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Context statement

The place of the Arabic culture and language in Australia and in the world
Arabic is spoken by approximately 280 million people in 22 countries over two continents.

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PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Languages - Arabic are available as PDF documents. 
Languages - Arabic: Sequence of content
Languages - Arabic: Sequence of Achievement - F-10 Sequence
Languages - Arabic: Sequence of …

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Years 9 and 10

Years 9 and 10 Band Description

The nature of the learners

At this level, students bring to their learning existing knowledge of Arabic language and culture and a range of strategies. They are increasingly aware of the world beyond their own and are engaging with youth-related and social and sustainability issues. They require continued guidance and mentoring but work increasingly independently to analyse, reflect on and monitor their language learning and intercultural experiences. They are considering future pathways and options, including the possible role of Arabic in these.

Arabic language learning and use

Learners are immersed in Arabic language, initiating and engaging in discussions and debates on topics of interest, and responding to enquiries. They reflect on the cultural and linguistic appropriateness of their language use in interactions and make necessary adjustments. They engage in an increasing range of interactions with others, seeking and giving advice لأنك تحب الرياضة؛ أنصحك بالسباحة لأنها مفيدة جدا, discussing future plans and aspirations يزداد الفقر في المجتمع ويجب على الجميع أن يحاربه , and justifying their ideas and opinions أنا أحترم رأيك كثيراَ؛ لا أتفق معك إطلاقاَ. They access and evaluate information about places, events, people, experiences and cultures from diverse sources, and convey perspectives and views on topical issues such as friends, family and relationships, social issues, youth culture, community matters and the natural and built environments, making connections with their own ideas and experiences. Learners produce a range of texts, such as informative, narrative, descriptive, procedural or persuasive texts, for a variety of contexts, audiences and purposes. They use their imagination to create and present texts, such as stories, plays, poems and speeches, and to express ideas, attitudes and values through different characters, events, settings and techniques. They develop translating and interpreting techniques and intercultural awareness in order to mediate between languages and cultures. Through their engagement with diverse texts and resources, students explore how cultural practices, concepts, values and beliefs are embedded in texts and how language choices shape and reflect perspectives and meaning.

Contexts of interaction

Learners interact with peers, the teacher and other Arabic speakers both locally and globally through a variety of means and modes of communication, including digital, online, collaborative performances and group discussions. The context of interaction extends beyond the classroom and involves investigating and reporting on issues in the local community and transacting with local Arabic speakers to negotiate services. These experiences provide learners with a sense of connectedness and purpose as Arabic and English speakers.

Texts and resources

Learners use diverse resources such as Arabic newspapers, magazines, documentaries, films, stories, songs, television programs, entertainment performances and web pages as references to assist them with discussions and research projects on Arabic language and culture. They explore a variety of text types, such as poems, articles, formal letters, interviews and speeches, and engage with a range of informative, historical or literary perspectives, views and arguments. Learners use a range of dictionaries and translation methods to support comprehension, build vocabulary and elaborate on ideas.

Features of Arabic language use

Learners apply appropriate pronunciation, rhythm, stress and tone and a variety of language features and complex sentence structures to enhance their spoken and written communication. They apply complex grammatical structures, such as indirect object pronouns and passive voice, to express their ideas objectively in texts such as articles and speeches, for example, لا تهتم لقد دُفعت فاتورة الطعام . They expand on their views and opinions by using persuasive language, such as the subjunctive and imperative moods (لا تنسوا؛ شاهدوا الفيلم الاسطوري, and use cohesive devices to link and sequence ideas and information, for example, في البداية أود أن أحدثكم عن يوم النظافة. They analyse and explain how and why language use varies according to cultural contexts, relationships and purposes, and develop the language of reflection in Arabic.

Level of support

Support at this level of learning includes rich and varied stimulus materials, continued scaffolding and modelling of language functions and communicative tasks, and explicit instruction and explanation of the grammatical system, with opportunities for learners to discuss, clarify, practise and apply their knowledge. Critical and constructive teacher feedback combines with peer support and self-review to monitor and evaluate learning outcomes, for example, through portfolios, peer review or e-journalling.

