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Context statement

The place of the Arabic culture and language in Australia and in the world
Arabic is spoken by approximately 280 million people in 22 countries over two continents.

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PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Languages - Arabic are available as PDF documents. 
Languages - Arabic: Sequence of content
Languages - Arabic: Sequence of Achievement - F-10 Sequence
Languages - Arabic: Sequence of …

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Years 9 and 10

Years 9 and 10 Band Description

The nature of the learners

Learners increasingly communicate in Arabic in everyday interactions and in domains beyond the home. They continue to be immersed in Arabic language and culture, making connections and comparisons with other languages and cultures. They have a growing awareness of the wider world, including the diversity of languages, cultures and forms of intercultural communication. They begin to consider their role as bilingual, intercultural communicators in the Australian context. They are considering future pathways and prospects, including how Arabic may feature in these.

Arabic language learning and use

This is a period of language exploration, vocabulary expansion, and experimentation with different modes of communication. Learners use Arabic to communicate and interact, exchange information, express and justify opinions (أريد ركوب العجلة ولكن ليس عندي خوذة ), and plan, negotiate and solve problems in shared tasks and transactions (ماذا لو نذهب في عطلة المدرسة؟ ). They access and evaluate information from a range of sources, and present ideas and views from a range of perspectives in different formats and contexts and for particular audiences. They use their imagination to create a range of texts, such as stories, plays and video clips, about past events and experiences and future possibilities, using a range of techniques to entertain different audiences. There is a balance between activities that focus on language forms and structures and those that emphasise communicative tasks and performance. Learners recognise that moving between Arabic and English involves interpretation and personal response as well as literal translation and factual reporting. Task characteristics and conditions at this level are more complex and challenging, providing opportunities for collaborative as well as independent language planning and performance, and development and strategic use of language and cultural resources. Learners discuss the relationship between language, culture and identity, exploring in more depth the concept of being bilingual and bicultural.

Contexts of interaction

Greater control of language structures and systems increases confidence and interest in communicating in a wider range of contexts beyond the home. Contexts of interaction in Arabic move beyond the immediate world of teenage experience to more active participation in the local community, for example, by engaging in local community events or celebrations. Learners participate in discussions and presentations on topics of interest and on life experiences in different contexts and cultures, and view television programs, documentaries, music performances and films to further explore Arabic language and culture. Additional opportunities for interaction are provided by purposeful and integrated use of information and communications technologies (ICT), for example, videoconferencing and e-learning.

Texts and resources

Learners read, view and interact with a broad range of texts and resources specifically designed for learning Arabic in school contexts, such as textbooks, readers, videos and online materials, including those developed for computer-supported collaborative learning. They also access authentic materials created for Arabic-speaking communities, such as films, literature, websites and magazines. They use a range of dictionaries and translation methods to support comprehension, build vocabulary and elaborate on ideas.

Features of Arabic language use

Learners use appropriate pronunciation, rhythm and intonation in communication and interaction, and apply accurate spelling and punctuation in a range of written texts. They gain greater control of grammatical elements, such as word order, a range of tenses, conditional and subjunctive moods, embedded clauses, imperative forms, and vocative case, to elaborate on ideas and information relating to people and events ( أخي يلعب كثيراً لكن أختي تدرس دائماً), discuss future plans and aspirations (سوف أذهب إلى الجامعة؛ سوف اسافر مع أهلي؛ سوف أشتري سيارة), persuade audiences ( لنذهب إلى المعلم ونسأله؛ هيا حاول مرة ثانية؛ ممتاز! أحسنت؛ تكلم مع سامر), express doubt, uncertainty or emotion ( ربما نذهب إلى السينما يوم السبت), and link and extend ideas and information ( بداية؛ بعد ذلك؛ أخيراَ). They analyse text more critically, identifying how language choices reflect perspectives and meaning in a range of texts, and developing their understanding of the relationship between context, purpose and audience. They demonstrate understanding of language variation and change, and of how intercultural experience, technology, popular culture, migration and globalisation influence forms of communication.

Level of support

This stage of learning involves consolidation and progression. Learners need opportunities for new challenges and more independent learning experiences. Continued scaffolding, modelling and monitoring are required to support these challenges. A range of resources is provided and processes modelled for the development of more autonomous self-monitoring and reflecting strategies, such as online journalling, video documenting and discussion forums. Continued focused attention on grammatical and textual features supports learners in the production of texts.

