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Rationale

In a world that is increasingly culturally diverse and dynamically interconnected, it is important that students come to understand their world, past and present, and develop a capacity to respond to challenges, now and in the future, in innovative, informed, personal and collective ways.

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Aims

The F–6/7 Australian Curriculum for Humanities and Social Sciences aims to ensure that students develop:

a sense of wonder, curiosity and respect about places, people, cultures and systems throughout the world, past and present, and an interest in and enjoyment of the study of these phenomena

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Structure

The Australian Curriculum: Humanities and Social Sciences may be implemented as a combined F–6 program or as an F–7 program. The F–6/7 curriculum is organised into two interrelated strands: knowledge and understanding and inquiry and skills.

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PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Humanities and Social Sciences F-6/7 are available as PDF documents.
F-6/7 HASS - Combined Sequence of Content
F-6/7 HASS - Combined Sequence of Achievement

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Glossary

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Year 5

Year 5 Level Description

Australian communities – their past, present and possible futures

The Year 5 curriculum focuses on colonial Australia in the 1800s and the social, economic, political and environmental causes and effects of Australia’s development, and on the relationship between humans and their environment. Students’ geographical knowledge of Australia and the the world is expanded as they explore the continents of Europe and North America, and study Australia’s colonisation, migration and democracy in the 1800s. Students investigate how the characteristics of environments are influenced by humans in different times and places, as they seek resources, settle in new places and manage the spaces within them. They also investigate how environments influence the characteristics of places where humans live and human activity in those places. Students explore how communities, past and present, have worked together based on shared beliefs and values. The curriculum introduces studies about Australia’s democratic values, its electoral system and law enforcement. In studying human desire and need for resources, students make connections to economics and business concepts around decisions and choices, gaining opportunities to consider their own and others’ financial, economic, environmental and social responsibilities and decision-making, past, present and future.

The content provides opportunities for students to develop humanities and social sciences understanding through key concepts including significance; continuity and change; cause and effect; place and space; interconnections; roles, rights and responsibilities; and perspectives and action. These concepts may provide a focus for inquiries and be investigated across sub-strands or within a particular sub-strand context.

The content at this year level is organised into two strands: knowledge and understanding, and inquiry and skills. The knowledge and understanding strand draws from four sub-strands: history, geography, civics and citizenship and economics and business. These strands (knowledge and understanding, and inquiry and skills) are interrelated and have been developed to be taught in an integrated way, which may include integrating with content from the sub-strands and from other learning areas, and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.

Inquiry Questions

A framework for developing students’ knowledge, understanding and skills is provided by inquiry questions. The following inquiry questions allow for connections to be made across the sub-strands and may be used or adapted to suit local contexts: inquiry questions are also provided for each sub-strand that may enable connections within the humanities and social sciences learning area or across other learning areas.

  • How have individuals and groups in the past and present contributed to the development of Australia?
  • What is the relationship between environments and my roles as a consumer and citizen?
  • How have people enacted their values and perceptions about their community, other people and places, past and present?

Year 5 Content Descriptions

Questioning

Develop appropriate questions to guide an inquiry about people, events, developments, places, systems and challenges (ACHASSI094 - Scootle )
Literacy

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose texts
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Grammar knowledge
  • Use knowledge of sentence structures

  • asking questions before, during and after an investigation to frame and guide the stages of an inquiry
    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • developing different types of questions for different purposes (for example, probing questions to seek details, open-ended questions to elicit more ideas, practical questions to guide the application of enterprising behaviours)
    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

  • developing questions to guide the identification and location of useful sources for an investigation or project (for example, ‘Is this source useful?’, ‘Who can help us do this project?’, ‘What rules/protocols must we follow when we do this inquiry/project?’, ‘What resources do we need to conduct this project?’)
    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

Researching

Locate and collect relevant information and data from primary sources and secondary sources (ACHASSI095 - Scootle )
Literacy

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Comprehend texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • finding information about the past in primary sources (for example, maps, stories, songs, music, dance, diaries, official documents, artworks, artefacts, remains of past industry, newspapers of the day, advertisements, rule lists, interview transcripts)
    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Define and plan information searches
    • Locate, generate and access data and information

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

  • finding geographical information in primary sources (such as fieldwork and photographs) and secondary sources (such as maps, plans and reports in digital and non-digital form)
    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Define and plan information searches
    • Locate, generate and access data and information

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • using geographical tools (for example, a globe, wall map or digital application such as Google Earth) to collect information (for example, to identify the environmental characteristics of the major countries of Europe and North America)
    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Locate, generate and access data and information
    • Define and plan information searches
    • Select and evaluate data and information

  • conducting surveys to gather primary data and summarising the key points or particular points of view relating to an issue (for example, interviewing recipients of awards such as Order of Australia medals; surveying the views of conflicting parties in a planning or environmental dispute)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • finding data and information that supports decision-making processes when investigating an economics or business issue including online, observation and print sources (for example, interviews, surveys, case studies)
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Define and plan information searches
    • Locate, generate and access data and information
    • Select and evaluate data and information

  • finding out how to conduct ethical research with people and communities, including the protocols for consultation with local Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, behaviours in sacred or significant sites, and considering sensitivities of people
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Intercultural Understanding

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Communicate across cultures
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives
    • Empathise with others

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Challenge stereotypes and prejudices

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

Organise and represent data in a range of formats including tables, graphs and large- and small-scale maps, using discipline-appropriate conventions (ACHASSI096 - Scootle )
Literacy

