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Rationale

In a world that is increasingly culturally diverse and dynamically interconnected, it is important that students come to understand their world, past and present, and develop a capacity to respond to challenges, now and in the future, in innovative, informed, personal and collective ways.

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Aims

The F–6/7 Australian Curriculum for Humanities and Social Sciences aims to ensure that students develop:

a sense of wonder, curiosity and respect about places, people, cultures and systems throughout the world, past and present, and an interest in and enjoyment of the study of these phenomena

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Structure

The Australian Curriculum: Humanities and Social Sciences may be implemented as a combined F–6 program or as an F–7 program. The F–6/7 curriculum is organised into two interrelated strands: knowledge and understanding and inquiry and skills.

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PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Humanities and Social Sciences F-6/7 are available as PDF documents.
F-6/7 HASS - Combined Sequence of Content
F-6/7 HASS - Combined Sequence of Achievement

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Glossary

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Year 7

Year 7 Level Description

Sustainable pasts, present, futures

The Year 7 curriculum deepens discipline-specific knowledge, understandings and skills with opportunities for integration across the sub-strands. Students study ancient societies of the East and West, how they are investigated, and what investigations show of their contribution to modern social, political and economic systems. Students investigate the nature of water as a natural resource in different global places and times, and the effects, issues and solutions of its use, management and value by different people, past and present. They also explore the liveability of places in relation to diverse people and places, familiar and global, past and present. Students examine work, consumers, producers and markets and their role in economic sustainability, across time and place. They investigate Australia’s commercial, social, legal and political institutions, processes and values and their role in enabling a stable, secular, multi-faith society, whereby organisations and individuals may operate effectively and individuals and groups may express their diverse identities.

The content provides opportunities for students to develop humanities and social sciences understanding through key concepts including significance; continuity and change; cause and effect; place and space; interconnections; roles, rights and responsibilities; and perspectives and action. These concepts may provide a focus for inquiries and be investigated across sub-strands or within a particular sub-strand context.

The content at this year level is organised into two strands: knowledge and understanding, and inquiry and skills. The knowledge and understanding strand draws from four sub-strands: history, geography, civics and citizenship and economics and business. These strands (knowledge and understanding, and inquiry and skills) are interrelated and have been developed to be taught in an integrated way, which may include integrating with content from the sub-strands and from other learning areas, and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.

Inquiry Questions

A framework for developing students’ knowledge, understanding and skills is provided by inquiry questions. The following inquiry questions allow for connections to be made across the sub-strands and may be used or adapted to suit local contexts: inquiry questions are also provided for each sub-strand that may enable connections within the humanities and social sciences learning area or across other learning areas.

  • How is the ancient world investigated and why are investigations of ancient key people, events, ideas and developments significant in the modern world?
  • How has the use, management and value of finite natural resources affected how people have lived and societies have evolved in the past and present, and what does this mean for future planning?
  • What principles and processes underpin Australia’s cohesive society and stable economy and what is the role of political, economic and social institutions in developing and maintaining this?

Year 7 Content Descriptions

Questioning

Construct significant questions and propositions to guide investigations about people, events, developments, places, systems and challenges (ACHASSI152 - Scootle )
Literacy

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose texts
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Grammar knowledge
  • Use knowledge of sentence structures

  • developing and revising questions to frame, guide and redirect geographical, historical and social inquiries or stages of an enterprise project
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

  • developing a range of different types of questions for specific purposes including follow-up questions that deepen understandings (for example, questions to design and revise the stages of an enterprise project, questions to test the validity of assumptions, questions that evaluate decisions and opinions, questions about protocols and sensitivities)
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

  • making propositions to be tested through a research process
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

  • appreciating that there may not be a definitive answer to an inquiry question

Researching

Apply a methodology to locate and collect relevant information and data from a range of primary sources and secondary sources (ACHASSI153 - Scootle )
Literacy

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Comprehend texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • identifying steps in the research process (for example, identifying information needed, locating information, recording relevant information from sources)
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

  • using a range of methods, including digital applications, to plan and conduct an information search, and to refine a search for specific or relevant information/images (for example, using ‘image search’ and ‘advanced search’ functions)
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Locate, generate and access data and information
    • Define and plan information searches

  • compiling a list of different primary and secondary sources that might contribute relevant information to an investigation of the past (for example, papyrus scrolls, coins, statues, human remains for an archaeological study) or to an investigation of an environmental issue (for example, recorded observations, annotated field sketches, surveys, interviews, and photographs of changes or events)
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Locate, generate and access data and information
    • Define and plan information searches

  • collecting useful information from secondary sources to answer inquiry questions (for example, articles, graphs, charts and statistics to show religious diversity in Australia; information from the Australian Bureau of Statistics to understand patterns of employment in Australia; thematic maps, weather maps, climate graphs, compound column graphs and population pyramids, reports, census data and the media to support a study of liveability of a city)
    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Define and plan information searches
    • Locate, generate and access data and information

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts

    Numeracy

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • applying ethical research methods to conduct research with people and communities, including applying protocols for consultation with local Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, demonstrating respectful behaviours in sacred or significant sites, and giving consideration to sensitive issues when seeking information from people
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
Organise, categorise and represent data in a range of appropriate formats using discipline-specific conventions, including different types of graphs, tables, field sketches and annotated diagrams, and maps at different scales (ACHASSI154 - Scootle )
Literacy

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Visual Knowledge
  • Understand how visual elements create meaning

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Compose texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Numeracy

Interpreting statistical information
  • Interpret data displays

Using spatial reasoning
  • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • deciding which formats best suit the presentation of gathered information after consideration of a range of digital and non-digital media
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Deliver presentations

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Creating with ICT
    • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

  • representing categorised data information using digital and non-digital graphic organisers (for example, tables, flowcharts, SWOT [strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats] analysis, cost-benefit analysis, futures timelines, spreadsheets, databases)
    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Creating with ICT
    • Generate ideas, plans and processes
    • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