The role of English

The classroom is increasingly characterised by bilinguality, with Arabic being the principal language of communication. English continues to be used as the medium for substantive discussion, comparison, analysis and reflection, although learners at this level are able to discuss some abstract and complex views and ideas on language, culture and intercultural experience in Arabic. They explore the interrelationship between language, culture and identity, and reflect in more depth on the concept of being bilingual. They discuss the influence of Arabic and English on their ways of communicating, thinking and behaving, how living and moving between cultures has impacted on their own bilingual identity, and how successful communication requires flexibility, awareness and openness to alternative ways.


Years 9 and 10 Content Descriptions

Socialising

Initiate and sustain interactions to develop relationships with peers and adults, exchanging ideas, opinions and feelings, comparing experiences and discussing future plans

[Key concepts: relationships, opinion, experiences, future; Key processes: exchanging, comparing, discussing] (ACLARC018 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • initiating and sustaining conversations on topics of interest by using expressions such as

    هل تحب المأكولات العربية؟ ما هي أكلتك المفضلة؟ أنا أيضا أحب الوجبات السريعة؛ هل تريد أن تأتي معي إلى الحديقة بعد المدرسة؟

    أمي طباخة ماهرة. تعال إلى بيتنا يوم السبت. هل تحب الذهاب معنا إلى المنتزه/الحديقة؟

    أنا آسف؛ أمي لا تسمح لي. أعتذر ليس لدي وقت؛ سوف أسأل أبي. نعم؛ طبعاً؛ سوف أتصل بأمي أولاً.

    هل شاهدت مباراة كرة القدم أمس؟ برأيك من سيفوز بالكأس؟ من هو لاعبك المفضل؟ هل نزلت اللعبة الإلكترونيّة إلى الأسواق؟ إنها لعبة ممتعة. هل أكملت واجب المدرسة؟ أحتاج إلى مساعدة؛ إن الواجب صعب

  • exchanging information and opinions on a range of topics such as home, school, leisure and travelling, for example,

    هل تحب المنطقة التي تسكن فيها؟ لماذا؟ منطقتي جميلة وشارع بيتي هادىء؛ أبي يريد أن يشتري بيتاً جديداً وأنا لا أريد أن أترك بيتنا؛ أنا احب بيتنا كثيراً؛ أريد ركوب الدّراجة ولكن ليس عندي خوذة. ما رأيك بلعبة كرة القدم؟ أنا أحب القراءة كثيراً؛ وأنت؟

  • expressing wishes and feelings, and describing personal plans for school holidays or weekend, for example,

    في عطلة نهاية الأسبوع أحب أن أذهب إلى البحر؛ لأن الطقس سيكون حاراً؛ أتمنى أن نسافر في العطلة المدرسية. أنا سعيد لأننا سوف نسافر في العطلة؛ في عطلة المدرسة سوف ألعب التنس كل يوم؛ يوم السبت القادم سأذهب إلى السينما مع إخوتي؛ يوم الأحد القادم سأذهب إلى السوق مع أمي لأشتري حذاءً جديداً للرّياضة.

  • elaborating on others’ responses by providing suggestions and giving advice, for example,

    بما أنك تحب الرّياضة، أنصحك بالسباحة لأنها مفيدة جداً؛ لماذا لا تقرأ هذا الكتاب؟ جرّب هذا القلم الجديد. ضع الصورة هنا؛ هذا مكان مناسب لها

  • comparing own and others’ experiences and future aspirations by sharing ideas and making suggestions, for example,

    أنا أيضاً مثلك أحب السباحة؛ أمي أيضاً لا تسمح لي باللعب على الحاسوب أيام الأسبوع؛ إذا أردت سأرسل لك رسالة إلكترونية فيها كل شيء؛ أتمنى أن ألتحق بفريق التنس؛ أتمنى أن أتعلم الموسيقى

Participate in collaborative projects, providing ideas and suggestions, negotiating and justifying options, solving problems and completing transactions

[Key concepts: participation, contribution, prioritisation; Key processes: suggesting, justifying, discussing, negotiating, transacting] (ACLARC019 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • expressing preferences for plans, comparing and contrasting alternatives using

    أفضل من...؛ الأفضل...؛ الأحسن...

    أفضل ان نشتري هذه اللعبة لأنها حديثة؛ لا أتفق معكم على الذهاب إلى السينما في المساء؛ ماذا لو نذهب في عطلة نهاية الأسبوع؟ في المساء تكون السينما مزدحمة أما أثناء النهار فتكون هادئة. سأتصل بك في عطلة نهاية الأسبوع؛ هذا أفضل من أيام الأسبوع.