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Compose texts

Visual Knowledge
  • Understand how visual elements create meaning

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Numeracy

Using spatial reasoning
  • Interpret maps and diagrams

Interpreting statistical information
  • Interpret data displays

  • categorising information using digital and non-digital graphic organisers (for example, flowcharts, consequence wheels, futures timelines, Venn diagrams, scattergrams, decision-making matrixes and bibliography templates)
    Literacy

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Numeracy

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Creating with ICT
    • Generate ideas, plans and processes

  • constructing maps, tables and graphs using appropriate digital applications and conventions (such as border, source, scale, legend, title and north point) to display data and information (for example, information about the movement of peoples over time in colonial Australia; the different climates of Europe and North America; population growth of Australian colonies; cultural and religious groups in Australia at different times; influences on consumer purchasing decisions)
    Literacy

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Creating with ICT
    • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

    Numeracy

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • deciding which recording methods and tools (for example, graphs, tables, field sketches, questionnaires, scattergrams, audio-recorders, video recorders, cameras, water or air quality testing kits, binoculars, clinometers, calculators) suit the data or information to be collected
    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Managing and operating ICT
    • Select and use hardware and software

    Numeracy

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

  • mapping geographical data using spatial technologies (for example, the location of recent bushfires in Australia, or information they have collected through fieldwork)
    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Locate, generate and access data and information
    • Define and plan information searches
    • Select and evaluate data and information

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

Sequence information about people’s lives, events, developments and phenomena using a variety of methods including timelines (ACHASSI097 - Scootle )
Literacy

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose texts
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Visual Knowledge
  • Understand how visual elements create meaning

Numeracy

Using measurement
  • Operate with clocks, calendars and timetables

Recognising and using patterns and relationships
  • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

  • compiling an annotated timeline to show the key stages of a development (for example, significant events in the development of their community, their region or state)
    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Numeracy

    Using measurement
    • Operate with clocks, calendars and timetables

  • creating flowcharts that show the stages of a process (for example, steps in an electoral process such as a class vote or a local council election; the sequence of safety procedures that can be used to mitigate the effects of bushfire or flood, the sequence of actions in a recycling system)
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Analysing

Examine primary sources and secondary sources to determine their origin and purpose (ACHASSI098 - Scootle )
Literacy

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Visual Knowledge
  • Understand how visual elements create meaning

  • inferring the nature, purpose and origin of artefacts to determine if they have evidence to offer an investigation of a time, place or process
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • identifying stereotypes and over-generalisations relating to age, gender, ethnicity, ability, religion and/or politics presented in sources and media of the past (for example, a newspaper caricature of a colonial era Chinese goldfield worker) and in sources and media of the present (for example, social media opinions about a mining development)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Intercultural Understanding

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Communicate across cultures
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives
    • Empathise with others

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Reflect on intercultural experiences
    • Challenge stereotypes and prejudices

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Locate, generate and access data and information
    • Define and plan information searches
    • Select and evaluate data and information

  • identifying the purpose and usefulness of information gained from primary and secondary sources (for example, checking publication details)
    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Locate, generate and access data and information
    • Select and evaluate data and information

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • analysing texts relating to a school, club or government election (for example, speeches, advertisements, campaign materials, symbols, how to vote cards, result records) to determine who created them and their purpose
Examine different viewpoints on actions, events, issues and phenomena in the past and present (ACHASSI099 - Scootle )
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
Literacy

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Use language to interact with others
  • Compose texts

Grammar knowledge
  • Express opinion and point of view

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

  • analysing sources to identify and understand the different motives and experiences of individuals and groups involved in past or present events and issues (for example, the reasons people migrated to colonial Australia and their diverse experiences; the struggle for rights by emancipated convicts; the way migrants or refugees have been managed over time and their experiences; the motives of whalers and anti-whaling activists)
    • Sustainability
    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Define and plan information searches
    • Select and evaluate data and information
    • Locate, generate and access data and information

    Intercultural Understanding

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Reflect on intercultural experiences
    • Challenge stereotypes and prejudices
    • Mediate cultural difference

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives
    • Empathise with others

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • comparing sources of evidence to identify similarities and/or differences in accounts of the past (for example, comparing colonial descriptions of Burke and Wills’ achievements with those that have been recently published with Aboriginal perspectives; different representations of Ned Kelly in past and present publications)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • analysing photographs to identify inferred messages (for example, how workers on a colonial banana plantation are positioned, dressed, posed and/or are absent, to reflect the status of different groups such as English managers, Chinese, Aboriginal and South Sea Islander workers, women and children)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Literacy

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Intercultural Understanding

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Challenge stereotypes and prejudices

  • exploring, through a facilitated role-play or a simulation game, the way different people experienced the same event (for example, the differing experiences and feelings of miners, Chinese workers, women, children, leaders and Aboriginal occupants during the Eureka Stockade; personal intercultural experiences; or people’s differing perceptions of election speeches made by opposing candidates)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Intercultural Understanding

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Empathise with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Challenge stereotypes and prejudices
    • Mediate cultural difference
    • Reflect on intercultural experiences

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others

Interpret data and information displayed in a range of formats to identify, describe and compare distributions, patterns and trends, and to infer relationships (ACHASSI100 - Scootle )
Literacy

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Grammar knowledge
  • Use knowledge of sentence structures

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Compose texts

Visual Knowledge
  • Understand how visual elements create meaning

Numeracy

Recognising and using patterns and relationships
  • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