The role of English

Arabic is predominantly used as the medium for classroom interaction and content delivery. English is used only when necessary to allow for further reflection on and discussion or explanation of more demanding concepts, particularly when making connections between language and culture. Learners explore how language influences cultural experiences and ways of thinking and of viewing the world. They examine their own personal and cultural identity and reflect on the nature of intercultural exchanges in which they are involved. They question the assumptions that Arabic and English speakers bring to interactions, and discuss ways to increase mutual understanding. They view their bilingualism and biculturalism as an asset for themselves and for Australia.


Years 9 and 10 Content Descriptions

Socialising

Initiate, sustain and extend interactions with others through seeking and giving advice, and discussing future plans, aspirations, relationships and social issues

[Key concepts: relationships, education, community, social issues; Key processes: advising, explaining, persuading, commenting, justifying] (ACLARC171 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • sustaining interactions by asking for and providing specific information and elaborating on ideas, for example,

    ماذا تعني بهذا؟؛ قلت بأنك تحب السفر؛ إلى أين تريد أن تسافر؟؛ ما معنى...؟

  • extending on others’ responses by providing suggestions and giving advice, for example,

    بما انك تحب الرياضة؛ أنصحك بالسّباحة لأنّها مفيدة جداً؛ لماذا لا تقرأ هذا الكتاب؟ جرّب هذا القلم الجديد. ضع الصورة هنا؛ هذا مكان مناسب لها

  • sharing ideas and making suggestions relating to own and others’ experiences and aspirations, for example,

    أنا أيضاً مثلك أحب السّباحة؛ أمي أيضاً لا تسمح لي بالّلعب على الحاسوب أيام الأسبوع؛ إن أردت سأرسل لك رسالة إلكترونية فيها كل المعلومات؛ أتمنّى أن ألتحق بفريق التّنس؛ أتمنّى أن أتعلّم الموسيقى

  • participating in discussions, via online and virtual forums, relating to relationships and social issues such as youth employment, smoking and poverty, using reasoning and justification, for example,

    لا يستطيع الشّباب العمل بدوام جزئي لأنّ واجبات المدرسة كثيرة؛ التّدخين مضر بالصّحة فهو يسبّب الكثير من الأمراض الخطيرة؛ يزداد الفقر في المجتمع ويجب على الجميع أن يحاربه

Negotiate actions and contribute ideas, opinions and suggestions in interactions related to shared tasks, transactions and problem-solving, managing different views and perspectives

[Key concepts: roles, perspectives, responsibility; Key processes: commenting, selecting, evaluating] (ACLARC172 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Sustainability
  • planning and negotiating collaboratively in scenarios related to travelling or living in an Arabic-speaking country, such as using transport, eating out or visiting tourist attractions, for example,

    عندما أصل إلى القاهرة سوف أستأجر سيارة لأصل إلى الفندق؛ أفضل وسيلة مواصلات هي سيارة الأجرة؛ سوف أسافر إلى المناطق الريفيّة في القطار؛ في لبنان الأطعمة لذيذة لذلك سأذهب إلى مطاعم مختلفة؛ أحب المأكولات العربية الشعبية. سوف أزور جميع المناطق الأثرية في الأردن

  • making complaints and recommendations and seeking solutions, for example,

    أعترض على طريقة معاملة الزبائن؛ الفندق بحاجة إلى منظفين أكثر؛ الطعام كان بارداً ولم أقدر أن آكله؛ أسعار الثياب غالية جداً

  • organising an event such as a youth meeting through social media to raise awareness of environmental or ethical issues
    • Sustainability
  • contributing opinions using online and digital forms of communication such as emails, school chat forums and community websites to discuss various social issues such as youth employment opportunities or issues related to freedom and equality, for example,