  • making suggestions, such as when arranging a day out or a birthday party, for example,

    هل تحب أن نذهب إلى البولينغ يوم السبت؟ أبي سوف يوصلني إلى هناك الساعة العاشرة صباحا؛ هناك نلتقي؛ نلتقي بعد المدرسة؛ حفل عيد ميلاد قيس يوم الأحد. سآتي لآخذك معي إلى بيته. الحفلة ستبدأ الساعة السادسة

  • responding to invitations by accepting or declining and providing explanations, for example,

    شكراً جزيلاً على الدعوة؛ سأحضر الحفلة. آسف لا أقدر أن آتي إلى السينما لأن أمي لا تسمح. أنا مدعوة لحفل زواج ابن عمتي ولا أقدر أن أتي معكم إلى البولينغ

  • collaborating with peers to organise class displays and events, such as an Arabic music day, and agreeing or disagreeing with suggestions, for example, فكرة رائعة؛ أنت عبقري
  • completing tasks involving authentic or simulated transactions, such as asking for, giving and following directions to real locations, for example,

    كيف أذهب إلى محطة القطار؟ أين البنك؟ أرجوك أرشدني إلى المكتبة

  • discussing problems, such as a disagreement with parents, sibling or classmate over having to share a room or computer, or a complaint about unsatisfactory goods or services, and suggesting solutions
Contribute to structured discussions and tasks by asking and responding to questions, clarifying understanding, elaborating on opinions and expressing agreement or disagreement

[Key concepts: discussion, opinion; Key processes: discussing, clarifying, expressing] (ACLARC020 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • initiating and sustaining discussions by inviting peers to make suggestions, clarifying meaning and giving examples, expressing agreement or disagreement, and praising, complimenting and encouraging others and their ideas, for example,

    ماذا تقترح؟ ما رأيك؛ سامي أعطنا رأيك؛ كيف يمكن أن ننظم الأدوار بيننا؟ ما رأيكم؟

    أقصد أن كل واحد منا يكتب صفحة؛ قصدي؛ أنا وهناء نبحث عن الصور؛ وعادل ووفاء وسمر يكتبون المقاطع

    مثلا؛ مثل؛ على سبيل المثال

    أتفق معك جدا؛ اتفق على ما تقول؛ أنا أحترم رأيك كثيراً

    لا أتفق معك إطلاقاً؛ لا أتفق معك في رأيك. أنا لا أوافقك الرأي

    ممتاز! رائع! فكرة رائعة! واصل مجهودك. أنت ذكي جداً!

  • expressing own opinions, and eliciting and reflecting on the opinions of others, for example,

    لو كان لدينا وقتاً أطول؛ لوضعنا موسيقى في البحث؛ كان الإمتحان صعباً وطويلاً؛ أصبحت القراءة سهلة

    ما رأايك في هذه الجملة؟ هل تتفق معي؟ هل توافقني على كلامي؟ وأنت يا سعيد؛ ماذا تعتقد؟ سميرة؛ ما رأيك في الموضوع؟

    كلامك صحيح مئة بالمئة؛ أنت على حق؛ كلامك ليس صحيحاً؛ آسفة لا أتفق معك

  • explaining actions and responses, for example,

    وضعت الصورة هنا لأنها صغيرة ومناسبة؛ تأخرت في الصباح كثيراً؛ أنا متعب اليوم لأنني نمت الساعة العاشرة ليلاً. إن ساعدتني في البحث، سنحصل على درجة عالية

  • giving reasons and making connections between ideas and consequences, for example,

    وصلت إلى المدرسة متأخراً لأنّ سيارة أمّي تعطّلت في الطريق؛ لم أكمل الدرس بالأمس لأنّ بيتنا كان مليئاً بالزوار؛ لم أكمل واجب العلوم لأنّني لم أفهم السؤال

    عاقبني الأستاذ في الفرصة لأنّني تأخرت عن الصف؛ اتّصلت المعلمة بأمي لأنّني أتكلم كثيراً في الصف

Informing

Extract, organise and evaluate information and ideas from a range of texts, analysing meaning, gist and purpose

[Key concepts: meaning, purpose, audience; Key processes: extracting, organising, analysing] (ACLARC021 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • identifying the context, purpose and target audience of texts such as advertisements, messages and announcements
  • independently and collaboratively gathering information on events or people and comparing how various media sources, such as texts from magazines, newspapers and websites, use language to convey meaning
  • using concept maps, charts and tables to organise, summarise and evaluate information from spoken, written and visual texts that reflect different aspects of Arabic culture related to topics such as entertainment and special occasions, for example,

    حفلات المطربين؛ البرامج الترفيهية؛ برامج المسابقات

    الأعياد الدينية المختلفة وطرق الإحتفال فيها؛ عيد الأم؛ عيد الأب؛ أعياد الميلاد الخاصة؛ مناسبات الخطوبة والزواج

  • analysing and summarising information about famous personalities or a recent film or music hit from texts such as television programs, reports and documentaries, for example,