Interpreting statistical information
  • Interpret data displays

  • interpreting data presented in a line, bar, column or pie graph (for example, data about bushfires or floods, election results, common influences on the purchases of class members) to identify the likelihood of an outcome or the probability of an event reoccurring
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Numeracy

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

  • analysing visual and written sources to infer relationships (for example, examining photographs to see how people responded to droughts in enterprising ways; interpreting maps of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander trade routes to propose how ideas, technology and artefacts travelled across them; analysing a food web to reveal how plants, animals, water, air and people are connected)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

  • making inferences using sources, such as graphs and thematic maps, that show distribution (for example, the number of electors in some state or federal electorates to discuss representation; the distribution of primary resource industries in Australia and their proximity to cities; the spread of the cane toad across Australia and its threat to environments)
    • Sustainability
    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • interpreting graphs and tables of data collected from a survey to infer relationships or trends (for example, common influences on purchasing decisions of class members; the increase in social activism for social and environmental causes)
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Numeracy

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

  • interpreting and creating maps such as flow and choropleth maps, or plans for specific purposes (for example, a bushfire management plan)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

Evaluating and reflecting

Evaluate evidence to draw conclusions (ACHASSI101 - Scootle )
Literacy

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Compose texts

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • drawing conclusions about a community and/or the environment (for example, changing democratic values from past to present; patterns of human consumption and changes in environments)
    • Sustainability
    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • analysing information to reveal trends and changes (for example, changes over time in who could vote; changing purchasing trends; the rise in the use of energy drawn from alternative sources; the increase in online activism for social and environmental causes)
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Applying social and ethical protocols and practices when using ICT
    • Identify the impacts of ICT in society

  • exploring maps and sources showing Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander language groups and Countries/Places, to explain the diversity of their cultures
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Intercultural Understanding

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Reflect on intercultural experiences
    • Challenge stereotypes and prejudices

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Empathise with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives
    • Communicate across cultures

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • exploring past or present representations of people that differ from those commonly conveyed (for example, missing voices of minority groups such as youth, the unemployed, non-citizens, women, children, Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Peoples, migrants, South Sea Islanders)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Reflect on intercultural experiences
    • Challenge stereotypes and prejudices

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Empathise with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • acknowledging ethical considerations of decisions they and others make or have made (for example, an election preference; reasons for purchasing an item; why laws are not followed by some people; the acceptance of children working in colonial times; stewardship of natural places)
    • Sustainability
  • explaining enterprising initiatives that address challenges (for example, colonial solutions to challenges of preserving food and accessing resources; sustainable use of materials for housing past and present)
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

  • forecasting probable futures for an issue (for example, how native fauna populations might change if n introduced species such as the cane toad, carp, feral cats or rabbits continues to increase in population) and proposing preferred futures that relate to the issue
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

Work in groups to generate responses to issues and challenges (ACHASSI102 - Scootle )
Literacy

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose texts
  • Use language to interact with others
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Comprehend texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • undertaking a project that responds to an identified challenge or issue with strategies to be used that will achieve desired outcomes (for example, bush fire readiness plan, a school fundraising activity, an ecological preservation project, a school-based opinion poll about a relevant issue)
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • using communication technologies to exchange information and to facilitate the development of a collaborative response
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Communicating with ICT
    • Collaborate, share and exchange

  • participating in a relevant democratic process (for example, in class votes, mock parliament, school decision-making processes such as student councils)
    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • discussing the priorities and ethics evident in past decisions (for example, in clearing of native vegetation for farming, in stealing food to survive)
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Intercultural Understanding

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

  • applying enterprising and collaborative behaviours in a group activity (for example, working with others to make decisions about the best way to compare prices of products)
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

Use criteria to make decisions and judgements and consider advantages and disadvantages of preferring one decision over others (ACHASSI103 - Scootle )
Literacy

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Compose texts

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Comprehend texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

Grammar knowledge
  • Use knowledge of sentence structures

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

  • making judgements about how effectively challenges have been addressed in the past (for example, relative success of solutions to challenges during colonial settlement) or how effectively a current challenge is being addressed (for example, the solution to an environmental issue, or a strategy for economic development)
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others

  • evaluating the possible options that people could take to resolve challenges (for example, improving water quality, ensuring fairness, managing excess waste, budgeting choices)
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • reflecting on choices in relation to personal criteria and expressing reasoning that influenced decision-making (for example, why they participate in a civic activity, what influenced their purchase of an item)
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

  • using agreed criteria as the basis for an assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of choices (for example, for determining which actions are most likely to be effective to restore a damaged environment)
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

  • applying economics and business criteria to everyday problems to identify a response to the issue
    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

Reflect on learning to propose personal and/or collective action in response to an issue or challenge, and predict the probable effects (ACHASSI104 - Scootle )
Literacy

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Use language to interact with others
  • Compose texts
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

  • reflect on primary and secondary sources used and how this may have influenced the validity of the conclusions of the inquiry (for example, sample size of survey, the date a secondary source was created and the views that prevailed at the time)
    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • posing self-reflection questions to influence personal and collective action (for example, ‘What are the effects of my purchasing decisions?’, ‘Are needs and wants the same for everyone?’, ‘Why can’t all needs and wants be satisfied?’, ‘How can I contribute to a sustainable environment?’)
    • Sustainability
  • identifying the effects of decisions about economics and business and/or civics and citizenship issues
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