    أصبح وجود فرص للعمل مستحيلاً؛ إنها كارثة إنسانية؛ إنها عار على مجتمعنا؛ مساواة جميع المواطنين حق إنساني؛ حرية الإنسان في التعبير خط أحمر

Engage in language learning tasks and experiences, discussing and justifying ideas and opinions

[Key concepts: interconnection across concepts and actions, mindful learning; Key processes: discussing, connecting, justifying] (ACLARC173 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • expressing and justifying own opinion in class discussions and debates, for example,

    أتفق معك جداً؛ أوافقك الرأي؛ أنا أحترم رأيك كثيراً

    لا أتفق معك في رأيك. لا أوافقك الرأي

  • eliciting, reflecting on and responding to others’ opinions, for example,

    ما رأيك في هذه الجملة؟ هل تتفق معي؟ هل توافقني على كلامي؟ وأنت يا سعيد؛ ماذا تعتقد؟ سميرة؛ ما رأيك في الموضوع؟

    كلامك صحيح مئة بالمئة؛ أنت على حق في قولك هذا صحيح!

    أعتقد أنّ كلامك ليس صحيحاً؛ أنت لست دقيقاً في كلامك؛ مع إحترامي لشخصك؛ أرى أنّ كلامك ليس منطقيّاً. آسفة رأيك غير مقنع

  • making connections between ideas and consequences, and cause and effect, for example,

    وصلت إلى المدرسة متأخّراً لأنّ سيارة أمي تعطلت في الطريق؛ لم أكمل الدرس أمس لأنّ بيتنا كان مليئاً بالزّوار؛ لم أكمل واجب العلوم لأنّني لم أفهم السّؤال

    إنّ سبب صعوبة الإمتحان هي الأسئلة الأخيرة؛ المعلمة لم تشرح الدرس جيداً؛ ؛ عاقبني الأستاذ في الفرصة لأنّني تأخّرت عن الصف ؛ اتّصلت المعلمة بأمي لأنني أتكلم كثيراً في الصف ولا أستمع لشرحها

  • praising, complimenting and encouraging peers when discussing ideas, for example,

    ممتاز! رائع! فكرة هائلة! واصل مجهودك. هذه فكرة عبقريّة! أنت ذكيّ جداً! فكرتك مذهلة

Informing

Locate, analyse, interpret and evaluate information from online and digital sources on issues of interest to young people, making connections with own experiences and considering various perspectives

[Key concepts: representation, perspective, private and public world; Key processes: summarising, interpreting, evaluating, connecting, relating] (ACLARC174 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Sustainability
  • understanding main ideas and evaluating information from texts such as articles, reports, charts, diagrams and news items, on topics such as environmental sustainability, world sports, and youth culture, for example,

    السخرية من وضع معين؛ التنديد بفعل معين؛ تزكية فكرة ما من خلال العبارات اللغوية والصور والتنسيق العام للتقرير

    • Sustainability
  • distinguishing between fact and opinion in texts such as articles and reports in print and digital form, using critical literacy skills to recognise bias by evaluating textual purpose used, for example,

    التحيّز لفكر ما؛ المبالغة: إن جميع الشباب متهوّر؛ هذا جيل غير مسؤول

    الحياديّة تجاه الأفكار المؤيدة والمعارضة: هناك بعض الشباب المتهور؛ إن غالبية الشّباب غير مسؤول

  • analysing and interpreting information collected from various sources, including digital or online sources, such as concept maps, charts and tables, by summarising, sequencing and prioritising, considering audience, purpose and context and drawing personal conclusions, for example,

    من الواضح أن...؛ في الخاتمة...؛ هذا يؤدي إلى ...؛ خلاصة الكلام...؛ في النهاية ...