    Numeracy

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Literacy

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

  • constructing tables, graphs and annotated diagrams with the help of digital technologies to represent collected data (for example, diagrams showing how water flows through the environment and connects places; graphs quantifying the influence of environmental quality on aspects of the liveability of places; graphs showing the religious composition of past and contemporary Australian society)
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Creating with ICT
    • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

  • creating maps using computer mapping software or satellite images to show distributions and patterns (for example, to show the spatial distribution and patterns of liveability or the areas affected by a hydrological hazard in Australia and other parts of the world)
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Creating with ICT
    • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

Sequence information about events, developments, periods and phenomena using a variety of discipline-appropriate formats and conventions including chronological frameworks that use dating conventions (ACHASSI155 - Scootle )
Numeracy

Using measurement
  • Operate with clocks, calendars and timetables

Recognising and using patterns and relationships
  • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

Literacy

Visual Knowledge
  • Understand how visual elements create meaning

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose texts
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

  • constructing and annotating timelines to show developments and periods (for example, the approximate beginning and end dates of ancient societies and the periods of time when these coexisted) and events (for example, placing referendums of the twentieth century in a chronological sequence)
    Numeracy

    Using measurement
    • Operate with clocks, calendars and timetables

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

  • applying dating conventions on sequences, including ‘BC’ (Before Christ), ‘AD’ (Anno Domini), ‘BCE’ (Before Common Era), and ‘CE’ (Common Era) and using terms such as ‘prehistory’ (before the period of textual recording) and ‘history’ (the period beginning with named individuals and textual recording)
    Numeracy

    Using measurement
    • Operate with clocks, calendars and timetables

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • developing representations to show steps in a sequence (for example, the flow of water, the process for constitutional change)
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • modelling a system (for example, an ecosystem or hydrological cycle) and using it to explain the sequence of effects when elements are manipulated
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Numeracy

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

Analysing

Examine primary sources and secondary sources to determine their origin, purpose and reliability (ACHASSI156 - Scootle )
Literacy

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts

Visual Knowledge
  • Understand how visual elements create meaning

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • considering relevance and validity when choosing sources and gathering data and information about historical, geographical, social, economic and business issues or events (for example, the relevance of documents written at the time of an event; the validity of personal observations made during fieldwork)
    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Locate, generate and access data and information
    • Select and evaluate data and information

  • differentiating between primary sources in history (those from the time of the event/person/site being investigated) and secondary sources (those that represent later interpretations)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose texts

  • comparing the different types of primary sources appropriate to history, geography, civics and citizenship, and economics and business, and explaining reasons for the differences
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

  • identifying who in a source is conveying information about a past or present event and suggesting whose voice may be absent (for example, women, children, Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Peoples, slaves, religious leaders)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

  • using a range of methods to determine the origin, purpose and reliability of different sources, such as determining when the source was written, why it was written and by whom
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Select and evaluate data and information

  • discussing the difficulties in identifying the origin and purpose of some sources (for example, the Kimberley Bradshaw paintings)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

Analyse primary sources and secondary sources to identify values and perspectives on people, actions, events, issues and phenomena, past and present (ACHASSI157 - Scootle )
  • recognising that limited evidence can sometimes give useful insights into the power structures of a society
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

  • using strategies to detect whether a statement is factual or an opinion, including identification of word choices that may indicate an opinion is being offered (for example, the use of conditionals 'might', 'could', and other words such as 'believe', 'think', 'suggests')
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • identifying the perspective in a historical source (for example, the saying of Confucius, ‘women and underlings are especially difficult to handle’) and discussing the values and attitudes of the society that produced it
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

  • identifying different perspectives about a past or current issue and suggesting influences or circumstances that may have informed these perspectives
    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others

  • analysing how information can be used selectively to persuade citizens
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

  • identifying and distinguishing points of view of different individuals and groups about a public issue (for example, the development of wind turbine farms, a contentious residential development by a large company, the corporate harnessing of water in a developing country)
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

Interpret and analyse data and information displayed in a range of formats to identify and propose explanations for distributions, patterns, trends and relationships (ACHASSI158 - Scootle )
Literacy

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Compose texts

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Comprehend texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Grammar knowledge
  • Use knowledge of sentence structures

Visual Knowledge
  • Understand how visual elements create meaning

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Numeracy

Interpreting statistical information
  • Interpret data displays

Using spatial reasoning
  • Interpret maps and diagrams

Recognising and using patterns and relationships
  • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

  • interpreting the possible meaning of images and symbols in primary sources
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

  • using and interpreting various types of maps (for example, weather, political, topographic, thematic and diagrammatic maps and isoline or isopleth maps)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • using aerial images of contrasting places to identify differences (for example, differences in housing density and services)
    Literacy

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

  • interpreting a variety of graphic representations (for example, tables, charts, graphs, weather maps and satellite images) to identify trends (for example, an increase in the number of people engaged in casual work), spatial and temporal patterns (for example, the patterns of a selected hydrological hazard over time and place) and to observe, describe and contrast the spatial associations of geographical phenomena (for example, the relationship between economic activities, river systems and the availability of surface water)
    Numeracy

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Select and evaluate data and information

  • using data to make predictions about future trends (for example, the trend of shopping online, trends in working hours or how people work, changing liveability factors, the rise of knowledge-based work)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Select and evaluate data and information

Evaluating and reflecting

Evaluate and synthesise evidence to draw conclusions (ACHASSI159 - Scootle )
Literacy

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Comprehend texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose texts
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • reviewing the results of an analysis to propose an answer to an inquiry question using at least one discipline-specific concept (for example, significance in history or place in geography) or one humanities and social sciences concept (for example, interconnections) as an organiser
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

  • evaluating data from a survey to draw conclusions about a current political, social, environmental or business event or issue
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • evaluating and connecting information from various sources to draw evidence-based conclusions
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • drawing conclusions about entrepreneurial behaviour and successful campaigns or about the potential of business enterprise
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

Collaborate to generate alternatives in response to an issue or challenge, and compare the potential costs and benefits of each (ACHASSI160 - Scootle )
Literacy

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose texts
  • Use language to interact with others
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Comprehend texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Numeracy

Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
  • Estimate and calculate
  • Use money

  • designing and proposing actions to respond to challenges (for example, actions related to environmental and economic sustainability such as ensuring a sustainable supply of water) after considering the possible outcomes
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • identifying where there is a common understanding in a discussion and using points of agreement as a basis for resolving a conflict or differences, recognising their own emotional reactions when interacting with people who are different from themselves or who disagree with their views
  • identifying examples of negotiation and peaceful dispute resolution (for example, arbitration, Reconciliation) used in the wider community to problem-solve
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

  • identifying the costs and benefits associated with alternatives (for example, the costs and benefits of being an employee compared with those of being a business owner)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • applying enterprising behaviours to a class activity (for example, taking on a leadership role, establishing goals, accepting responsibility, and negotiating and working with others during the investigation)
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others

Develop and use criteria to make informed decisions and judgements (ACHASSI161 - Scootle )
Literacy

Grammar knowledge
  • Use knowledge of sentence structures

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose texts
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • outlining the significance of a past event and providing reasons for its significance based on relevant evidence
    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others

  • applying social, economic and/or environmental criteria when making decisions about alternative responses to an issue or challenge (for example, applying these criteria to alternative responses to sustainable living in high and low socioeconomic regions or to possible purchasing decisions)
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • examining the trade-offs involved in making choices (for example, choices about spending limited money; how to earn an income such as working as an employee or owning your own business; whether to pay more for an endorsed environmentally friendly product)
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Numeracy

    Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
    • Use money

  • applying economics and business knowledge, skills and concepts to familiar problems, proposing alternative responses to the issue and assessing the costs and benefits of each alternative
    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Reflect on learning to propose personal and/or collective action in response to an issue or challenge, taking into account different perspectives, and describe the expected effects (ACHASSI162 - Scootle )
Literacy

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Use language to interact with others
  • Compose texts

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Grammar knowledge
  • Express opinion and point of view

  • reflecting on personal values and attitudes and how these influence responses to an issue (for example, the effect of perceptions of crime on liveability; how their membership of groups affects their perceptions)
  • applying a process approach to respond to an issue or challenge (for example, conducting an analysis using processes such as a SWOT analysis; developing a plan of action that incorporates a consultation process that ensures a range of views are heard and people are given opportunities to respond)
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • explaining different perspectives on an issue or challenge (for example, sustainability, intercultural behaviour) and proposing action after considering these perspectives and the possible outcomes for different groups
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

  • deciding when consensus is an effective process for a collective action and when it is not
  • discussing the consequences of decisions (for example, economic, business, civic or personal decisions), considering alternative responses and predicting the potential effect of those responses
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

  • using knowledge of the past to inform views on probable and preferred (individual or collective) futures, explaining reasoning to justify futures scenarios
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

Communicating

Present ideas, findings, viewpoints, explanations and conclusions in a range of texts and modes that incorporate source materials, citations, graphic representations and discipline-specific terms, conventions and concepts (ACHASSI163 - Scootle )
Literacy

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Use language to interact with others
  • Deliver presentations
  • Compose texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary
  • Use spelling knowledge

Visual Knowledge
  • Understand how visual elements create meaning

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Grammar knowledge
  • Express opinion and point of view
  • Use knowledge of sentence structures

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

Creating with ICT
  • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

  • communicating findings, predictions, opinions, decisions, judgements and conclusions, using text types (for example, reports, persuasive essays, reasoned arguments, explanations) selected to suit the purpose and the intended audience
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    Word Knowledge
    • Use spelling knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Creating with ICT
    • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

  • citing sources of evidence (for example, archaeological relics and written accounts) in their texts
    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Applying social and ethical protocols and practices when using ICT
    • Recognise intellectual property

    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

  • using graphic representations (such as graphs, tables, spreadsheets and photographs) to present, supplement and clarify information contained in reports and other documents
    Literacy

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Numeracy

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Creating with ICT
    • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

  • using digital technologies to create multimedia presentations (for example, to show the specific features of an ancient battle, pyramid complex or burial site; to show the spatial distribution and patterns of liveability; to present a case for a constitutional change)
    Literacy

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Creating with ICT
    • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

  • using correct discipline-specific terms and concepts when presenting findings and conclusions (for example, when explaining the rule of law, separation of powers, secular nation, market, workforce, income, financial objectives, entrepreneurial behaviours and skills, costs and benefits)
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

History

Concepts for developing understanding

The content in the history sub-strand provides opportunities for students to develop historical understanding through key concepts including evidence, continuity and change, cause and effect, perspectives, empathy, significance and contestability. Students are introduced to an expansive chronology since ancient times to understand broad patterns of historical change (continuity and change, cause and effect). Students apply these understandings in a series of depth studies of ancient societies of the East and West, exploring how these societies are investigated (evidence, contestability) and what investigations show of their contribution to modern social, political and economic systems (significance, perspectives, empathy).

Inquiry Questions

  • How do we know about the ancient past?
  • Why and where did the earliest societies develop?
  • What emerged as the defining characteristics of ancient societies?
  • What have been the legacies of ancient societies?
The theory that people moved out of Africa around 60 000 BC (BCE) and migrated to other parts of the world, including Australia (ACHASSK164 - Scootle )
    • using a map to describe the pattern of movement of humans ‘out of Africa’ and across other continents over time, and looking at the types of evidence of these movements (for example, stone tools, human remains and cave paintings)
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

The evidence for the emergence and establishment of ancient societies (including art, iconography, writing tools and pottery)  (ACHASSK165 - Scootle )
  • exploring an early example of art (for example, the 17 000 BCE great bull paintings from the Lascaux Cave in France) and discussing why they might have been painted

    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    • discussing the evolving nature of the evidence in this period, which shows increasingly sophisticated forms of technology (for example, the transition from making tools out of stone, bone and wood to metalworking)
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    • identifying sources of evidence for the emergence of organised states (for example, the Cuneiform script phonetic writing of the Sumerians c.3500 BCE; the ancient law code of Hammurabi clay tablets from ancient Babylon c.1790 BCE; artefacts found in the tombs at Ur Sumer c.2500 BCE, which indicate the presence of either royalty or priestesses; pottery shards and fragments discovered in Palestine made of mud from the River Nile in Egypt, as evidence of trade)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

