasons for such interest in the past
  • considering the role technology plays in their own lives and how it impacts on the ways they communicate with others and use language to convey ideas
  • identifying examples of internet language and discussing how these shape or impact their own language use, for example, 囧 、 槑 、 烎
  • comparing ‘internet novel’ (网络小说) with contemporary 小说 and identifying the impact of the internet in popularising and increasing access to Chinese literature
Identify the features of persuasive language and analyse its use in advertising (ACLCHU243 - Scootle )
  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • discussing the impact of word choices, including 连接词, and stylistic devices (for example 排比,拟人,比喻) on the effectiveness of television and print advertising campaigns
  • considering the role of English in the world of Chinese advertising and how English words and expressions are embedded into Chinese speech to market products to Chinese speakers, within China and globally.

The role of language and culture

Analyse the use of language across genders and generations, within and across language communities (ACLCHU244 - Scootle )
  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • collecting a range of famous colloquial sayings from many different cultures and comparing their use
  • explaining how culture impacts on their own communication, for example: Did they take offence that the host didn’t offer food at the party? Why might some Chinese find that offensive?
  • knowing that communicative practices might be perceived differently in different cultures, for example, in accepting a compliment in Chinese, saying 谢谢 might make one look 自大
  • considering the role of English in the world, for example, examining the popularity of Chinese and English in second language programs and why individuals and nations believe proficiency in these two languages is important

Years 7 and 8 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 8, students sustain oral and written interactions with known audiences, making appropriate adjustments to language use for different audiences, contexts and purposes. They access and analyse a range of authentic spoken, written and multimodal sources to support and present ideas and opinions. Students respond to and create spoken, written and multimodal imaginative texts in a range of genres. They translate informative texts from Chinese into English and vice versa for particular audiences. Students reflect on adjustments they make to language use for different audiences.

Students apply knowledge of grammatical and text structures and vocabulary choices to communicate effectively. They identify the main ideas conveyed in texts related to other learning areas or presented in age-appropriate imaginative texts or media. They locate texts within a cultural context, and compare the values and practices encountered in classical Chinese texts with those encountered in their local communities. They identify ways that texts reflect the cultural background and values of the author and how they can be interpreted differently.