  • using information obtained from a range of sources in order to debate issues of interest, such as the generation gap, teenage issues, immigration or parents’ expectations, using persuasive and evaluative language, making connections with own experiences and considering different perspectives, for example,

    الهوّة بين الأهل والأبناء كبيرة وعميقة دون شك؛ يجب على الأهل مساعدة أبنائهم في مرحلة المراهقة؛ أليس كذلك؟ نحن بحاجة إلى تغيير الفكر؛ علينا أن ننظر إلى المسألة بحكمة؛ يجب علينا جميعاً أن ندعم الشباب في إختياراتهم

Construct and present texts in varied styles and formats to convey own and others’ perspectives on ideas and information for different contexts, audiences and purposes

[Key concepts: audience, purpose, media, perspectives; Key processes: constructing, persuading, comparing, evaluating, connecting] (ACLARC175 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Sustainability
  • producing texts in oral, written and multimodal formats, such as blogs, print and online articles and oral presentations, to convey own ideas and interpretations of various texts for different contexts, audiences and purposes
  • conveying information relating to community matters in texts such as posters, brochures and web pages, for example, a brochure promoting a holiday destination, a poster for a doctor’s surgery encouraging healthy eating, or a web page reviewing a new Arabic film
  • persuading others to express their opinions or think seriously about a particular issue of interest in texts such as blogs, using language expressions such as

    لنفكر بجديّة؛ هل يُعقل أن...؛ لم لا؟ أليس هذا معقولاً؟ هذا خبرٌ في منتهى الغرابة! لا بد وأن نأخذ موقفاً واضحاً؛ علينا جميعاً أن نشارك في هذا الإعتراض؛ هيّا نكتب رسالة لصاحب المحطة

  • evaluating and reporting on a contemporary social, ethical or environmental sustainability issue using a range of presentation techniques, for example, flow charts, PowerPoint presentations or video clips
    • Sustainability

Creating

Explore a range of imaginative texts, analysing themes, values and techniques, and discussing how aspects of language and culture help create particular effects

[Key concepts: culture, emotion, values, style; Key processes: analysing, discussing, interpreting, evaluating] (ACLARC176 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • listening to, reading and viewing a range of imaginative texts, including digital, online or multimodal texts, such as short stories, films and poetry, identifying technical aspects and analysing elements of language that convey emotions and values
  • reading texts such as poems and short stories, analysing the main messages the author wishes to convey and discussing the values presented in the texts and connecting them to their own experiences
  • analysing and evaluating the lyrics of contemporary Arabic songs, identifying themes, messages and cultural aspects expressed through language
  • discussing how texts such as short films or video clips portray social issues such as relationships, wealth and poverty and cultural change, and values such as honesty and equality
Create and present imaginative texts to express ideas, attitudes and values through characters, events and settings for a range of audiences, contexts and purposes

[Key concepts: imagination, creativity, morality; Key processes: composing, engaging, projecting, presenting] (ACLARC177 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • creating various types of imaginative texts, such as songs, stories or video clips for video-sharing websites, to convey messages that reflect own perspectives on Arabic values and practices such as traditional filial piety or the value of education in modern society
  • creating imaginative texts in print, digital or online formats, such as short stories, video clips or plays, and building characters, themes and settings to entertain a specific audience, such as younger learners of Arabic
  • composing and presenting imaginative poems and songs that relate to significant celebrations or events in both Australia and the Arabic-speaking world, for example,

    الأعياد الوطنية؛ عيد المعلم؛ العيد الوطني الأسترالي ؛ عيد شهداء الأنزاك

  • creating reflective and critical texts such as diaries, blogs and articles to express own opinions on imaginative texts such as films, stories or poems, using expressions such as

    يا إلهي كم كان الفيلم مملّاً؛ دور الأم في الفيلم كان قاسياً جداً؛ لم أستمتع بقراءة القصة أبداً؛ لقد كانت أحداثها غير منطقية؛ قافية القصيدة جيدة لكنّ تعابيرها متكررة

Translating

Translate and interpret texts from Arabic into English and vice versa for different audiences and contexts, and reflect on how cultural values, attitudes and perspectives are represented in each language

[Key concepts: audience, context, perspective, values; Key processes: reflecting, interpreting, comparing, analysing] (ACLARC178 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • translating texts such as advertisements and letters from Arabic into English and vice versa, with the assistance of print, electronic and online translators, identifying cultural elements and reflecting on how they are encoded in common words and expressions, for example,

    هيّا أسرعوا؛ لا تدعوا الفرصة تفوتكم؛ إنها رحلة العمر؛ صديقتي الغالية على قلبي؛ سلام حار أرسل لك من أستراليا؛ أشواقي وقبلاتي لك ولجميع أفراد العائلة؛ ودمت لصديقتك ...