Key features of ancient societies (farming, trade, social classes, religion, rule of law) (ACHASSK166 - Scootle )
    • exploring why the shift from hunting and foraging to cultivation (and the domestication of animals) led to the development of permanent settlements and changed relationships to the environment
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • identifying the major civilisations of the ancient world (namely Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia, Greece, Rome, India, China and the Maya); where and when they existed, and the evidence for contact between them

    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    • locating the major civilisations of the ancient world on a world map and using a timeline to identify the longevity of each ancient civilisation
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    • identifying the major religions/philosophies that emerged by the end of the period (Hinduism, Judaism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Christianity, Islam) and their key beliefs (through group work)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

How historians and archaeologists investigate history, including excavation and archival research (ACHASSK167 - Scootle )
    • identifying different approaches to historical investigation (such as the use of excavation and stratigraphy, oral history and use of data derived from radiocarbon dating)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts

The range of sources that can be used in an historical investigation, including archaeological and written sources (ACHASSK168 - Scootle )
    • listing a range of sources (both archaeological and written) required in a historical investigation to develop a response to the question(s) being asked
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

The methods and sources used to investigate at least ONE historical controversy or mystery that has challenged historians or archaeologists, such as in the analysis of unidentified human remains (ACHASSK169 - Scootle )
    • evaluating various methods for investigating the ancient past (for example, stratigraphy to date discoveries; DNA testing to identify past individuals from their remains (such as Egyptian mummies) as well as common diseases)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    • using a cross-sectional drawing of the earth’s surface from an archaeological excavation to identify the evidence located at various layers (stratigraphy) and what it reveals about change over time (for example, a charcoal layer containing human remains and weapons may indicate the capture and destruction of an ancient settlement, such as Troy)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

The nature of the sources for ancient Australia and what they reveal about Australia’s past in the ancient period, such as the use of resources (ACHASSK170 - Scootle )
    • investigating the discovery of Mungo Woman in 1969 and the use of radiocarbon dating to draw conclusions about the longevity of human occupation at Lake Mungo
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    • generating a range of questions to investigate a source (for example, a shell midden in ancient Australia – where it was found, how long it was used for, what it reveals about technology and the use of environmental resources)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

The importance of conserving the remains of the ancient past, including the heritage of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (ACHASSK171 - Scootle )
    • investigating world heritage criteria for the listing of significant ancient sites, using an example of an ancient site such as Pompeii
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    • explaining the UNESCO-led rescue mission to save the temples of Abu Simbel
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose texts
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Deliver presentations

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

The physical features of ancient Greece, Egypt or Rome and how they influenced the civilisation that developed there (ACHASSK172 - Scootle )
    • describing the importance of the River Nile to Egyptian society (for example, inundation and farming; the worship of Hapi, god of the Nile; and the use of the Nile as a means of transportation)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose texts
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Deliver presentations

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    • creating a graphic representation of the social structure of Egyptian society
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Creating with ICT
    • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

    • describing the impact of the sea and mountain ranges of Ancient Greece on the development of self-governing city-states
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose texts
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Deliver presentations

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    • describing the importance of the River Tiber to ancient Roman society and the methods Romans used to manage resources (for example, the water supply through aqueducts and plumbing systems)
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose texts
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Deliver presentations

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

Roles of key groups in the ancient Greece, Egypt or Rome, including the influence of law and religion (ACHASSK173 - Scootle )
    • outlining the rights of women in ancient Egyptian society (for example, in the areas of marriage, family life, work and education) and their responsibilities (that is, generally limited to the home and family)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose texts
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Deliver presentations

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    • examining evidence of the social structure of Athenian or Spartan society (for example, the roles of citizens, women and slaves in Athenian society and the roles of Spartiates, Perioikoi and Helots in Spartan society)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    • outlining the rights of citizens in ancient Athens (for example, the right to vote), their responsibilities (for example, military service, attending assembly meetings) and the invention of freedom
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose texts
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Deliver presentations

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    • examining the evidence of the social structure of Roman society (for example, the roles of patricians, plebeians, women and slaves in the city of Rome) and the idea of Republican virtue and its historical resonance
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose texts
    • Deliver presentations

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • describing the significance of slavery in the period of the Roman Empire (for example, the acquisition of slaves through warfare, the use of slaves as gladiators and agricultural labourers, and the rise of freedmen)

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose texts
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Deliver presentations

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

The significant beliefs, values and practices of ancient Greece, Egypt or Rome, with a particular emphasis on ONE of the following areas: everyday life, warfare, or death and funerary customs (ACHASSK174 - Scootle )
    • investigating significant beliefs associated with death and funerary customs in ancient Egyptian society (for example, belief in an afterlife) and practices (for example, burial in tombs and techniques of mummification)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    • generating alternative explanations for the building of the pyramids at Giza
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose texts
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Deliver presentations

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    • investigating the significant beliefs, values and practices of the ancient Greeks (for example, the Olympic Games or the Delphic Oracle)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    • investigating significant beliefs and values associated with the warfare of ancient Greeks (for example, heroic ideals as revealed in the Iliad) and military practices (for example, army organisation, the hoplite phalanx and naval warfare)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    • investigating significant beliefs associated with ancient Roman daily life (for example, the evidence of household religion) and practices (for example, the use of public amenities such as baths, and the forms of entertainment in theatres and amphitheatres)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

Contacts and conflicts within and/or with other societies, resulting in developments such as the conquest of other lands, the expansion of trade, and peace treaties (ACHASSK175 - Scootle )
    • explaining the nature of contact between Egyptians and other societies (for example, trade with Cyprus, Crete and Greece); and conflict (for example, the Battle of Kadesh in the New Kingdom that concluded with Ramses II’s peace treaty with the Hittites)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Deliver presentations

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary
    • Use spelling knowledge