    الأفلام العربية الحديثة؛ البرامج النقدية الساخرة؛ البرامج الحوارية؛ البرامج الوثائقية

  • reading texts and extracting key points and ideas on an issue or topic, such as the weather or leisure activities for young people, and discussing information with peers using expressions such as

    الطقس هذه الأيام بارد جداً؛ الصيف هذا العام سيكون حاراً

    يحب الشباب رياضة كمال الأجسام ويذهبون إلى النادي الرياضي؛ تحب البنات رقص الزومبا؛ هل تحبين الرقص أيضا؟

  • analysing and comparing perspectives represented in spoken and written texts, for example,

    الجريدة المحلية كتبت أن الأغاني العصرية تافهة ؛ ولكن الجميع يحبها

Convey ideas and viewpoints from a range of perspectives to various audiences in familiar contexts using different modes of presentation

[Key concepts: context, audience, perspective; Key processes: selecting, conveying, constructing, presenting] (ACLARC022 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • informing others about an issue of interest and upcoming events in texts such as notices and newspaper announcements, for example,

    إعلان هام؛ تحتفل الجالية العربية بعيد الأم في إحتفال كبير في الحديقة العامة يوم السبت القادم؛ الدكتورة ريم ستلقي محاضرة عن الشباب والمستقبل في الجامعة

  • producing texts such as letters, emails and speeches to convey information and personal viewpoints on topics connected to personal experiences, for particular purposes and audiences
  • organising information for an Arabic-speaking audience, for example, creating a presentation comparing different cultural perspectives on a particular topic or a video recording of a cooking demonstration
  • reporting on own and others’ experiences, such as holiday trips or school camp, and comparing own experiences with others’ using expressions such as

    بالنسبة لي الرحلة كانت ممتعة بينما أغلبية التلاميذ شعروا بالملل؛ بالرغم من الساعات الطويلة التي قضيناها في الطريق إلا إنني لم أشعر بالتّعب لكن أصدقائي كانوا متعبين

  • creating a video clip to present information or ideas to a particular audience, such as a virtual tour of the school or the neighbourhood for prospective students and their parents
  • conveying information relating to significant events, people or places in different formats, such as a poster for a concert, a profile of a famous Arabic actor, or a digital guide to a place of interest
  • creating a group presentation of ideas and words and expressions relating to aspects of lifestyle, for example,

    الرّياضة ضرورية للصحة؛ المأكولات السريعة وأضرارها؛ الألعاب الإلكترونية وتأثيرها السلبي على العائلة

Creating

Respond to imaginative texts such as poems and films, explaining messages and key ideas, stating views on themes, events and values, and making connections with own experiences

[Key concepts: genre, theme, values, connection; Key processes: comparing, explaining, analysing] (ACLARC023 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • responding to ideas presented in various texts, such as poems, films, songs or video clips, by expressing personal opinions, for example,

    الشعر جميل ؛ القصيدة مؤثرة؛ الفيلم غير واقعي؛ يعرض الفيلم مشاكل الشباب مع الأهل؛ الأغنية تعبّر عن الصداقة

  • stating and explaining personal preferences about characters, attitudes and events in texts, using expressions such as

    أفضل شخصية في الفيلم هي سميرة لأنها تعرف ما تريد؛ يحاول الفيلم تشجيع الشباب على الدراسة وهذا ممتاز

  • analysing how people, places and experiences are described in imaginative texts, and comparing how key messages and beliefs are communicated in a variety of texts, such as fables
  • exchanging opinions about typical features and expressive elements of contemporary songs, films or video clips from the Arabic-speaking world and comparing them equivalent texts in English-speaking contexts
  • identifying emotional aspects of texts and analysing elements of language that convey emotions and values
  • reading texts such as biographies and critically reflecting on others’ experiences and relating them to their own
  • analysing and evaluating lyrics of contemporary Arabic songs, identifying themes, messages and cultural aspects
  • discussing how social issues, for example, relationships, wealth and poverty and change, and values, such as honesty, are portrayed in imaginative texts such as films, songs and poems
Create imaginative texts in multimodal forms, including digital, that draw on past experiences or future possibilities, experimenting with different techniques

[Key concepts: culture, narrative, creativity; Key processes: creating, imagining, entertaining, relating] (ACLARC024 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • creating imaginative texts in multimodal forms that include illustrations, such as cartoons or captioned photo stories
  • composing and performing or filming imaginative texts such as role-plays, raps and video clips, using expressive language and movement
  • creating alternative versions of traditional Arabic stories and films by introducing new characters and contexts and alternative endings
  • expressing imagined experiences in a range of texts such as poems and video clips that relate to significant celebrations or events in both Australia and the Arabic-speaking world, for example,