  • assessing possible options as actions that people could take to respond to a local issue they have investigated (for example, the redevelopment of a disused quarry in the local area)
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

  • analysing successful solutions to problems and considering if problem-solving approaches can be applied to challenges relevant to their personal or school context
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

Communicating

Present ideas, findings, viewpoints and conclusions in a range of texts and modes that incorporate source materials, digital and non-digital representations and discipline-specific terms and conventions (ACHASSI105 - Scootle )
Literacy

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Deliver presentations
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Compose texts
  • Use language to interact with others

Grammar knowledge
  • Use knowledge of sentence structures
  • Express opinion and point of view

Word Knowledge
  • Use spelling knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Visual Knowledge
  • Understand how visual elements create meaning

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

Creating with ICT
  • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

  • selecting appropriate text types to convey findings, conclusions and understandings (for example, imaginative journals, narrative recounts, reports and arguments)
    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Express opinion and point of view
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

  • describing the relative location of places and their features in Australia and in selected countries of North America and Europe
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • selecting and applying appropriate media and strategies to suit their communication, including the use of graphs, tables, timelines, photographs and pictures, in digital and non-digital modes
    Literacy

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Creating with ICT
    • Generate ideas, plans and processes
    • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

    Numeracy

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • using accurate and subject-appropriate terms (for example, historical terms such as ‘colonial’, ‘the gold era’, ‘migration’, ‘penal’; geographic terms such as ‘characteristics’, ‘environmental’, ‘human’, ‘ecosystems’, ‘sustainable’, ‘settlement’, ‘management‘; civics terms such as ‘electoral process’, ‘democracy’, ‘legal system’, ‘shared beliefs’; and economic terms such as ‘scarcity’, ‘choices’, ‘resources’, ‘businesses’, ‘consumers’, ‘needs and wants’, ‘goods and services’)
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

History

Concepts for developing understanding

The content in the history sub-strand provides opportunities for students to develop historical understanding through key concepts including sources, continuity and change, cause and effect, perspectives, empathy and significance. The curriculum in this year provides a study of colonial Australia in the 1800s. Students learn about the reasons for the founding of British colonies in Australia and the impact of a development or event on one Australian colony (continuity and change, cause and effect). They examine what life was like for different groups of people in the colonial period (sources), and explore the reasons for their actions (cause and effect, perspectives, empathy). They examine early migration, settlement patterns, people and their contributions, significant events, and political and economic developments (sources, continuity and change, significance, empathy). Students are also introduced to the concept of sources as they analyse sources to compare information and points of view in the past and present (sources, perspectives).

Inquiry Questions

  • What do we know about the lives of people in Australia’s colonial past and how do we know?
  • How did an Australian colony develop over time and why?
  • How did colonial settlement change the environment?
  • What were the significant events and who were the significant people that shaped Australian colonies?
Reasons (economic, political and social) for the establishment of British colonies in Australia after 1800 (ACHASSK106 - Scootle )
  • investigating the reasons for the establishment of one or more British colonies such as a penal colony (for example, Moreton Bay, Van Diemen’s Land) or a colony that later became a state (for example, Western Australia, Victoria)
    Intercultural Understanding

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Challenge stereotypes and prejudices
    • Mediate cultural difference

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

The nature of convict or colonial presence, including the factors that influenced patterns of development, aspects of the daily life of the inhabitants (including Aboriginal Peoples and Torres Strait Islander Peoples) and how the environment changed (ACHASSK107 - Scootle )
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
Intercultural Understanding

Interacting and empathising with others
  • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

Recognising culture and developing respect
  • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

  • investigating colonial life to discover what life was like at that time for different inhabitants (for example, a European family and an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander language group, a convict and a free settler, a sugar cane farmer and an indentured labourer) in terms of clothing, diet, leisure, paid and unpaid work, shopping or trade, language, housing and children’s lives
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Intercultural Understanding

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Challenge stereotypes and prejudices
    • Mediate cultural difference
    • Reflect on intercultural experiences

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • mapping local, regional and state/territory rural and urban settlement patterns in the 1800s, and noting factors such as geographical features, climate, water resources, the discovery of gold, transport and access to port facilities that shaped these patterns
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • discussing challenges experienced by people in the colonial era and the enterprising or sustainable responses made to these challenges (wind energy, food preservation, communication, accessing water)
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • exploring how the colony was governed and how life changed when Governor Macquarie established the rule of law
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • investigating the impact of settlement on the local environment and its ecosystems (for example, comparing the present and past landscape and the flora and fauna of the local community)
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

The impact of a significant development or event on an Australian colony (ACHASSK108 - Scootle )
Intercultural Understanding

Interacting and empathising with others
  • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

Recognising culture and developing respect
  • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
  • Develop respect for cultural diversity
  • Investigate culture and cultural identity

  • investigating an event or development and explaining its economic, social and political impact on a colony (for example, the consequences of frontier conflict events such as the Myall Creek Massacre, the Pinjarra Massacre; the impact of South Sea Islanders on sugar farming and the timber industry; the impact of the Eureka Stockade on the development of democracy; the impact of internal exploration and the advent of rail on the expansion of farming)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Intercultural Understanding

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Empathise with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Challenge stereotypes and prejudices
    • Reflect on intercultural experiences

  • creating ‘what if’ scenarios by constructing different outcomes for a key event (for example, ‘What if Peter Lalor had encouraged gold miners to pay rather than resist licence fees?’)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