  • reflecting on the difficulty of achieving equivalence in translations of creative texts such as poems, songs and video clips, identifying and explaining words and phrases that require particular elaboration or explanation, for example,

    والله ولي التوفيق؛ رافقتك السلامة؛ على ما يرام؛

  • experimenting with interpreting and translating popular Arabic expressions, proverbs or idioms, and reflecting on the social and cultural values that may be embedded in them, for example,

    الجار قبل الدار؛ من جدّ وجد ومن زرع حصد؛ في التّأنّي السلامة وفي العجلة الندامة؛ الوقاية خير من العلاج

  • analysing existing translations of texts, such as subtitled short films, making comparisons with own translations and reflecting on why versions may vary
Create bilingual texts that reflect aspects of culture for Arabic- speaking and English-speaking audiences in the school and wider community, for example, pamphlets, travel brochures or road directories

[Key concepts: representation, cultural literacy; Key processes: interpreting, referencing, relating interculturally] (ACLARC179 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • considering how to maintain the integrity of original texts when translating into Arabic or English, for example, explaining culture-specific concepts relating to Arabic-speaking communities, such as التّحيات والسّلامات والسؤال عن الأهل والأقارب , or to the Australian context, such as ‘the bush’ or ‘the outback’, and representing original ideas and meanings bilingually
  • producing bilingual texts, such as video clips with subtitles, explaining cultural practices in Australia for Arabic-speaking viewers, for example, bushwalking, Anzac Day commemorations
  • producing digital and online texts in both Arabic and English, such as brochures and leaflets, for different contexts, purposes and audiences, such as Arabic-speaking students studying in Australia, Arabic-speaking tourists, or Australian schools hosting Arabic-speaking visitors, and reflecting on the process of working in both languages
  • creating captions or commentaries in Arabic and English to accompany texts such as song lyrics, video clips, film extracts or parts of a television program, exchanging and comparing bilingual texts with peers using online forums and discussing the best ways of achieving consistency in meaning

Reflecting

Reflect on how meanings vary according to cultural assumptions that Arabic and English speakers bring to interactions, and take responsibility for contributing to mutual understanding

[Key concepts: cultural assumptions, judgement; Key processes: reflecting, relating interculturally] (ACLARC180 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • considering how being bilingual offers additional ways of interpreting the world and representing experience
  • challenging cultural assumptions and offering different perspectives to new cultural contexts or situations, for example, the idea that all Arabic-speaking people dress the same or eat the same food, many Arabic speakers speak more than two languages, every Middle Eastern country has its cultural uniqueness
  • identifying moments of embarrassment or communication breakdown in own intercultural interactions, exploring reasons for these and suggesting adjustments that could be made to enhance mutual understanding, for example, explaining to a non-Arabic speaker that exposing the sole of your foot/shoe to a person’s face would be considered extremely bad manners and interpreted as a grievous insult
  • discussing elements of successful intercultural communication, for example, attentive listening and objectivity when discussing social issues, and understanding that mediating and negotiating differences in perspective can prevent and resolve interpersonal problems and conflicts
Reflect on own cultural identity and how it is both shaped by and influences ways of communicating, thinking and behaving

