Chinese (Version 8.4)

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Context statement

The place of the Chinese language and culture in Australia and the world
China's official language is Modern Standard Chinese, or Putonghua (the common or shared language) in Chinese.


PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Languages - Chinese are available as PDF documents. 
Languages - Chinese: Sequence of content
Languages - Chinese: Sequence of Achievement - Background Language Learner Pathway - F-10 …


Years 9 and 10

Years 9 and 10 Band Description

The nature of the learners

Students extend their knowledge of language structures and text organisation through reading and viewing authentic material and discussing how to apply new learning to their own communication. They explore the nature of their dual identities and bilingual capabilities.

Chinese language learning and use

Students are immersed in Chinese language, exploring issues related to youth culture and topics of educational and social relevance. They begin to make connections and comparisons with the experiences of other young Chinese speakers and with those of other cultural groups in Australia. They also consider their own place in Australia and the nature of the relationship between Australia and the Chinese-speaking world.

Contexts of interaction

Contexts for interaction extend beyond the school and home environments to include increased engagement with students’ local communities, in particular with older generations.

Texts and resources

Students engage with a variety of texts, including dictionaries and online translation tools, local print and digital media, and abridged bilingual versions of classic and contemporary literature and their film and TV adaptations.

Features of Chinese language use

Students participate in discussions, debates and presentations on local and global issues and initiate inquiry into topics of interest. They extend their writing skills to include more informative and objective language and write in more formal genres, such as articles and reports. They develop their skills in analysing characters and recognising word and clause boundaries in extended text. Students explore the influence of English on their own communication in Chinese, both in pronunciation and in linguistic structures, and the role of code-switching in their daily language use. They share ideas about how they can contribute to Australian society through maintaining their bilingualism and through establishing a more stable identity where they are interculturally and intraculturally aware.

Level of support

Correct Chinese language use continues to be modelled by the teacher to support students’ Chinese oracy and literacy development. Glossaries, vocabulary lists, dictionaries and online translation tools are used to support comprehension.

The r ole of English

Classroom interaction occurs in Chinese. English is used when required for comparison or to explore complex ideas related to language, culture and concepts from other learning areas.

Years 9 and 10 Content Descriptions


Interact with peers and others in familiar and unfamiliar contexts to exchange alternative ideas and perspectives, and to express preferences and opinions

[Key concepts: ritual, relationships, generations, values, identity, ancestry; Key processes: negotiating, participating] (ACLCHC210 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • stating opinions on school life, family life, familiar people, experiences and significant personal events (for example, 我最喜欢圣诞节), and indicating preferences with reasons such as 我想去看…电影, 因为听说这个电影很好看
  • engaging in oral and digital discussions on topics of personal interest such as music, TV programs or sports, asking questions to seek ideas, request repetition and clarify meaning (for example, 你说你的生日是明天,是吗?) to enhance mutual understanding, for example, 我不太喜欢听流行音乐,我更喜欢摇滚乐,因为摇滚乐很有力
  • using different ways of expressing apology, appreciation or gratitude, and comparing practices across contexts, considering which term to use in various situations and according to the relationship between participants, for example, 谢谢;辛苦你了; 麻烦你了; 真对不起; 非常感谢
  • notifying teacher of work due in other subject areas, for example, 我有很多数学作业;我星期一有科学测验
  • expressing opinions on lesson activities and learning tools, for example, 我觉得很好玩儿 ;我觉得很有用;我喜欢用网络词典
  • requesting assistance or seeking advice on a feature of language (for example, mobile phone 。中文怎么说, 怎么写(面)这个字呢?), and exploring concepts related to topical and contemporary issues (such as ethnicity and identity, social justice, environment, education and future pathways, technology, and popular culture) through interaction with peers and other Chinese speakers, for example, 我听说现在中国的年轻人很喜欢看韩剧,是这样吗?你也喜欢看韩剧吗?
  • inviting others to contribute to discussions and provide feedback on own ideas (for example, 你不觉得…吗? 难道…?), and asking questions, acknowledging strengths in others’ arguments and providing evidence to contradict, challenge or rebut alternative views
  • substantiating their position with examples, quotes or statistical data and using 成语 or 谚语, for example, 养不教,父之过父母当然要对孩子的教育负责
  • collaborating to reach agreement by asserting, restating, conceding or negotiating in an appropriate manner (for example, 就算是说…; 尽管如此…), and recapping the main ideas discussed, suggesting a suitable compromise or solution and explaining the reasons behind the final suggestion
  • responding to inquiries in correspondence from overseas peers and via social media by describing the lifestyle of Australian young people, with pariticular attention to unique aspects of Australian culture, for example, 澳大利亚有…,人们生活…
  • engaging with educational social media to document own experiences and achievements by posting a weekly journal or blog for others to read, for example, 本周XX俱乐部足球赛
  • experimenting with ways of expressing ideas in more formal contexts, such as using objective rather than subjective language to recount events, for example, 袋鼠很多 compared with 我看到了很多袋鼠
Participate in planning and presenting a social or cultural event, negotiating options and solving problems