The reasons people migrated to Australia and the experiences and contributions of a particular migrant group within a colony (ACHASSK109 - Scootle )
  • identifying the reasons why people migrated to Australia in the 1800s (for example, as convicts; assisted passengers; indentured labourers; people seeking a better life such as gold miners; and those dislocated by events such as the Industrial Revolution, the Irish Potato Famine and the Highland Clearances)
    Intercultural Understanding

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives
    • Empathise with others

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • investigating the experiences and contributions of a particular migrant group within a colony (for example, Germans in South Australia, Japanese in Broome, Afghan cameleers in the Northern Territory, Chinese at Palmer River, Pacific Islanders in the Torres Strait)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Intercultural Understanding

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Challenge stereotypes and prejudices
    • Reflect on intercultural experiences

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Communicate across cultures
    • Empathise with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

  • connecting (where appropriate) stories of migration to students’ own family histories
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary
    • Use spelling knowledge

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Empathise with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Reflect on intercultural experiences
    • Mediate cultural difference

The role that a significant individual or group played in shaping a colony (ACHASSK110 - Scootle )
Intercultural Understanding

Recognising culture and developing respect
  • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

  • investigating the contribution or significance of an individual or group to the shaping of a colony in the 1800s (for example, explorers, farmers, pastoralists, miners, inventors, writers, artists, humanitarians, religious and spiritual leaders, political activists, including women, children, and people of diverse cultures)
    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Empathise with others

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • exploring the motivations and actions of an individual or group that shaped a colony
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Intercultural Understanding

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Empathise with others
    • Communicate across cultures

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity

Geography

Concepts for developing understanding

The content in the geography sub-strand provides opportunities to develop students’ understanding of place, space, environment, interconnection, change and sustainability. The curriculum focuses on the factors that shape the characteristics of places. They explore how climate and landforms influence the human characteristics of places, and how human actions influence the environmental characteristics of places (change, environment, place, interconnection). Students examine the way spaces within places are organised and managed (space, place), and how people work to prevent, mitigate and prepare for natural hazards (environment, place). Students’ mental map of the world expands to Europe and North America and their main countries and characteristics (space, place, environment).

Inquiry Questions

  • How do people and environments influence one another?
  • How do people influence the human characteristics of places and the management of spaces within them?
  • How can the impact of bushfires or floods on people and places be reduced?
The influence of people on the environmental characteristics of places in Europe and North America and the location of their major countries in relation to Australia (ACHASSK111 - Scootle )
Numeracy

Using spatial reasoning
  • Interpret maps and diagrams

Intercultural Understanding

Interacting and empathising with others
  • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

Recognising culture and developing respect
  • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

  • using geographical tools (for example, a globe, wall map or digital application such as Google Earth) to identify the relative location of the major countries of Europe and North America and their environmental characteristics
    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Select and evaluate data and information
    • Locate, generate and access data and information
    • Define and plan information searches

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • using a printed or electronic atlas to identify the main characteristics of continents of Europe and North America
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Locate, generate and access data and information
    • Define and plan information searches
    • Select and evaluate data and information

  • researching the changes made by people to a particular environment in a country in Europe and a country in North America
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

The influence of people, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, on the environmental characteristics of Australian places (ACHASSK112 - Scootle )
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • Sustainability
Intercultural Understanding

Recognising culture and developing respect
  • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
  • Develop respect for cultural diversity

Interacting and empathising with others
  • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

  • identifying how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities altered the environment and sustained ways of living through their methods of land and resource management
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

  • exploring the extent of change in the local environment over time (for example, through vegetation clearance, fencing, urban development, drainage, irrigation, farming, forest plantations or mining), and evaluating the positive and negative effects of change on environmental sustainability
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

The environmental and human influences on the location and characteristics of a place and the management of spaces within them (ACHASSK113 - Scootle )
  • comparing how people have responded to climatic conditions in similar and different places and explaining why most Australians live close to the coast compared to inland Australia
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

  • investigating the influence of landforms (for example, river valleys such as the Murray-Darling, Yellow (Huang He), Yangtze, Amazon, Mekong or Ganges), on the development of settlements that are involved in food and fibre production
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • examining the effects of landforms (for example, valleys, hills, natural harbours and rivers) on the location and characteristics of their place and other places they know
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • exploring the extent of change in the local environment over time and the impact of change on ecosystems
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • exploring how a unique environment is used and managed (for example, settlement and human use of Antarctica and the practices and laws that aim to manage human impact)
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • examining how the use of the space within their local place is organised through zoning
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • investigating a current local planning issue (for example, redevelopment of a site, protection of a unique species), exploring why people have different views on the issue, and developing a class response to it
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

The impact of bushfires or floods on environments and communities, and how people can respond (ACHASSK114 - Scootle )
  • mapping and explaining the location, frequency and severity of bushfires or flooding in Australia
    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • explaining the impacts of fire on Australian vegetation and the significance of fire damage on communities
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • researching how the application of principles of prevention, mitigation and preparedness minimises the harmful effects of bushfires or flooding
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

Civics and citizenship

Concepts for developing understanding

The content in the civics and citizenship sub-strand provides opportunities for students to develop understanding about government and democracy, laws and citizens and citizenship, diversity and identity. Students are introduced to the key values of Australia’s liberal democratic system of government, such as freedom, equality, fairness and justice (government and democracy). Students begin to understand representative democracy by examining the features of the voting processes in Australia (government and democracy). Students expand on their knowledge of the law by studying the role of laws and law enforcement (laws and citizens). Students investigate how diverse groups cooperate and participate in our community (citizenship, diversity and identity).