[Key concepts: perception, identity, communication; Key processes: discussing, evaluating, reflecting] (ACLARC181 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • composing a cultural identity profile to exchange with non-Arabic speakers, making decisions about what points of information will be of most interest to others
  • reflecting on choices made to present self to others in particular ways or to conceal aspects of identity when interacting across cultures, noticing differences in the way they communicate, think and behave in different contexts
  • exploring how individual ways of communicating, thinking and behaving reflect and help to shape their own cultural identity, for example, why an Arabic-Australian teenager who speaks English better than they do Arabic and is more familiar with the Australian cultural context may view themselves as more Australian than Arabic
  • comparing and contrasting an Arabic and an Australian experience, such as الإحتفالات العائلية
  • considering how their own and others’ identity may shift according to the place and time

Systems of language

Understand how rules of Arabic pronunciation, including patterns of stress and rules of pause, and writing conventions enhance meaning and aesthetic effect

[Key concepts: fluency, complexity, appropriateness; Key processes: applying, analysing, synthesising] (ACLARU182 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • understanding that certain sounds in Arabic words can be dropped from pronunciation, such as the t sound in السماء صافية and tashkeel in البنت مريضة؛ الشمس مشرقة
  • understanding that sentences can contain one or more verbs and can be joined with و or other cohesive devices
  • recognising the need for a pause or change of tone in complex sentences with embedded clauses, for example, كنت مع صديقي عماد؛ صديقي من المدرسة؛ عندما شاهدنا الحادث الأليم
  • applying understanding of how tone can convey emotions and shade meaning, such as distinguishing between colloquial or formal language, for example, حقًا؟ يا إلهي! معقولة؟ تعال إلى هنا حالًا
  • reflecting on the role of pronunciation, rhythm, word stress and intonation in effective communication, and applying this knowledge to own interactions
  • using knowledge of Arabic pronunciation and spelling rules when engaging with authentic spoken and written texts
  • evaluating own spelling and pronunciation in relation to their understanding and expression
Analyse how the use of grammatical elements such as indirect object, passive voice, dual form, verb tense and word order impact on tone, speech level and formality, and on meaning-making

[Key concepts: register, grammatical systems, meaning; Key processes: analysing, explaining, manipulating, applying] (ACLARU183 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • understanding that Arabic uses the dual form of nouns, verbs and adjectives, in both masculine and feminine forms, for example,أنتما تلعبان؛ هذان كتابان؛ الوردتان جميلتان
  • understanding the importance of vocalisation on the subject word and the object word and analysing how this affects the meaning of the sentence, for example,

    كلّمت الأمُّ البنتَ؛ كلّمت الأمَّ البنتُ

  • manipulating interrogative verb forms to ask a range of questions, for example,

    قل لي لمَ لم تتّصل بي؟ أتصلت بك عدة مرات ولم ترد عليّ. أخبرني ماذا تريد أن تصبح في المستقبل؟ إشرح لي أسباب عدم قبولك دعوتي لحفل عيد ميلادي. ألسنا أصدقاء؟

  • understanding and applying indirect object pronouns and passive voice to express ideas objectively in texts such as articles and speeches, for example,

    مُنعَ الكتاب بسبب أفكاره الجريئة؛ خُصّصَ وقت بعد المدرسة لتعليم اللّغة العربية

  • using cohesive devices to sequence ideas, for example,

    في البداية أود أن أحدثكم عن يوم النّظافة العالمي؛ وبعد ذلك سأشرح لكم طرق المشاركة في هذا اليوم؛ ثمّ سأريكم بعض الصور وختاماً سآخذكم في جولة قصيرة حول الحديقة العامة

  • extending use of negative forms, for example,

    لم أحب أبداً مشاهدة الأفلام القديمة التي تشاهدها أمّي لأنّها لا تناقش أموراً عصريّة؛ ليس كل ما تقرأونه في الكتب صحيحاً ولا ما تشاهدونه على التلفاز حقيقيّاً

  • using إلاّ to express exceptions, for example, جميع أصدقائي يلعبون رياضة ما خلال الأسبوع إلّا أنا
  • using comparative and superlative forms of adjectives to describe people and objects, for example,