[Key concepts: community, emotion, multiplicity, power Key concepts: participating, negotiating] (ACLCHC211 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • designing a campaign to promote a community organisation and persuade people to join, for example, creating slogans such as 加入澳洲华人青年会,你会认识更多的朋友!
  • asking open questions, inviting others to elaborate their ideas and restating to confirm understanding, for example, 请说一下您为什么决定…?为了保护环境,你一般做什么?你已经说过…;你说的是…,对不对?
  • considering how the use of a polite tone and respectful language when making a complaint may empower both speaker and listener to achieve a positive outcome, and how advice may be given in a non-judgemental way, for example, 你最好/我觉得你应该/我知道…对你很重要,可是… rather than 你一定要/如果你…,就…/你太…

  • negotiating to achieve desired goals by asserting, conceding, and expressing obligation (for example, 必须、一定要) or absence of choice (for example, 没办法、不得不)in an appropriate manner
  • participating in organised visits to Chinese-owned stores in the local area; specifying the quantity or nature of items required; requesting, negotiating and accepting prices; and completing transaction
  • participating in shopping scenarios with classmates, expressing opinions about qualities of goods (for example, 这个红色的裤子真好看), making comparisons with other retailers or service providers (for example, 他要一百块,你要一百三十块) and expressing satisfaction or dissatisfaction with price, for example, 太贵了
  • negotiating with classmates to determine an appropriate gift for an overseas visitor, acknowledging others’ ideas and opinions, and offering alternatives, for example, 这件大衣太大了,我不要,我看一看那件吧
  • acknowledging the ideas and opinions of others and expressing agreement (for example, 好的、 我同意), disagreement (for example, 对,可是), excitement (for example, 太好了) or disappointment (for example, 真可惜) when interacting with others


Summarise and compare factual information about people, places and lifestyles drawn from a range of sources, including multimodal sources

[Key concepts: information, values, judgement, bias; Key processes: selecting, comparing] (ACLCHC212 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Sustainability
  • viewing reports on news and current affairs programs to develop an overview of events and discuss the responses of individuals and groups to issues and events such as a threat to public health or safety, environmental pollution, or rapid urbanisation
  • listening to and viewing texts such as celebrity interviews, news reports and documentaries on tourist hot spots, and obtaining the gist by focusing on familiar, anticipated items in a flow of words, for example, names of people and places, time and date, attitude and opinions
  • listening to and viewing interactions and noting the different opinions and ideas of different participants, focusing on key words and non-verbal cues to identify feelings
  • using dictionaries and other resources to interpret key words, for example, identifying the likely meaning of 七夕 in the sentence 农历七月七日是七夕
  • identifying important ideas and interpreting implied meanings in texts, recognising possible bias when judging the value of information
  • using listening strategies appropriate to a range of purposes, including listening for specific information, listening for key ideas, listening for overall understanding, or listening in order to repeat information to others
  • presenting opinions using strategies suited to the audience or reader’s expectations, such as 欲扬先抑 (to criticise before praising)
Develop and present a position on an issue based on information drawn from different perspectives and sources and provide advice and guidance