Inquiry Questions

  • What is democracy in Australia and why is voting in a democracy important?
  • Why do we have laws and regulations?
  • How and why do people participate in groups to achieve shared goals?
The key values that underpin Australia’s democracy (ACHASSK115 - Scootle )
  • discussing the meaning of democracy
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

  • discussing the meaning and importance of the key values of Australian democracy (for example, freedom of election and being elected; freedom of assembly and political participation; freedom of speech, expression and religious belief; rule of law; other basic human rights)
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

  • considering how students apply democratic values in familiar contexts
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Intercultural Understanding

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Empathise with others

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Mediate cultural difference

The key features of the electoral process in Australia (ACHASSK116 - Scootle )
  • exploring the secret ballot and compulsory voting as key features of Australia’s democracy
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • recognising the role of the Australian Electoral Commission in administering elections that are open, free and fair
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • clarifying who has the right to vote and stand for election in Australia
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

Why regulations and laws are enforced and the personnel involved (ACHASSK117 - Scootle )
  • categorising the different types of laws and regulations in their community and who enforces them (road laws – police; health laws – public health department; pollution laws – environmental protection officer)
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

  • identifying and researching the role of different people associated with law enforcement (for example, quarantine and customs officials, police) and the legal system (for example, judges and lawyers)
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

How people with shared beliefs and values work together to achieve a civic goal (ACHASSK118 - Scootle )
  • discussing how and why people volunteer for groups in their community (for example, rural fire services, emergency services groups and youth groups)
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Intercultural Understanding

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Mediate cultural difference

  • using social media to share and discuss ideas about how people can work together as local, regional and global citizens(for example, as communities for a local environmental issue or project)
    • Sustainability
    Intercultural Understanding

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Communicate across cultures

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Reflect on intercultural experiences
    • Mediate cultural difference

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Communicating with ICT
    • Collaborate, share and exchange

  • examining Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander organisations and the services they provide
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Intercultural Understanding

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Reflect on intercultural experiences
    • Mediate cultural difference

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

  • discussing ways people resolve differences (for example, through negotiation and Reconciliation)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Intercultural Understanding

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Reflect on intercultural experiences
    • Mediate cultural difference

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Communicate across cultures

    Literacy

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary
    • Use spelling knowledge

Economics and business

Concepts for developing understanding

The content in the economics and business sub-strand develops key ideas, with a focus on developing an understanding of why decisions need to be made when allocating resources (resource allocation) for society’s needs and wants, and the various factors that may influence them when making decisions (making choices). Methods that help with these decisions, particularly for consumer and financial decisions, are considered (consumer and financial literacy).

Inquiry Questions

  • Why do I have to make choices as a consumer?
  • What influences the decisions I make?
  • What can I do to make informed decisions?
The difference between needs and wants and why choices need to be made about how limited resources are used (ACHASSK119 - Scootle )
  • Sustainability
  • debating whether one person’s need is another person’s need or want
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • explaining the concept of scarcity (that is, needs and unlimited wants compared to limited resources) and why individuals cannot have all the items they want and therefore must make a choice
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • explaining reasons for differences in needs and wants for different groups
    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary
    • Use spelling knowledge

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Types of resources (natural, human, capital) and the ways societies use them to satisfy the needs and wants of present and future generations (ACHASSK120 - Scootle )
  • categorising resources as natural (water, coal, wheat), human (workers, business owners, designing, making, thinking) and capital (tools, machines, technologies)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • brainstorming resources that a local community might use
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Creating with ICT
    • Generate ideas, plans and processes

  • identifying and categorising the factors of production used in the production of goods and services that satisfy the needs and wants of a local community
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • listing the needs and wants of a local community and exploring the ways resources are currently used to meet these needs and wants and how resources might be used more sustainably to meet these needs and wants into the future
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • exploring how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples' traditional and contemporary use of resources reflects their spiritual connections to the land, sea, sky and waterways
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

Influences on consumer choices and methods that can be used to help make informed personal consumer and financial choices (ACHASSK121 - Scootle )
Numeracy

Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
  • Use money

  • identifying goods they have purchased and categorising and explaining factors that influence consumer purchasing decisions (for example, personal preferences, social trends, economic factors such as budgets and the amount of money available to spend; psychological factors such as advertising and peer pressure; cultural, environmental, legal and ethical factors)
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Numeracy

    Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
    • Use money

  • comparing the influence of a variety of selling and advertising strategies used by businesses on consumer choices (for example, the influence of television and internet advertising compared to email promotions)
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • recognising that financial transactions can include the use of notes, coins, credit and debit cards, and barter items; explaining the advantages and disadvantages of the different transaction types; and considering how these may influence the way people purchase items
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Applying social and ethical protocols and practices when using ICT
    • Identify the impacts of ICT in society

    Numeracy

    Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
    • Use money

  • exploring the strategies that can be used when making consumer and financial decisions (for example, finding more information, comparing prices, keeping a record of money spent, saving for the future)
    Numeracy

    Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
    • Use money

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary


Year 5 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 5, students describe the significance of people and events/developments in bringing about change. They identify the causes and effects of change on particular communities and describe aspects of the past that have remained the same. They describe the experiences of different people in the past. Students explain the characteristics of places in different locations at local to national scales. They identify and describe the interconnections between people and the human and environmental characteristics of places, and between components of environments. They identify the effects of these interconnections on the characteristics of places and environments. Students identify the importance of values and processes to Australia’s democracy and describe the roles of different people in Australia’s legal system. They recognise that choices need to be made when allocating resources. They describe factors that influence their choices as consumers and identify strategies that can be used to inform these choices. They describe different views on how to respond to an issue or challenge.