    صديقتي هناء هي أجمل فتاة رأيتها في حياتي؛ فهي أحنّ صديقة؛ واكثرواحدة تحب مساعدة الآخرين؛ إنّها أيضاً أمهر طبّاخة والأفضل في كل شيء

  • understanding how to use exaggeration and emphasis for effect, for example,

    ألف مبروك على رخصة القيادة؛ أنا أفكر بك دائماً؛ قلت للمرة المليون بأنني لم اسمع جرس المحمول لأردّ عليك

  • developing metalanguage to discuss grammatical features and to explain how word order, tenses and moods, adjectives and adverbs can be used to enhance meaning and expand expression
  • using imperative verb tenses to persuade, encourage and advise others, for example,

    شاركوا في الردّ على الموقع الإلكتروني؛ لا تنسوا شاهدوا الفيلم الأسطوري؛ سيعجبكم جداً؛ هيّا تشددوا وحاولوا أن تكملوا البحث بجدارة ؛ إتّصلوا على الرقم المذكور في الإعلان

  • using subjunctive mood to express doubt, uncertainty or emotion, for example,

    قد يكون كلامك صحيحاً ولكني لست متأكّداً منه؛ ربما تقبل أمي أن أذهب معك إلى الحفل لست متأكدة

  • creating compound and complex sentences by using embedded clauses, for example,

    أحب القراءة كثيراً بالرّغم من أن الكثير من الناس لا يحبون أن يقرأوا بل يفضلون مشاهدة التلفاز ؛ لا أعرف لماذا أصدقائي والّذين أصولهم عربية؛ لا يحبون الأغاني العربيّة!

Understand the relationship between purpose, audience, context, linguistic features, and the textual and cultural elements associated with different types of texts, such as persuasive, argumentative and expository texts

[Key concepts: perspective, purpose, audience; Key processes: analysing, correlating, discussing, explaining] (ACLARU184 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • analysing how language choices help achieve particular purposes and effects in particular types of texts, such as descriptive language in documentaries; reflective language in personal blogs, diary or journal entries, including digital diaries; and persuasive language in advertisements and speeches
  • analysing a range of expository texts such as news reports and feature articles, identifying language features and any elements of bias or objectivity
  • discussing and evaluating how language is used to express ideas and justify opinions in texts such as debates or segments of a talk show on topical issues of interest to teenagers
  • identifying and discussing the use of diacritics in texts for decorative purposes such as book titles, letter heads and nameplates
  • examining a range of spoken and written texts, discussing similarities and differences in and connections between context, purpose and audience, and what the texts reveal about social relationships and processes, for example, reflections of status, authority, or concepts of respect and politeness

Language variation and change

Analyse and explain how variations in Arabic language use relate to roles, relationships and the context of interactions, and consider how and why these would differ from interactions in English or other languages represented in the classroom

[Key concepts: genre, variation, intercultural literacy; Key processes: analysing, explaining, reflecting] (ACLARU185 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • investigating the nature and use of the Arabic language in different contexts of interaction, for example, by asking Arabic-speaking students in Australia when, with whom and for what purpose they use Arabic or English, and reflecting on similarities and differences in interactions in both languages
  • reflecting on how various Arabic speakers’ views on social or cultural roles and relationships are reflected in texts such as traditional sayings, idioms, proverbs, poetry and song lyrics
  • comparing a variety of texts relating to interactions in different Arabic-speaking regions, and analysing how aspects of the language used in varying social contexts reflect certain values and world views
Reflect on the dynamic nature of language, relating it to constantly changing environments and cultural conditions such as contact with other languages and cultures and changing circumstances in local and global contexts

[Key concepts: communication, influence, power of language, changing environment; Key processes: investigating, examining, analysing, explaining, reflecting] (ACLARU186 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • recognising that language changes over time, for example, by viewing classical and contemporary Arabic films and comparing how certain ideas and concepts are differently represented through the language used
  • examining how English is influencing and modifying Arabic language use in particular settings, for example, in the entertainment industry, such as in films and television programs; in online contexts; and in language used to express global concepts such as الدّيمقراطيّة؛ الّليبراليّة
  • considering how moving between Modern Standard Arabic and regional dialects reflects personal, social and political histories and changing contexts