[Key concepts: information, advice, media,; Key processes: classifying, evaluating, advising, guiding] (ACLCHC213 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • identifying the positions of different speakers and exploring the explicit and implicit values and reasons that may have led to the development of their own perspectives, for example, why a Western speaker of Chinese may look at an issue differently to a native Chinese speaker; the different perspectives of a city resident versus a rural resident
  • developing an information kit about the local city or region to provide to Chinese visitors via a local tourism website, including details on history, climate, environment and cultural activities supported by visuals
  • creating short texts to inform others on topics of interest (such as 中国的茶-澳洲咖啡), and providing an objective perspective by discussing alternative views, for example, 有人说…也有人说…他们都不知道...所以…
  • accessing a range of sources of discussion (such as online debates in public forums and TV talk shows) and identifying factors that potentially cause bias on an issue, such as era, generational differences, cultural factors and individual personalities, for example, 有人认为愚公很傻, 尤其是生活在现代的人
  • presenting a balanced view on a contemporary issue, referring to evidence to support ideas and elaborating on own perspective
  • engaging with different representations of ideas, comparing perspectives and developing an informed position on issues relevant to their own lives, for example, 在中国有人说移民澳洲好,因为生活轻松; 也有人说移民澳洲不好,因为没有熟悉的家人朋友。我觉得… 因为…
  • presenting information on an issue such as 独生子女政策 by discussing perspectives and comparing experiences and opinions, noting how some people focus on positive effects on society and others focus on personal experiences of being a 独生子女
  • collaborating to produce multimedia displays to share with readers overseas to provide a local insight into issues such as the experience of international students in Australia, and highlighting the features that might be most relevant to overseas readers
  • collating information from personal research and writing reports on issues relevant to youth across cultures, such as pressure to follow fashions and trends, bullying, and inspirational people


Explore and express opinions on themes and emotions revealed in modified texts from classical and contemporary Chinese literature

[Key concepts: classical, contemporary, literature; Key processes: evaluating, expressing] (ACLCHC214 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • responding to literary texts such as 《某某后传》 through own creative text production, employing the literary styles and methods identified in such texts
  • keeping a journal to reflect on emotions and experiences of individuals encountered in texts
  • identifying and comparing the language used to explore major themes such as love, success and beauty in youth media across different languages and cultures
  • participating in class discussion on messages conveyed in traditional and contemporary texts and comparing how concepts of humour, happiness and tragedy are conveyed in music, art and drama across languages and cultures
  • understanding the values inherent in the use of music, imagery and stereotypical representations of people, places and practices in diverse forms of youth entertainment
  • identifying and discussing generational and cultural differences portrayed in contemporary media
  • examining songs that have remained popular for generations or have become anthems for particular groups of people, and discussing why these songs have achieved such success
  • reading a range of imaginative texts from other cultures, keeping a reading journal (读书笔记) to record own responses, and participating in class discussions about texts such as 《小王子》 and 《安徒生童话选》
Create narratives to describe experiences involving imagined people and places

[Key concepts: fact and fiction, challenge, morality, human experience; Key processes: adapting, creating, imagining] (ACLCHC215 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • collaborating with peers to perform a script from 儿童剧 or 情景剧 for younger year levels to engage them with the imaginative world
  • creating a script in response to a story from classical literature, such as 《草船借箭》, and considering how to convey the characters’ personality through language
  • creating own dramatic or humorous representations of people and events encountered in traditional or contemporary Chinese literature, drama or song
  • writing a creative account of an imagined experience involving Chinese visitors to the local community, such as hosting a Chinese student or taking a tour group to a local sporting event
  • creating a Chinese voice-over for a scene from an English language sitcom and experimenting with ways in which language, images, action and humour are used to enhance appreciation of the message
  • collaborating to create performances in which they assume an imaginary role, for example, a skit about celebrating Spring Festival, a simple lyric about school life, or a rap about being a student of Chinese
  • creating narratives that hold the attention of readers, for example, beginning a story with 你知道吗? and experimenting with 正叙,倒叙,插叙 to sequence events
  • collaboratively creating short plays describing the experiences of imagined characters in different cultures, for example, 《James在上海
  • using descriptive language to set the scene and capture the reader’s imagination, for example, describing the sound of traffic and the smell of breakfast stalls on a busy morning in a Chinese town
  • exploring how alternative words can be used to convey a range of attitudes and varying degrees of emotion towards people, places and events, for example, 我真高兴。你快乐吗?他很幸福!
  • comparing portrayals of a range of social groups in media, for example, how urban and rural communities and residents are portrayed in both traditional and contemporary texts
  • creating own narrative accounts of the life experiences of major historical figures or characters from literature, for example, 诸葛亮,孔子和他的学生
  • engaging and entertaining the audience through the use of devices such as humour, irony and metaphor, and embellishing ideas (for example, 猜猜我昨天干了什么? as opposed to 昨天我), and building up to a climatic ending