    • explaining the nature of contact between Greece and other societies (for example, the commodities that formed the trade with Egypt, Greek colonisation of the Mediterranean) and conflict (for example, the Persian Wars and the Battle of Salamis, the empire of Alexander the Great and the reach of Greek culture)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Deliver presentations

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary
    • Use spelling knowledge

  • describing the furthest extent of the Roman Empire and the influence of foreign cults on Roman religious beliefs and practices (for example, the Pantheon of Gods in Greece, Isis in Egypt and Mithras in Persia)

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Deliver presentations

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary
    • Use spelling knowledge

    • reading accounts of contacts between Rome and Asian societies in the ancient period (for example, the visit of Chinese and Indian envoys to Rome in the time of Augustus, as described by the Roman historian Florus)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

The role of a significant individual in ancient Egyptian, Greek or Roman history  (ACHASSK176 - Scootle )
    • examining the historical context, early life and achievements of a significant historical figure from the ancient society being investigated (for example, Hatshepsut or Ramses II; Leonidas or Pericles in Greece; or Caesar or Augustus in Rome), and how they were perceived by their contemporaries
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

The physical features of India or China and how they influenced the civilisation that developed there (ACHASSK177 - Scootle )
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    • describing the significance of the Yellow River to irrigation and the impact of features such as the Himalayas on contacts with other societies, including trade
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Deliver presentations

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary
    • Use spelling knowledge

    • describing how harmonious relationships with the natural world were reflected in Indian belief systems (for example, Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Deliver presentations

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary
    • Use spelling knowledge

    • creating a graphic representation of the extent of India as a political unit at this time, including for example, its diverse climatic and geographical features, types and location of food production, areas of high- and low-density population
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

Roles of key groups in Indian or Chinese society in this period, including the influence of law and religion (ACHASSK178 - Scootle )
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    • creating a graphic representation of the social structure of Chinese or Indian society
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Creating with ICT
    • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

    • outlining the rights and responsibilities of women in Chinese or Indian society (for example, in the areas of marriage, family life, work and education)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    • explaining the social structure of India, including the role of Brahmins – priests, teachers; Kshatriyas – kings, warriors; Vaishyas – merchants, artisans; Shudras – labourers, peasants
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Deliver presentations

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary
    • Use spelling knowledge

The significant beliefs, values and practices of Indian or Chinese society, with a particular emphasis on ONE of the following areas: everyday life, warfare, or death and funerary customs (ACHASSK179 - Scootle )
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    • investigating the significant beliefs, values and practices of Chinese society associated with daily life (for example, irrigation and the practice of agriculture, the teachings of Confucius, the evidence of daily life from the Han tombs)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    • investigating the significant beliefs, values and practices of Indian society (for example, associated with rites of passage for boys and men; rites of passage for girls and women; marriage rites such as the role of the family and religious ceremonies)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    • investigating the significant beliefs, values and practices of Indian society associated with death and funerary customs (for example, cremation, the use of professional mourners, the construction of stupas)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

Contacts and conflicts within and/or with other societies, resulting in developments and the spread of philosophies and beliefs (ACHASSK180 - Scootle )
    • explaining the rise of imperial China (for example, the use of chariot warfare and the adoption of mass infantry armies, the building of the first phase of the Great Wall of China, military strategies as codified in Sun Tzu’s The Art of War)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Deliver presentations

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary
    • Use spelling knowledge

    • examining the extent of Indian contact with other societies (for example, the Persians under Cyrus or the Macedonians under Alexander; the extensive trade with the Romans and Chinese; the material remains of the Mauryan Empire such as the Pillars of Ashoka and the Barabar Caves; the spread of Hinduism and Buddhism)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

The role of a significant individual in ancient Indian or Chinese history (ACHASSK181 - Scootle )
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    • examining the historical context, early life and achievements of a significant historical figure from China (for example, Confucius or Qin Shi Huang) or India (for example, Chandragupta Maurya or Ashoka) in this period, and how they were perceived by their contemporaries
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

Geography

Concepts for developing understanding

The content in the geography sub-strand provides opportunities to develop students’ understanding of place, space, environment, interconnection, sustainability and change. The curriculum in Year 7 focuses on understandings about water as a natural resource and the liveability of places. Students investigate the nature of water as a natural resource and its flows through environments on different continents (environment, interconnections, place). Students examine how water is used and managed (sustainability), the causes and effects of phenomena such as scarcity and hazards (environment, change), and how diverse groups value water, (place, interconnection). Students also explore the liveability of places (place, space, environment, change) in relation to diverse people and places, familiar and distant (place, interconnection, environment). Students examine influences on the liveability of places (environment, interconnection, place) and strategies that enhance liveability, especially for young people (space, interconnection, sustainability, change).

Inquiry Questions

  • How does people’s reliance on places and environments influence their perception of them?
  • What effect does the uneven distribution of resources and services have on the lives of people?
  • What approaches can be used to improve the availability of resources and access to services?
Classification of environmental resources and the forms that water takes as a resource (ACHASSK182 - Scootle )
    • classifying resources into renewable, non-renewable and finite/infinite resources, and investigating examples of each type and how they affect environmental sustainability
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    • describing how water is an available resource when it is groundwater, soil moisture (green water), surface water in dams, rivers and lakes (blue water) and treated or recycled (grey water), and a potential resource when it exists as salt water, ice or water vapour
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary
    • Use spelling knowledge

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Deliver presentations

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

The way that flows of water connect places as they move through the environment and the way these affect places (ACHASSK183 - Scootle )
Numeracy

Using spatial reasoning
  • Interpret maps and diagrams

    • explaining how the movement of water through the environment connects places (for example, the melting of snow in spring feeding rivers and dams downstream)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose texts
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Deliver presentations

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

  • investigating the importance of environmental flows

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

  • investigating the environmental, economic and social uses of water and the effects of water as it connects people and places (for example, the effects of water diversion in the Snowy Mountains)

    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

The quantity and variability of Australia’s water resources compared with other continents (ACHASSK184 - Scootle )
Numeracy

Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
  • Estimate and calculate

Using spatial reasoning
  • Interpret maps and diagrams

Interpreting statistical information
  • Interpret data displays

    • investigating the main causes of rainfall and applying their knowledge to explain the seasonal rainfall patterns in their own place and in a place with either significantly higher or lower rainfall
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    • interpreting the spatial distribution of rainfall in Australia and comparing it with the distribution of that of other continents
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Numeracy

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

    • using the concept of the water balance to compare the quantity and variability of rainfall, run-off and evaporation on the availability of water in Australia and other continents
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

The nature of water scarcity and ways of overcoming it, including studies drawn from Australia and West Asia and/or North Africa  (ACHASSK185 - Scootle )
  • Sustainability
Numeracy

Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
  • Estimate and calculate

Using spatial reasoning
  • Interpret maps and diagrams

Interpreting statistical information
  • Interpret data displays

    • investigating the causes of water scarcity, for example, an absolute shortage of water (physical), inadequate development of water resources (economic or political), or the ways water is used
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    • investigating whether the use of water in their place is sustainable
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    • discussing the advantages and disadvantages of strategies to overcome water scarcity (for example, recycling (‘grey water’), stormwater harvesting and re-use, desalination, inter-regional transfer of water and trade in virtual water, and reducing water consumption)
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    • examining why water is a difficult resource to manage and sustain (for example, difficulties in accounting for its economic value, its competing uses and variability of supply over time and space)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    • investigating land use management practices that have adversely affected water supply, such as land clearing and some farming practices
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

Economic, cultural, spiritual and aesthetic value of water for people, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples and peoples of the Asia region (ACHASSK186 - Scootle )
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • examining and comparing places in Australia and countries of the Asia region that have economies and communities based on irrigation (for example, rice production in the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area in NSW and the Mekong Delta in Vietnam)

    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

  • exploring the multilayered meanings (material, cultural and spiritual wellbeing) associated with rivers, waterholes, seas, lakes, soaks and springs for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    • examining bays, rivers, waterfalls or lakes in Australia and in countries of the Asia region that have been listed as either World Heritage sites or national parks for their aesthetic and cultural value
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    • investigating the spiritual significance of water in an Asian culture
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

Causes, impacts and responses to an atmospheric or hydrological hazard (ACHASSK187 - Scootle )
    • explaining the physical causes and the temporal and spatial patterns of an atmospheric or hydrological hazard through a study of either droughts, storms, tropical cyclones or floods
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Deliver presentations

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

  • explaining the economic, environmental and social impacts of a selected atmospheric or hydrological hazard on people and places, and describing community responses to the hazard

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Deliver presentations

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

Factors that influence the decisions people make about where to live and their perceptions of the liveability of places (ACHASSK188 - Scootle )
Numeracy

Using spatial reasoning
  • Interpret maps and diagrams

    • investigating their and others’ interpretations of the concept of liveability and choices about where to live (for example, connections to cultural groups, adolescent ‘bright lights’ attraction, rural to urban migration, retiree tree change and families with children locating near schools) and other facilities
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    • discussing the concept of liveability and the ways it is measured and comparing objective measures such as transportation infrastructure with subjective measures such as people's perceptions
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    • comparing student access to and use of places and spaces in their local area and evaluating how this affects perceptions of liveability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • discussing that many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples choose to live on their Country/Place or might prefer to if they had the choice

    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

The influence of accessibility to services and facilities on the liveability of places (ACHASSK189 - Scootle )
Numeracy

Using spatial reasoning
  • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • comparing accessibility to and availability of a range of services and facilities between different types of settlements (urban, rural and remote) in Australia and other countries (for example, access to clean water, sanitation, education and health services)

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    • examining the role transport plays in people’s ability to access services and participate in activities in the local area
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    • comparing transportation and accessibility in one Australian city with a city in a country of the Asia region or Europe
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

The influence of environmental quality on the liveability of places (ACHASSK190 - Scootle )
  • Sustainability
Numeracy

Using spatial reasoning
  • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • researching the effects of air and water pollution on the liveability of cities

    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    • explaining the importance of water quality to the liveability of places now and into the future
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Deliver presentations

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary
    • Use spelling knowledge

    • investigating the concepts of environmental quality and pollutions by surveying the environmental quality of their local area and its effect on liveability
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    • exploring the geophysical nature of the land and how this affects the liveability of a place
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

The influence of social connectedness and community identity on the liveability of places (ACHASSK191 - Scootle )
Numeracy

Using spatial reasoning
  • Interpret maps and diagrams

    • discussing the different types of places where people can feel included or excluded, safe or threatened, and evaluating how this affects perceptions about liveability of places
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    • investigating the extent to which people in their place are socially connected or socially isolated and its effect on liveability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

Strategies used to enhance the liveability of places, especially for young people, including examples from Australia and Europe  (ACHASSK192 - Scootle )
Numeracy

Using spatial reasoning
  • Interpret maps and diagrams

    • researching methods implemented in Australia and Europe to improve the liveability of a place, and evaluating their applicability to their own locality
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • developing a specific proposal to improve an aspect of the liveability of their place, taking into account the needs of diverse groups in the community, including young people (for example, through fieldwork in the local recreation area), or including traditional owners (for example, developing bilingual signage or Indigenous garden projects in the local area)

    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Deliver presentations

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary
    • Use spelling knowledge

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    • discussing the impact of housing density on the liveability of places
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    • examining whether liveability and environmental sustainability can be enhanced at the same time
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

Civics and citizenship

Concepts for developing understanding

The content in the civics and citizenship sub-strand provides opportunities for students to develop understanding about government and democracy, laws and citizens and citizenship, diversity and identity. The year provides a study of Australia’s constitution and how its features shape Australia’s democracy (government and democracy) and how Australia’s legal system aims to provide justice (laws and citizens). Students explore diversity within Australian society, how groups express their identities and the role of shared values in promoting social cohesion (citizenship, diversity and identity).