Students develop questions for an investigation. They locate and collect data and information from a range of sources to answer inquiry questions. They examine sources to determine their purpose and to identify different viewpoints. They interpret data to identify and describe distributions, simple patterns and trends, and to infer relationships, and suggest conclusions based on evidence. Students sequence information about events, the lives of individuals and selected phenomena in chronological order using timelines. They sort, record and represent data in different formats, including large-scale and small-scale maps, using basic conventions. They work with others to generate alternative responses to an issue or challenge and reflect on their learning to independently propose action, describing the possible effects of their proposed action. They present their ideas, findings and conclusions in a range of communication forms using discipline-specific terms and appropriate conventions.

By the end of Year 5, students describe the significance of people and events/developments in bringing about change. They identify the causes and effects of change on particular communities and describe aspects of the past that have remained the same. They describe the experiences of different people in the past.

Students sequence information about events and the lives of individuals in chronological order using timelines. When researching, students develop questions for a historical inquiry. They identify a range of sources and locate, collect and organise information related to this inquiry. They analyse sources to determine their origin and purpose and to identify different viewpoints. Students develop, organise and present their texts, particularly narrative recounts and descriptions, using historical terms and concepts.

By the end of Year 5, students describe the location of selected countries in relative terms. They explain the characteristics of places in different locations at local to national scales. They identify and describe the interconnections between people and the human and environmental characteristics of places, and between components of environments. They identify the effects of these interconnections on the characteristics of places and environments. They identify and describe different possible responses to a geographical challenge.

Students develop appropriate geographical questions for an investigation. They locate, collect and organise data and information from a range of sources to answer inquiry questions. They represent data and the location of places and their characteristics in graphic forms, including large-scale and small-scale maps that use the cartographic conventions of border, scale, legend, title and north point. They describe the location of places and their characteristics using compass direction and distance. Students interpret maps, geographical data and other information to identify and describe spatial distributions, simple patterns and trends, and suggest conclusions. They present findings and ideas using geographical terminology in a range of communication forms. They propose action in response to a geographical challenge and identify the possible effects of their proposed action.

By the end of Year 5, students identify the importance of values and processes to Australia’s democracy and describe the roles of different people in Australia’s legal system. They identify various ways people can participate effectively in groups to achieve shared goals and describe different views on how to respond to a current issue or challenge.

Students develop questions for an investigation about the society in which they live. They locate and collect information from different sources to answer these questions. They examine sources to determine their purpose and identify different viewpoints. They interpret information to suggest conclusions based on evidence. Students identify possible solutions to an issue as part of a plan for action and reflect on how they work together. They present their ideas, conclusions and viewpoints in a range of communication forms using civics and citizenship terms and concepts.

By the end of Year 5, students distinguish between needs and wants and recognise that choices need to be made when allocating resources. They describe factors that influence their choices as consumers. Students identify individual strategies that can be used to make informed consumer and financial choices.

Students develop questions for an investigation about an economics or business issue or event. They locate and collect data and information from a range of sources to answer these questions. They examine sources to determine their purpose and suggest conclusions based on evidence. They interpret, sort and represent data in different formats. They generate alternative responses to an issue or challenge and reflect on their learning to propose action, describing the possible effects of their decision. Students apply economics and business skills to everyday problems. They present their ideas, findings and conclusions in a range of communication forms using economics and business terms.

Year 6

Year 6 Level Description

Australia in the past and present and its connections with a diverse world

The Year 6 curriculum focuses on the social, economic and political development of Australia as a nation, particularly after 1900, and Australia’s role within a diverse and interconnected world today. Students explore the events and developments that shaped Australia as a democratic nation and stable economy, and the experiences of the diverse groups who have contributed to and are/were affected by these events and developments, past and present. Students investigate the importance of rights and responsibilities and informed decision-making, at the personal level of consumption and civic participation, and at the national level through studies of economic, ecological and government processes and systems. In particular, students examine Asia’s natural, demographic and cultural diversity, with opportunities to understand their connections to Asian environments. These studies enable students to understand how they are interconnected with diverse people and places across the globe.

The content provides opportunities for students to develop humanities and social sciences understanding through key concepts including significance; continuity and change; cause and effect; place and space; interconnections; roles, rights and responsibilities; and perspectives and action. These concepts may provide a focus for inquiries and be investigated across sub-strands or within a particular sub-strand context.

The content at this year level is organised into two strands: knowledge and understanding, and inquiry and skills. The knowledge and understanding strand draws from four sub-strands: history, geography, civics and citizenship and economics and business. These strands (knowledge and understanding, and inquiry and skills) are interrelated and have been developed to be taught in an integrated way, which may include integrating with content from the sub-strands and from other learning areas, and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.

Inquiry Questions

A framework for developing students’ knowledge, understanding and skills is provided by inquiry questions. The following inquiry questions allow for connections to be made across the sub-strands and may be used or adapted to suit local contexts: inquiry questions are also provided for each sub-strand that may enable connections within the humanities and social sciences learning area or across other learning areas.