    عيد الأم؛ عيد الأنزاك؛ العيد الوطني الأسترالي ؛ الأعياد الدينية مثل عيد الميلاد وعيد القيامة وعيد الفطر وعيد الأضحى

Translating

Translate and interpret texts from Arabic into English and vice versa, compare own translations and interpretations with others’ and discuss reasons for differences

[Key concepts: representation, perspectives, interpretation; Key processes: translating, interpreting, comparing, critical and cultural understanding] (ACLARC025 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • translating existing texts and experimenting with unfamiliar words or expressions, reflecting on challenges associated with transferring meaning from one language to another
  • comparing one another’s translations of the same text, commenting on differences and similarities between versions and considering possible reasons for these
  • translating texts, identifying culture-specific vocabulary and expressions, such as والله ولي التوفيق؛ تقبل فائق الإحترام, discussing strategies for choosing words that best reflect the intended meaning and context
  • paraphrasing English words or expressions that have no specific equivalent in Arabic, such as ‘mufti day’ or ‘fundraiser’, and annotating them in order to convey their intended meaning
  • reflecting on the difficulty of achieving equivalence in translations of creative texts such as poems, songs and film clips, identifying words and phrases that require particular elaboration or explanation
  • experimenting with interpreting in English popular expressions, proverbs or idioms in Arabic, and reflecting on the social and cultural values that may be embedded in them
  • analysing existing translations of texts, such as film subtitles, comparing them with own translation, and reflecting on why translations may vary
Create bilingual texts for the wider community, such as notices, promotional material, instructions or announcements, interpreting cultural and linguistic aspects

[Key concepts: culture, interpretation, equivalence; Key processes: interpreting, composing, selecting, explaining] (ACLARC026 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Sustainability
  • creating subtitles, captions or commentaries for texts such as a brochure, slideshow presentation or video clip that informs the school community of aspects of different Arabic-speaking cultures
  • producing texts in print or multimodal format in both Arabic and English relating to community events, such as a poster or advertisement to promote a concert, advertise an interview with a celebrity on a community radio station, or provide details of a debate on sustainability issues
    • Sustainability
  • designing menus or programs for Arabic-themed events, with key items/information in Arabic and explanatory notes in English
  • creating a short film of Arabic-language social interactions among different speakers of Arabic, providing English explanations of elements that may be different in different parts of the Arabic-speaking world and which may be unfamiliar to Australian viewers
  • considering how to maintain the integrity of original texts when translating, for example, explaining culture-specific concepts such as ‘the bush’ or ‘the outback’, and representing ideas and meanings bilingually
  • producing bilingual texts such as video clips with subtitles explaining Australian cultural practices for Arabic-speaking viewers, for example, bushwalking, Anzac Day commemorations, the Melbourne Cup

Reflecting

Reflect on how conventions of speech and Arabic cultural concepts can influence own communication style when using both English and Arabic

[Key concepts: cultural concept, norms, communication; Key processes: understanding, explaining, reflecting] (ACLARC027 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • comparing the ways in which they communicate in Arabic and non-Arabic contexts, for example, using different forms of address or different ways of showing politeness, and discussing why these choices are appropriate and how they enhance intercultural communication
  • reflecting on own language choices and communicative gestures in different cultural contexts, considering how own ways of behaving and communicating might be perceived by people from different backgrounds, and making necessary adjustments to establish, maintain and improve relationships with immediate contacts such as family, teacher and peers
  • exploring the reciprocal nature of intercultural communication, the two-way process of noticing and responding to differences in perceptions, understandings and behaviours, for example, degrees of formality, politeness and directness, use of personal space, and attitudes towards physical contact
  • identifying moments of embarrassment or communication breakdown in own intercultural interactions, exploring reasons for these and suggesting adjustments that could be made to enhance mutual understanding
  • discussing elements of successful intercultural communication, for example, flexibility and awareness of differences in cultural and religious practices such as respect for elderly people and attitudes towards privacy or directness
Reflect on own sense of identity as an Arabic and English speaker, recognising how own cultural assumptions, practices and values influence ways of communicating, and considering reactions and how they adjust behaviours and language in own interactions

[Key concepts: assumptions, values, impact, judgement, adjustments; Key processes: reflecting, connecting interculturally] (ACLARC028 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • discussing how being bilingual allows them to present ‘self’ to others in particular ways, for example, as being Lebanese, Jordanian, Iraqi, Arab Australian, or Australian from a Syrian background
  • reflecting on the role of language in expressing identity, considering when, with whom and why different languages are used, and reflecting on whether their own identity changes when they use different languages
  • noticing how they communicate with one another, their teachers and families, noticing how they see themselves differently in different contexts, for example, as Arabic-speaking person, less traditional than parents
  • reflecting on choices made to present self to others in particular ways or to conceal aspects of identity when interacting across cultures, noticing differences in the way they communicate, think and behave in different contexts