Translate a range of simple Chinese texts and identify how some concepts can be mediated readily between Chinese and English and some cannot

[Key concept: equivalence; Key processes: comparing, translating, explaining] (ACLCHC216 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • exploring ways to interpret and explain key concepts and cultural practices identified in Chinese interactions (for example, 面子) and experimenting with how to give 面子 in interaction with others
  • considering the uses of different measurement words in Chinese (for example, 小勺 and 茶匙;斤 and ) when comparing Chinese translations of English recipes
  • comparing alternative translations to identify concepts of ‘normality’ in their own linguistic and cultural context, for example, using the term 软饮料 (instead of 无酒精饮料) assumes the reader/audience has some understanding of English to understand meaning of
  • comparing 褒义词,贬义词 and 中性词 and the contexts they are used in, for example, the differences between 聪明 and 滑头
  • identifying words used with specific assumptions, for example, gender (英俊 is used to describe males), significance (会见 versus 见面), formality (光临 versus 来到)
  • considering ways to convey culture-specific terms in English (for example, 中药和食疗, 上火,大补)
Create texts in Chinese and English, explaining the linguistic and cultural challenges of achieving equivalence of meaning

[Key concepts: audience, context, social distance, bilingualism; Key processes: identifying, translating, interpreting] (ACLCHC217 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • viewing documentaries on historical events and figures and determining appropriate English equivalents for key terms with multiple meanings, for example, translating 运动 as ‘(political) movement’ rather than its more familiar meaning, ‘sport’
  • reading bilingual signs from a range of places, such as restaurants, shops, pools, schools, hospitals and construction sites, and evaluating the effectiveness of the English translations, and possible reasons for such interpretations
  • comparing word choices for signs across languages and discussing ways language is used to convey rules, expectations and permission, for example, comparing 闲人免进 to ‘Staff Only’
  • observing others involved in interpreting meanings in bilingual contexts and identifying challenges and potential issues in mediation
  • expanding their own linguistic repertoire by exploring available choices to translate unfamiliar ideas when moving between languages, and reflecting on their own choices and preferences
  • experimenting with translations of extended texts, using a range of print and digital dictionaries and translation tools


Reflect on how conventions of speech and particular Chinese cultural concepts can influence communication style when using both English and Chinese

[Key concepts: face, public, private; Key processes: adjusting, analysing] (ACLCHC218 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • identifying diverse ways their Chinese identity is played out in local communities (for example, through membership of community organisations and interest groups) and relating experiences in which their Chinese identity is central to their self-expression
  • exploring the ways their Chinese identity influences the different roles they play in life (for example, as a student at secondary school and in Chinese school, and as a son or daughter, an older or younger sibling, a friend, or a member of a sports team) and reflecting on times when linguistic and cultural aspects of their identity are questioned and challenged
  • reflecting on own cultural values and evaluating how these intersect with mainstream values when interacting in both Chinese and Australian contexts
  • recognising the language choices they make that influence how their identities as individuals and as Chinese-speaking Australians are perceived by others, for example, feeling more Chinese with Chinese people, and less Chinese when on their own or with people from a different cultural background
  • varying their language use when engaging with participants from different cultural backgrounds, for example, opening a speech in Chinese with 中国有一句俗语… when in English they would open a speech with some humour