Role of language and culture

Explore how language both shapes and reflects thoughts and world views and encourages action and reaction, and is shaped by community and individual cultural experiences

[Key concepts: cultural experience, thought, behaviour; Key processes: discussing, reflecting, expressing opinions] (ACLARU187 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Sustainability
  • recognising the importance of learning and maintaining Arabic and other languages in order to access the cultural understanding, values, beliefs and mindsets of others
  • reflecting on personal encounters with cultural practices that have impacted on own ways of thinking and reacting and have helped to shape their attitudes to and views of the world around them, and discussing ways to increase intercultural understanding
  • discussing and reflecting on how language use, such as persuasive, motivational or emotive language in texts, and in different forms of media, such as the internet, impacts on social behaviour, actions and reactions

Years 9 and 10 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 10, students use written and spoken Arabic to initiate, sustain and extend formal and informal interactions with the teacher, peers and others in a range of settings. They use language spontaneously to respond to others, seek and give advice for example, كيف أستطيع أن ...؛ أعتقد أ..., describe relationships for example, عندي أصدقاء كثر؛ علاقتي بعائلتي وطيدة؛ أحب معلمتي كثيرا لأنها حنونة, discuss aspirations for example, أريد أن أعمل في مكدونالدز في العطلة؛ أريد أن اصبح طبيبا؛ أحلم أن أكون رائد فضاء and future plans (for example, في المستقبل؛ أريد أن أسافر إلى أوروبا؛ عندما أكبر؛ أريد أن أدخل الجامعة, compare experiences for example, بيتي القديم كان أجمل من بيتي الحالي , and justify opinions for example, لأن...؛ بسبب... ) on social issues of interest to them. They listen to different views and perspectives when interacting with others, and take action, solve problems and contribute ideas, opinions and suggestions. They apply pronunciation rules and rhythm to complex sentences to enhance spoken interactions. They analyse, interpret and evaluate information on topical issues of interest to young people, making connections with their own experiences and considering various perspectives. They convey information and perspectives using different text types and modes of presentation to suit different contexts and audiences and to achieve different purposes. They share their response to different imaginative texts by analysing themes for example, الفكرة الأساسية في النص؛ هدف النص؛ الموضوع , techniques for example, الكناية والاستعارة والتشبيه and values, and identify ways in which aspects of language and culture create particular effects, such as المشاعر التي يؤججها النص. Students create imaginative texts for a range of audiences, contexts and purposes, to express ideas, attitudes and values through characters, events and settings. When creating texts, they use a variety of grammatical elements to enhance meaning, such as indirect object, passive and active voice, negation for example, ليس عندي وقت؛ لا يوجد وقت؛ لن أجد الوقت, verb tense and word order for example, الجملة الاسمية والجملة الفعلية؛ ظرف الزمان أو المكان في بداية الجملة, and time and place clauses such as في وقت من الأوقات؛ في المجتمع الأسترالي؛ في الشارع العام . Students translate and interpret texts from Arabic into English and vice versa and explain how cultural values, attitudes and perspectives are represented. They create a range of bilingual texts for a variety of purposes and audiences. They explain the relationship between language, culture and identity, question perceptions, and modify language and behaviours in intercultural interactions as appropriate.

Students apply their understanding of complex pronunciation rules and writing conventions, such as stress patterns and rules of pause, to enhance meaning and aesthetic effect. They analyse a range of persuasive, argumentative and expository texts and explain the relationship between context, purpose, audience, linguistic features, and textual and cultural elements such as التحية والتوقيع في بداية الرسائل والتمني بالتوفيق والصحة. They explain how and why variations in Arabic language use relate to roles, relationships and contexts of interaction. Students analyse the ways in which languages change in response to changing environments. They explain how language use reflects thoughts and world views and is shaped by cultural experiences.