Systems of language

Understand rules of pronunciation and intonation and writing conventions, and apply these to own constructions to enhance meaning and aesthetic effect

[Key concepts: sound and writing systems; Key processes: experimenting, speaking, writing, connecting, transposing] (ACLARU029 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • distinguishing the pronunciation of (الشدة) and (التنوين)
  • using the rhythms of the Arabic language, including intonation, tone and stress, to increase fluency and enhance expression
  • recognising that certain letters in Arabic appear in different variations, for example, ت؛ ة
  • applying spacing rules between words and using their knowledge of writing conventions to expand on ideas in written texts
  • making choices in relation to the use of punctuation such as (؛) and adjusting the flow of ideas, increasing text cohesion and enhancing expression
  • recognising the need for pauses or changes of tone in complex sentences with embedded clauses
  • understanding that there are variations in both spoken and written Arabic across different countries and regions, and analysing the reasons for such variations, for example, سوريا/سورية؛ ناديا/نادية؛ فاديا/فادية
  • noticing how tone can convey emotions and shade meaning, such as distinguishing between colloquial or formal language, for example, حقًا؟ يا إلهي! تعال إلى هنا حالاً!
  • using Arabic pronunciation and spelling rules when listening to and reading authentic texts, and evaluating their own spelling and pronunciation in relation to their understanding and expression
Expand spoken and written expression by extending grammatical knowledge of Arabic, including features such as conditional and subjunctive moods, embedded clauses, imperative, future tense and vocative case, and acquisition of vocabulary and expressions that are culturally embedded

[Key concepts: grammatical structures, irregularity, expansion of ideas; Key processes: applying, analysing, selecting] (ACLARU030 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • using سوف in addition to the present tense to express future plans, for example, سوف أذهب إلى الجامعة؛ سوف أسافر مع أهلي؛ سوف أشتري سيارة؛ سوف أعمل في مطعم
  • using the conditional mood as a formulaic expression, for example,

    لو: لو نجحت، سوف يشتري لي أبي محمولاً جديداً

  • understanding and using the conjunctions لكن to compare people and actions, expanding on their expression, for example, خالي غني لكن عمّي فقير؛

    أخي يلعب كثيرا لكن أختي تدرس دائم

  • using interrogative pronouns and expressions such as لماذا؛ لمَ؟ هل؟ to ask questions and make requests, for example,

    لماذا أحضرت الكرة معك إلى الصف؟ هل تقدر أن تعطيني القلم؟ لمَ تحب الموسيقى؟

  • expanding their knowledge of noun–adjective agreement through understanding and applying the irregular plural form, for example,

    بيت/بيوت كبيرة؛ كرسي/كراسي جديدة؛ كتاب/كتب قيمة؛ يوم/أيام جميلة؛ تلميذ/تلاميذ مجتهدون؛ معلمون ملتزمون

  • using expressions to indicate preference and compare, for example,

    هذا أقل من هذا؛ الكتاب أخف من الكرسي؛ العلوم أفضل من الرياضة

  • creating compound and complex sentences by using embedded clauses such as الكتاب المفضل لدي (والذي أحبه كثيرا) هو ...
  • understanding that Arabic uses the dual form of nouns, verbs and adjectives, in both masculine and feminine forms, for example,

    هذان كتابان جديدان؛ هاتان صديقتان وفيتان

  • understanding and applying indirect object pronouns and passive voice to express ideas objectively in texts such as articles and speeches, for example, أُنهيت المباراة سريعاً ؛ دُق الجرس متأخراً
  • using cohesive devices to sequence ideas, for example, في البداية؛ بعد ذلك؛ أخيراً
  • extending use of negative forms, for example, لن أتصل بك؛ لم أتأخر عن الدرس؛ ليس عندي وقت
  • using إلا to express exceptions, for example, أحب كل المواد إلا الرياضيات
  • describing people and objects using comparatives and superlatives, for example, رسمك جميل؛ رسم سامي أجمل من رسمي؛ رسم عدنان الأجمل
  • using elements of exaggeration and emphasis, for example,