Inquiry Questions

  • How is Australia’s system of democratic government shaped by the Constitution?
  • What principles of justice help to protect the individual’s rights to justice in Australia’s system of law?
  • How is Australia a diverse society and what factors contribute to a cohesive society?
The key features of government under the Australian Constitution with a focus on: the separation of powers, the roles of the Executive, the houses of parliament and the division of powers (ACHASSK193 - Scootle )
  • identifying the principles of representative and responsible government that underpin the Australian Constitution
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts

  • identifying the composition of the Legislature (the Queen, represented by the Governor-General, and the Senate and the House of Representatives), Executive (the Queen, represented by the Governor-General, Prime Minister and ministers) and Judiciary (the High Court and other federal courts)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

  • describing the role of the Governor-General and the different roles of the House of Representatives and the Senate, the Prime Minister, ministers or the Cabinet and courts
    Literacy

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

  • exploring the concept of the separation of powers between the Legislature, Executive and Judiciary and how it seeks to prevent the excessive concentration of power
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

  • discussing how ministers are subject to the scrutiny of other Members of the Parliament led by an officially recognised opposition
    Literacy

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • using an issue (for example, sustainable water management, education or health) to explore the division of powers between state/territory and federal levels of government, and identifying the way that conflicts between state laws and Commonwealth laws are resolved
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

The process for constitutional change through a referendum (ACHASSK194 - Scootle )
  • describing the process by which referendums to change the Australian Constitution are initiated and decided
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Deliver presentations

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion

    Word Knowledge
    • Use spelling knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

  • exploring examples of attempts to change the Australian Constitution by referendum (for example, the successful vote on the Constitution Alteration (Aboriginals) 1967; the unsuccessful vote on the Constitution Alteration (Establishment of Republic) 1999)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • discussing the advantages and disadvantages of having a Constitution that can only be amended by referendum
    Literacy

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

How Australia’s legal system aims to provide justice, including through the rule of law, presumption of innocence, burden of proof, right to a fair trial and right to legal representation (ACHASSK195 - Scootle )
  • discussing the elements of a ‘fair trial’, including citizens’ roles as witnesses and jurors
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

  • exploring how Australians can receive access to justice and legal representation, such as through legal aid
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

  • discussing the meaning and importance of the rule of law, presumption of innocence, and burden of proof
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

How Australia is a secular nation and a multi-faith society with a Christian heritage (ACHASSK196 - Scootle )
  • defining the terms ‘secular’, ‘multi-faith’ and ‘diverse society’ and discussing their relevance to Australia today
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

  • identifying trends regarding religious observance in Australian society using the Australian Bureau of Statistics and other data sources
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Numeracy

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

  • appreciating the cultural and historical foundations of Australia's Christian heritage
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • exploring the diversity of spiritualties among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities from traditional spirituality to the adoption of other religions such as Christianity and Islam
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

How values, including freedom, respect, inclusion, civility, responsibility, compassion, equality and a ‘fair go’, can promote cohesion within Australian society (ACHASSK197 - Scootle )
  • identifying values shared by Australians and deciding which ones could also be considered universal values
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • identifying how human rights values are consistent with Australian values
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

How groups, such as religious and cultural groups, express their particular identities; and how this influences their perceptions of others and vice versa (ACHASSK198 - Scootle )
  • investigating how and why different Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities are maintaining and developing their identities and what this means for Australia as a whole
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

  • discussing how belonging to a religious or cultural group can provide a sense of belonging and how this group membership can shape an individual's identity
    Literacy

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

  • identifying the different ways that cultural and religious groups express their beliefs, identity and experiences (for example, through customs, practices, symbols, language, traditions and art, and virtual communities)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • discussing how stereotypes are linked with people's cultural identity (for example, clothes, accent/language, media representations)
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • considering how Australia’s location in the Asian region influences interactions between Australians and those living in the region
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

Economics and business

Concepts for developing understanding

The content in the economics and business sub-strand develops key ideas, with a focus on developing an understanding of the relationship between consumers, producers and businesses. Students explore how consumers and producers interact in the market (business environment) and how consumers and businesses plan in personal, organisational and financial ways (resource allocation and making choices, consumer and financial literacy) to realise objectives. Students explore the world of work and income, and examine the relationship between entrepreneurial behaviour and successful business (business environment, work and work futures).

Inquiry Questions

  • Why is there a relationship between consumers and producers in the market?
  • Why is personal, organisational and financial planning for the future important for consumers and businesses?
  • How does entrepreneurial behaviour contribute to a successful business?
  • What types of work exist and in what other ways can people derive an income?
The ways consumers and producers interact and respond to each other in the market (ACHASSK199 - Scootle )
  • investigating the role and interactions of consumers and producers in the market (for example, using a simple circular flow of income model, demand, supply, price mechanism)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • investigating how consumers rely on businesses to meet their needs and wants
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts

  • examining how businesses respond to the demands of consumers (for example, preference for healthy, environment-friendly, organic or ethical products and services)
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • exploring why businesses might set a certain price for a product (for example, because that’s what they think consumers will pay) and how they might adjust the price according to demand
    Literacy

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • considering how consumers might influence producers in other countries, such as those in the Asia region, to provide goods and services
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

Why and how individuals and businesses plan to achieve short-term and long-term personal, organisational and financial objectives (ACHASSK200 - Scootle )
Numeracy

Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
  • Use money

  • explaining the need for setting short- and long-term personal financial objectives and prioritising personal financial responsibilities and needs over wants
    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Deliver presentations

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Numeracy

    Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
    • Use money

  • identifying ways short- and long-term personal financial objectives can be achieved (for example, through developing a budget and having a savings plan)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Numeracy

    Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
    • Use money

  • explaining how financial records (for example, income statements, balance sheets, budgets and cash flow statements) inform business decision-making
    Literacy

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Deliver presentations

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts

    Numeracy

    Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
    • Use money

  • exploring ways that businesses manage finances and plan in the short- and long-term to achieve organisational and financial objectives (for example, by developing a business plan or borrowing to invest in the business)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Numeracy

    Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
    • Use money

Characteristics of entrepreneurs and successful businesses (ACHASSK201 - Scootle )
  • investigating well-known or familiar successful entrepreneurs and identifying the behaviours and skills that they bring to their business (for example, seeing and taking advantage of an opportunity; establishing a shared vision; demonstrating initiative, innovation and enterprise)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

  • observing local businesses to identify factors that contribute to their success (for example, location, quality of service, a high-quality product, sound management practices)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others

Why individuals work, types of work and how people derive an income (ACHASSK202 - Scootle )
  • exploring different types of work (for example, full-time, part-time, casual, at home, paid, unpaid, unrecognised, volunteer)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • investigating alternative sources of income such as through owning a business, being a shareholder, providing a rental service
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • discussing the ways people who have retired from employment earn an income (for example, age pension, superannuation and private savings)
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Deliver presentations
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others


Year 7 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 7, students explain the role of groups and the significance of particular individuals in past societies. They suggest reasons for continuity and change over time. They describe the effects of change on societies, individuals and groups and describe events and developments from the perspective of people who lived at the time. They identify past events and developments that have been interpreted in different ways. Students describe geographical processes that influence the characteristics of places. They explain interconnections between people and places and people and environments, describing how these interconnections change places and environments. Students identify the ideas, values and principles that underpin the institutions and processes in Australia’s political and legal systems. They explain the diverse nature of Australian society, and identify the importance of shared values in contemporary Australian society. Students describe the interdependence of consumers and producers in the market and identify factors and strategies that contribute to the financial success of businesses and individuals. They identify why individuals choose to work and the various sources of income that exist. Students recognise that people have different perceptions of places, events and issues and explain how this and other factors influence views on how to respond to an issue or challenge.

Students formulate significant questions and propositions to guide investigations. They locate and collect useful data, information and evidence from a range of primary and secondary sources. They examine sources to determine their origin, purpose and reliability and to identify past and present values and perspectives. They interpret and analyse data to propose simple explanations for distributions, patterns, trends and relationships, and evaluate and synthesise evidence to draw conclusions. Students sequence events and developments within a chronological framework, using dating conventions to represent and measure time. They organise, categorise and represent data in a range of appropriate formats using discipline-specific conventions. They make informed decisions by collaborating with others to generate alternatives, comparing the potential costs and benefits of each and developing and using criteria to make a reasoned judgement. Students reflect on their learning to propose individual and collective action in response to an issue or challenge, taking account of different factors and multiple perspectives, and predict the probable effects of their proposal. They present ideas, findings, viewpoints, explanations and conclusions in a range of communication forms that incorporate source materials, citations, discipline-specific terms, conventions and concepts.

By the end of Year 7, students explain the role of groups and the significance of particular individuals in past societies. They suggest reasons for change and continuity over time. They describe the effects of change on societies, individuals and groups and describe events and developments from the perspective of people who lived at the time. They identify past events and developments that have been interpreted in different ways.

Students sequence events and developments within a chronological framework, using dating conventions to represent and measure time. When researching, students develop significant questions to frame a historical inquiry. They identify and select a range of primary and secondary sources and locate, compare and use relevant information and evidence to answer inquiry questions. They analyse information and evidence to determine their origin, purpose and usefulness and to identify past and present values and perspectives. Students develop texts, particularly descriptions and explanations. In developing these texts and organising and presenting their findings, they use historical terms and concepts, incorporate relevant sources, and acknowledge their sources of information.

By the end of Year 7, students describe geographical processes that influence the characteristics of places and how characteristics of places are perceived and valued differently. They explain interconnections between people and places and people and environments and describe how these interconnections change places and environments. They describe alternative strategies for a geographical challenge, referring to environmental, economic and social factors involved.

Students develop geographically significant questions to frame and guide an inquiry process. They locate, collect, organise and categorise useful data and information from a range of primary and secondary sources. They record and represent data and the location and distribution of geographical phenomena in a range of graphic forms, including large-scale and small-scale maps that conform to cartographic conventions. They analyse geographical data and other information to propose simple explanations for spatial patterns, trends and relationships, and draw conclusions. Students present findings and arguments using relevant geographical terminology, digital technologies and graphic representations in a range of communication forms. They propose action in response to a geographical challenge, taking account of environmental, economic and social factors, and describe the expected effects of their proposal.

By the end of Year 7, students identify the ideas, values and principles that underpin the institutions and processes in Australia’s political and legal systems. They explain the diverse nature of Australian society, and identify the importance of shared values in contemporary Australian society.

Students formulate significant questions to investigate Australia’s political and legal systems. They locate, collect and organise useful information from a range of primary and secondary sources. They examine sources to determine their origin, purpose and reliability and to identify and describe values and perspectives. They evaluate and synthesise information to draw conclusions. When planning for action, students take into account multiple perspectives to develop solutions to an issue. They reflect on their learning to identify ways they can be active and informed citizens. Students present ideas, viewpoints, explanations and conclusions in a range of communication forms that incorporate source materials, citations, and civics and citizenship terms and concepts.

By the end of Year 7, students describe the interdependence of consumers and producers in the market. They explain the importance of short- and long-term planning to individual and business success and identify different strategies that may be used. They describe the characteristics of successful businesses and explain how entrepreneurial capabilities contribute to this success. Students identify the reasons individuals choose to work and describe the various sources of income that exist.

Students formulate significant questions and propositions to guide investigations about an economics or business issue, challenge or event. They locate and collect useful data and information from a range of primary and secondary sources. They examine sources to determine their origin, purpose and reliability and evaluate and synthesise evidence to draw conclusions. They interpret, categorise and represent data in a range of appropriate formats using economics and business conventions. They make informed decisions by collaborating with others to generate alternatives and comparing the potential costs and benefits of each. Students reflect on their learning to propose individual and collective action in response to an issue or challenge, taking account of different factors and multiple perspectives and predicting the probable effects of their proposal. They apply economics and business knowledge, skills and concepts to familiar problems. They present ideas, findings, viewpoints, explanations and conclusions in a range of communication forms that incorporate source materials, citations, economics and business terms, conventions and concepts.