Systems of language

Compare features of speech of speakers from diverse regions to standard Chinese including pronunciation and prosody (for example, intonation and stress) (ACLCHU219 - Scootle )
  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • developing tone discrimination and identifying subtle differences in pronunciation, including variations in regional accents, for example, distinguishing between ‘qing’ and ‘qin’, ‘lou’ and ‘rou’, ‘liang’ and ‘lang’, ‘shi’ and ‘si’, and ‘lan’ and ‘nan’ when listening to interactions between speakers in diverse contexts
  • comparing their pronunciation and word choices when speaking in Chinese to peers and other Chinese speakers
  • experimenting with rhythm, pace, tone, stress and other paralinguistic cues, and developing strategies to address aspects of their own spoken Chinese that may impede effective communication with others
Explore and apply the principles of character form and function, including knowledge of semantic and phonetic radicals, to predict associate sound and meaning of new characters encountered in texts (ACLCHU220 - Scootle )
  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • using character and component knowledge to infer potential sound and meaning of new characters encountered in texts
  • examining component form and function to predict sound of unfamiliar characters when reading aloud
  • inferring the meaning of terminology from other subject areas based on analysis of characters such as 螺旋桨
  • using knowledge of components to select a character from options when inputting Chinese into a digital text
  • explaining how morphology works to identify and convey subtle and precise meanings in communication
  • inferring the meaning of unfamiliar words containing a familiar character morpheme
  • applying understanding of word formation when comparing translations in a bilingual dictionary to identify the word most appropriate to the required context and use
  • appreciating that the precise meanings of character morphemes are determined by context, for example, 一封信 and 相信;企图 and 地图
Organise and express complex ideas in Chinese, for example, analysing and comparing active and passive sentence constructions (ACLCHU221 - Scootle )
  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • organising information in a range of ways, and discussing the logical flow of the information and whether it suits the audience’s reading expectations, for example, comparing 目前陆地上的煤,石油等资源 由于长期开采,已经越来越少 and 由于长期开采陆地上的资源,比如煤和石油,目前已经越来越少
  • analysing the subtle differences between expressions with similar meanings conveyed using, for example, 除了…也 and 除了…都 and 虽然 and 尽管
  • exploring the particular functions of key grammatical forms and their correct context of use, for example, distinguishing between the uses of 的、 得、 地 and 可以、能、会
  • employing more complex syntactical features to enhance their own meanings, building on current knowledge, for example, making comparisons, expressing sequence, expressing cause and effect
  • using particular discourse features to extend and elaborate their own message, for example, 除此之外、尽管这样、同样
Analyse textual features of formal genres and apply these in their own speech and writing (ACLCHU222 - Scootle )
  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • analysing features of texts in formal domains, for example, comparing aspects of formal and personal letters such as salutations or level of politeness; examining features of articles such as the use of headings, placement of author name, organisation into introduction, body and conclusion
  • comparing how statistical data (such as census information or surveys) are collated and referred to in Chinese and English texts, including consideration of the levels of in-text referencing required across both languages
  • analysing linguistic, stylistic and textual features of diverse samples of the same genre to compare the choices made by authors and the impact of these choices, for example, comparing 这位老人已经七十多岁了, 他每天要一上一下地打扫一千八百多级石阶, 该是多么辛苦啊! and 这位老人年纪大了,要打扫很多石阶,这些石阶大概有一千八百多级,非常辛苦
  • analysing stylistic/literary devices used in knowledge-based texts, for example, technical terms and concise formulaic expressions used in newspaper articles
  • appreciating and applying the use of literary devices, for example, direct and indirect historical and cultural references; features of intertextuality such as classical allusions (歇后语)
  • analysing the layout of magazines and online texts to identify how images, fonts and words have been chosen to enhance understanding of key ideas and author positioning
  • examining the language of newspapers, identifying commonly encountered linguistic terms and considering the concise ways in which world events are reported in Chinese media