    للمرة المليون أكرر هذه العبارة

  • using a range of irregular adjectives to describe number, shape and colour, for example, قميص أحمر؛ حقيبة حمراء؛ قلم أخضر؛ ممحاة خضراء؛ شكل مدور؛ مثلث؛ مربع؛ مستطيل
  • using singular and plural third person possessive pronouns to indicate relationships, for example, أصدقاؤهم كتابه؛ قلمها؛
  • using adverbial phrases to expand on ideas and provide further information related to feelings, attitudes and abilities, for example, متأخراً؛ باكراً؛ دائماً؛ مسرعاً
  • developing metalanguage to discuss grammatical features and to explain how word order, tenses and moods, adjectives and adverbs can be used to enhance meaning and expand expression
  • using imperative verb forms to persuade, encourage, and give advice, for example,

    لنذهب إلى المعلم ونسأله؛ هيا حاول مرة ثانية؛ ممتاز! أحسنت؛ تكلم مع سامر

  • using subjunctive mood to express doubt, uncertainty or emotion, for example,

    ربما نذهب إلى السينما يوم السبت ؛ قد أسافر في العطلة

Analyse different texts in a variety of forms, including digital, , considering the relationship between audience, purpose and context, and the use of textual conventions, features and cohesive devices

[Key concepts: genre, purpose, audience, cohesion; Key processes: analysing, explaining, comparing] (ACLARU031 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • applying knowledge of particular types of texts and their purpose to identify the gist and predict the meaning of unfamiliar vocabulary and phrases encountered in texts
  • analysing different samples of a particular type of text, such as online diary entries, to analyse ideas and reflections through the language features used, for example,

    ضمير المتكلم: أشعر بسعادة كبيرة؛ هذا عملي وأنا مسؤول عنه

    التعبير عن التعجب والدهشة: يا إلهي!؛ مستحيل! يا للكارثة!

    الصور البلاغية: كنت كالفراشة أطير من فرحتي؛ كلامه كالخنجر في صدري

  • exploring a range of imaginative texts to compare the use of language features such as imagery and exaggeration, and discussing how these are used to convey meaning to and entertain the audience
  • examining a variety of informative texts, such as reports and articles, identifying how the structure and features of each text reflect the intended purpose and how the choice of vocabulary reflects ideas and perspectives
  • experimenting with language appropriate to particular types of texts, for example, descriptive language in documentaries, reflective language in blogs, diary or journal entries, and persuasive language in advertisements and speeches
  • analysing a range of expository texts, such as feature articles, identifying possible elements of bias and objectivity
  • discussing and evaluating how language is used to express ideas and justify opinions on topical issues of interest to teenagers in debates or on a talk show
  • identifying and discussing the level of formality in spoken and written texts, considering what these texts reveal about social relationships and processes, for example, reflections of status, authority, concepts of respect and politeness

Language variation and change

Explore how spoken and written forms of Arabic can be used for different purposes and audiences, in different contexts and situations, and with specific meanings and intentions

[Key concepts: formality, register, intention; Key processes: analysing, explaining] (ACLARU032 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • understanding the importance of using appropriate forms of address when interacting with different people, for example, the use of

    سيد ماجد؛ أستاذ هاني؛ سيّدة عبير؛ خالتي رانيا؛ عمي حبيب حضرتك؛ عم كريم؛ خالة سامية

    with both close adult relatives and unknown adults
  • noticing that variation in language use often reflects the mood, feelings, attitudes or relationships of the people involved
  • identifying how emotions and attitudes, such as embarrassment or respect, and personal views are reflected in the choice of language in various social settings, such as public forums and school contexts
  • investigating the nature and use of the Arabic language in different contexts of interaction, for example, asking Arabic-speaking students in Australia when they use English or Arabic, with whom and why
  • exploring how various individual speakers’ views on roles and relationships are reflected in Arabic texts such as traditional sayings, idioms, proverbs, poetry and song lyrics
  • comparing a variety of texts from different Arabic-speaking regions and analysing how aspects of the language used reflect particular values and world views
Explore and reflect on how the Arabic language influences and is influenced by cultural, political and social change

[Key concepts: globalisation, popular culture; Key processes: reflecting, discussing, examining] (ACLARU033 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • investigating and explaining the influence of globalisation and new technologies such as the internet on Arabic as a dynamic language, and the power and function of regional dialects in both digital and social media
  • researching and reporting on the influence of Arabic language and culture in the local and broader Australian community, for example, the food industry (Lebanese restaurants and bakeries), the entertainment industry and the media (the Arab Film Festival, SBS Arabic radio and television, Arabic films) and education (Arabic bilingual schools)
  • reflecting on changes in their own use of the Arabic language, identifying new terms and behaviours that they have adopted into their everyday language in response to changes in technology and social media
  • discussing how language changes over time, for example, by viewing classical Arabic and contemporary films and comparing how certain messages and concepts are represented through language
  • examining how English is influencing and modifying Arabic language use in particular settings, for example, language used in the entertainment industry, such as in films and television programs, or language used to express global concepts, such as الليبرالية

