Years 9 and 10 Band Description
The nature of the learners
At this level, students bring to their learning existing knowledge of Arabic language and culture and a range of strategies. They are increasingly aware of the world beyond their own and are engaging with youth-related and social and sustainability issues. They require continued guidance and mentoring but work increasingly independently to analyse, reflect on and monitor their language learning and intercultural experiences. They are considering future pathways and options, including the possible role of Arabic in these.
Arabic language learning and use
Learners are immersed in Arabic language, initiating and engaging in discussions and debates on topics of interest, and responding to enquiries. They reflect on the cultural and linguistic appropriateness of their language use in interactions and make necessary adjustments. They engage in an increasing range of interactions with others, seeking and giving advice لأنك تحب الرياضة؛ أنصحك بالسباحة لأنها مفيدة جدا, discussing future plans and aspirations يزداد الفقر في المجتمع ويجب على الجميع أن يحاربه , and justifying their ideas and opinions أنا أحترم رأيك كثيراَ؛ لا أتفق معك إطلاقاَ. They access and evaluate information about places, events, people, experiences and cultures from diverse sources, and convey perspectives and views on topical issues such as friends, family and relationships, social issues, youth culture, community matters and the natural and built environments, making connections with their own ideas and experiences. Learners produce a range of texts, such as informative, narrative, descriptive, procedural or persuasive texts, for a variety of contexts, audiences and purposes. They use their imagination to create and present texts, such as stories, plays, poems and speeches, and to express ideas, attitudes and values through different characters, events, settings and techniques. They develop translating and interpreting techniques and intercultural awareness in order to mediate between languages and cultures. Through their engagement with diverse texts and resources, students explore how cultural practices, concepts, values and beliefs are embedded in texts and how language choices shape and reflect perspectives and meaning.
Contexts of interaction
Learners interact with peers, the teacher and other Arabic speakers both locally and globally through a variety of means and modes of communication, including digital, online, collaborative performances and group discussions. The context of interaction extends beyond the classroom and involves investigating and reporting on issues in the local community and transacting with local Arabic speakers to negotiate services. These experiences provide learners with a sense of connectedness and purpose as Arabic and English speakers.
Texts and resources
Learners use diverse resources such as Arabic newspapers, magazines, documentaries, films, stories, songs, television programs, entertainment performances and web pages as references to assist them with discussions and research projects on Arabic language and culture. They explore a variety of text types, such as poems, articles, formal letters, interviews and speeches, and engage with a range of informative, historical or literary perspectives, views and arguments. Learners use a range of dictionaries and translation methods to support comprehension, build vocabulary and elaborate on ideas.
Features of Arabic language use
Learners apply appropriate pronunciation, rhythm, stress and tone and a variety of language features and complex sentence structures to enhance their spoken and written communication. They apply complex grammatical structures, such as indirect object pronouns and passive voice, to express their ideas objectively in texts such as articles and speeches, for example, لا تهتم لقد دُفعت فاتورة الطعام . They expand on their views and opinions by using persuasive language, such as the subjunctive and imperative moods (لا تنسوا؛ شاهدوا الفيلم الاسطوري, and use cohesive devices to link and sequence ideas and information, for example, في البداية أود أن أحدثكم عن يوم النظافة. They analyse and explain how and why language use varies according to cultural contexts, relationships and purposes, and develop the language of reflection in Arabic.
Level of support
Support at this level of learning includes rich and varied stimulus materials, continued scaffolding and modelling of language functions and communicative tasks, and explicit instruction and explanation of the grammatical system, with opportunities for learners to discuss, clarify, practise and apply their knowledge. Critical and constructive teacher feedback combines with peer support and self-review to monitor and evaluate learning outcomes, for example, through portfolios, peer review or e-journalling.
The role of English
Arabic is predominantly used as the medium for classroom interaction and content delivery. English is used only when necessary to allow for further reflection on and discussion or explanation of more demanding concepts, particularly when making connections between language and culture. Learners explore how language influences cultural experiences and ways of thinking and of viewing the world. They examine their own personal and cultural identity and reflect on the nature of intercultural exchanges in which they are involved. They question the assumptions that Arabic and English speakers bring to interactions, and discuss ways to increase mutual understanding. They view their bilingualism and biculturalism as an asset for themselves and for Australia.