Language variation and change

Recognise how gender, social class and age impact on language use in formal and informal contexts (ACLCHU223 - Scootle )
  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • observing interactions between speakers and identifying examples of how language is adapted as the roles and positions of participants are established, for example, moving to more formal language once one participant is identified as a person of authority
  • reading texts such as 《人民日报》, and identifying words and phrases that are used to convey authority or objectivity, such as how to name students with different achievements (for example, 尖子生,中间生,临界生 优秀学生, 普通学生,后进的有潜力学生) in a report on school education
  • discussing the transferability of expressions and words across different settings, for example, following the debate on the use of internet language in education and in the media (for example, the use of 网络语言 in student’s 写作)
  • comparing the same meaning conveyed in speech and writing, (for example, in speech (你不可以进去) and on a sign (闲人免进)) and discussing why the language may vary, including aspects such as interactivity and authority
Explore the significance of tradition in 名人名言 and 经典 and examine contemporary influences on language use (ACLCHU224 - Scootle )
  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • reading texts in traditional characters on familiar topics and inferring meaning of key characters
  • predicting the meaning of texts in traditional characters encountered in everyday contexts by relating the character’s simplified version, for example, in a tourist site
  • discussing the influences on their own Chinese language use (for example, from TV, family or Chinese school) and how their language use compares to that of their parents and other Chinese speakers
  • analysing how new words and concepts are developed and incorporated into daily use, for example, in contemporary media such as TV dramas, music and film
  • exploring samples of classical texts such as 《论语》 and recognising the impact of classical Chinese on contemporary written language, for example, the use of 岂, 于
  • listing famous quotes from traditional literature, such as famous lines from poems, and using these in their own writing
  • identifying examples of 成语 in writing by students of Chinese, discussing the effect of this usage and then identifying any errors made, such as in the sentence 我要休息一下,要不然有个三长两短就不好了

Role of language and culture

Explain how languages shape the communicative practices of individuals and groups and identify ways to enhance understanding across cultures (ACLCHU225 - Scootle )
  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • considering ways in which being a bilingual speaker of Chinese and English could impact on and enhance their future life and career
  • examining how language is used to marginalise groups in society, such as how labels are used to simplify identification of groups and influence how such groups are perceived by others, for example, 蚁族、80后/90后
  • considering their own perceptions of the Chinese-speaking world and identifying the influences on their perceptions, for example, trips to China when younger; stories from grandparents
  • exploring how concepts such as modesty, individual responsibility and respect for authority influence communication styles, and how they may be interpreted by English speakers as lack of confidence, engagement or initiative
  • exploring what assumptions are inherent in one language and how the same cultural assumptions may not exist in another language, for example, analysing how the terms for ‘getting married’ differ for women (嫁出去) and men (娶妻) and the gender-neutral 结婚

Years 9 and 10 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 10, students use spoken and written Chinese to initiate and sustain extended interactions with others in their social world and in the Chinese-speaking community, for example, 我的学校生活,澳大利亚的运动,我最喜欢的春节活动. They ask questions (for example, 你真的认为…吗?请想一想…) and adapt language use for a range of contexts and roles. They identify and evaluate key points of information from different spoken, written and multimodal authentic sources and use this information to develop a position and to inform and convince others. They move between Chinese and English to create simple bilingual texts. Students interpret, interact with and create a range of texts for imaginative, informative and persuasive purposes and for different audiences. Sentences include a range of structures, including formal expressions to connect ideas, for example, 除此之外, 尽管这样, 因此,无论…都… They also use relative and attributive clauses, conditionality and indefinite pronouns. Students compare information and ideas, and explain or justify opinions, for example, 有人说… 还有人认为… 所以…而且… 因此… They apply knowledge of metaphor and 成语 in their own writing.

Students map characters against familiar sounds and apply their knowledge of character form and function to predict the meaning and sound of unfamiliar characters. They independently use digital resources to communicate with others, and utilise online and print dictionaries to assist in reading Chinese texts. They explain how the purpose and use of stylistic devices, textual features and language features change across contexts, genres and traditions. Students explain the cultural assumptions that influence participants’ responses and identify ways in which understanding could be enhanced in communication. They reflect on the roles both Chinese and Australian cultures play in their own communicative practices and use these reflections to improve their Chinese language use.