Role of language and culture

Understand the symbolic nature and influence of language in local and global contexts and how the use of language determines the nature of intercultural communication

[Key concepts: symbolism, globalisation, new terminology; Key processes: exploring, reflecting, evaluating, understanding] (ACLARU034 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Sustainability
  • identifying and discussing how values or attitudes are differently reflected in Arabic and English, for example, attitudes to being on time reflected in language such as لا تستعجل؛ لن تهرب الحفلة؛ لا تهتم يوجد وقت كثير , and social interactions such as expressing thanks or appreciation more or less directly, or attitudes to making an apology
  • recognising that language and cultural practices are interconnected, for example, by identifying religious origins or connotations associated with places such as كربلاء؛ مكة الكرمة؛ أورشليم المقدسة؛ ديرالزور, or by identifying ways in which the residual influences of traditional lifestyles are preserved in language reflecting the sustainable use of resources
    • Sustainability
  • identifying similarities and differences between own ways of communicating and interactions between young Arabic speakers in different contexts and situations, for example, the expression of politeness or turn-taking in conversations
  • reflecting on personal encounters with cultural practices that have helped shape their attitudes towards and views of the world around them
  • discussing and reflecting on how language use such as persuasive, motivational and emotive language, can effect changes in social attitudes and mobilise actions and reactions
  • exploring a range of Arabic and English idioms and proverbs and analysing the cultural values and perspectives they reflect, for example,

    الجار قبل الدار؛ من جدّ وجد ومن زرع حصد؛ الوقت من ذهب؛ في التأني السلامة وفي العجلة الندامة


Years 9 and 10 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 10, students use written and spoken Arabic to initiate and sustain interactions with peers and adults. They use language spontaneously to exchange ideas, opinions and feelings, compare experiences and discuss future plans. They sustain interactions by asking and responding to questions, requesting clarification (for example, هل تعني....؟ ما قصدك؟), elaborating on opinions, and expressing agreement or disagreement, for example, على أتفق؟ لا أتفق؛ أعترض. In classroom interactions, they share ideas and suggestions, negotiate options, solve problems and complete transactions. They apply pronunciation and intonation rules to convey emotions and enhance expression. They obtain information from multiple sources on a range of issues and analyse and evaluate meaning, gist and purpose. They convey ideas and viewpoints from a range of perspectives using different text types and modes of presentation selected to suit different audiences and to achieve different purposes. They share their responses to different imaginative texts by expressing opinions on themes, events and values and explaining key ideas and messages. They manipulate language and use different techniques to produce imaginative texts in a range of forms that draw on past experiences or future possibilities, such as التلاعب بالألفاظ بواسطة إستخدام المفردات ذات المعاني المزدوجة؛ إستخدام عبارات مثل ليتني كنت...؛ فرحت فرحاً عظيماً؛ لو ربحت المسابقة. When creating texts, students use a variety of grammatical elements, such as conditional and subjunctive moods, embedded clauses and imperative forms (for example, لو سمح أبي لي ٍآتي معك ما نذهب إلى السينما يوم السبت ؛ قد أسافر في العطلة؛الكتاب المفضل لدي والذي أحبه كثيرا هو ... لنذهب إلى المعلم ونسأله؛ هيا حاول مرة ثانية؛ ممتاز! أحسنت؛ تكلم مع سامر ), future tense and vocative case to convey meaning. They use vocabulary and expressions that are culturally embedded, such as سوف أكتب رسالة إلى المدير أعبر فيها عن رأيي؛ يا سمير هل أشتريت الجيتار الذي رأيته في المحل؟ , and apply appropriate writing conventions to increase text cohesion and enhance expression. Students translate and interpret texts from Arabic into English and vice versa, comparing own interpretations with others’ and explaining reasons for differences in translations. Students create bilingual texts for the wider community, interpreting cultural and linguistic aspects of texts. They explain how cultural concepts, practices and values influence ways in which they communicate from a bilingual perspective, and question assumptions and describe adjustments they make when moving from Arabic to English and vice versa.

Students identify the meaning and emotions conveyed in spoken texts, such as .ها سمير ماذا قررت؟؛ لا لا ؛ لا أقصد هذا؛ كم مرة قلت لك .. , and apply their understanding of the Arabic writing system to enhance meaning and aesthetic effect in written texts. They analyse the relationship between language choices and textual features, and the audience, purpose and context of different spoken, written and multimodal texts. Students explain how spoken and written forms of Arabic vary according to context, purpose and audience, and identify ways in which the Arabic language influences and is influenced by cultural, political and social change. They explain the power of language in determining the nature of intercultural communication in local and global contexts.