  • How have key figures, events and values shaped Australian society, its system of government and citizenship?
  • How have experiences of democracy and citizenship differed between groups over time and place, including those from and in Asia?
  • How has Australia developed as a society with global connections, and what is my role as a global citizen?

Year 6 Content Descriptions

Questioning

Develop appropriate questions to guide an inquiry about people, events, developments, places, systems and challenges (ACHASSI122 - Scootle )
Literacy

Grammar knowledge
  • Use knowledge of sentence structures

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Compose texts

  • generating appropriate questions before, during and after an investigation to frame and guide the stages of the inquiry
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Define and plan information searches

  • developing different types of research questions for different purposes (for example, probing questions to seek details, open-ended questions to elicit more ideas, practical questions to guide the application of enterprising behaviours, ethical questions regarding sensitivities and cultural protocols)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • mind-mapping a concept to create research questions that reveal connections between economic, political, and/or environmental systems (for example, ‘How does shipping connect Asia and Australia?’, ‘What is ship ballast?’, ‘How does ballast water in modern ships affect local waters?’, ‘Where in Australia has ballast water been an issue?’, ‘What are the economic and environmental impacts of ballast water?’, ‘What is Australia’s role in managing world ballast water regulation?’)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    • Sustainability
    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Creating with ICT
    • Generate ideas, plans and processes

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • developing questions to guide the identification and location of useful sources for an inquiry or an enterprise project
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

Researching

Locate and collect relevant information and data from primary sources and secondary sources (ACHASSI123 - Scootle )
Literacy

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

  • determining the most appropriate methods to find information (for example, personal observation, internet searches, primary and secondary sources) including using excursions and field trips (for example, a study trip to a wetlands, a visit to a war memorial, a cultural site, an Asian food festival, a courthouse, a town hall, a not-for-profit enterprise, a bank)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Define and plan information searches

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • using a range of methods, including digital technologies, to gather relevant historical, geographical, social, economic and business data and information (for example, through online sources such as census data and databases, and/or interviews and surveys)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Define and plan information searches
    • Locate, generate and access data and information

  • identifying key words to search for relevant information when using search tools, such as internet search engines and library catalogues and indexes and recognising that internet domain names ‘com’, ‘edu’, ‘gov’ are indicators of the provenance of a source
    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Locate, generate and access data and information
    • Define and plan information searches

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • applying ethical research methods when conducting inquiries with people and communities, including using accepted protocols for consultation with local Aboriginal/Torres Strait Islander communities, and conforming with respectful behaviours in sacred or significant sites
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Intercultural Understanding

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Communicate across cultures
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Challenge stereotypes and prejudices

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • exchanging geographical information from schools in countries of the Asia region
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Intercultural Understanding

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Communicate across cultures

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Communicating with ICT
    • Collaborate, share and exchange

Organise and represent data in a range of formats including tables, graphs and large- and small-scale maps, using discipline-appropriate conventions (ACHASSI124 - Scootle )
Literacy

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose texts
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Comprehend texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Visual Knowledge
  • Understand how visual elements create meaning

Numeracy

Interpreting statistical information
  • Interpret data displays

Using spatial reasoning
  • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • categorising information using digital and non-digital graphic organisers (for example, flowcharts, consequence wheels, futures timelines, mapping software, decision-making matrixes, digital scattergrams, spreadsheets, and bibliography templates)
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Creating with ICT
    • Generate ideas, plans and processes

  • constructing tables and graphs with digital applications as appropriate to display or categorise data and information for analysis (for example, a table to show the similarities and differences in official languages and religions across a number of countries)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Numeracy

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Creating with ICT
    • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

  • creating maps using spatial technologies and cartographic conventions as appropriate (including border, source, scale, legend, title and north point) to show information and data, including location (for example, a large-scale map to show the location of places and their features in Australia and countries of Asia; a flow map or small-scale map to show the connections Australia has with Asian countries such as shipping or migration)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Creating with ICT
    • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • explaining spatial representations (for example, describing how the representation of the spherical globe on flat paper produces distortions in maps)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Visualise 2D shapes and 3D objects

Sequence information about people’s lives, events, developments and phenomena using a variety of methods including timelines (ACHASSI125 - Scootle )
Literacy

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Compose texts

Visual Knowledge
  • Understand how visual elements create meaning

Numeracy

Recognising and using patterns and relationships
  • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

Using measurement
  • Operate with clocks, calendars and timetables

  • locating key events, ideas, movements and lives in a chronological sequence on timelines and flowcharts
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Numeracy

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

  • developing flowcharts to show steps in a sequence (for example, the flow of goods and services, the passage of a bill through parliament)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • selecting, recording and prioritising the key points made in relation to historical, geographical, civic and economic studies when interviewing people (for example, community or family members who migrated to Australia, war veterans, former refugees, members of parliament, leaders of community organisations, business operators, the experiences of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, workers of diverse occupations in an industry)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

Analysing

Examine primary sources and secondary sources to determine their origin and purpose (ACHASSI126 - Scootle )
Literacy

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Comprehend texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Visual Knowledge
  • Understand how visual elements create meaning

  • identifying and distinguishing fact and opinion in information and identifying stereotypes and over-generalisations (for example, over-generalisations about the role of women, the contribution of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, the work of politicians, the beliefs of religious groups)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Intercultural Understanding

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Challenge stereotypes and prejudices
    • Reflect on intercultural experiences

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives
    • Empathise with others
    • Communicate across cultures

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • proposing reasons why stereotypes and over-generalisations are evident in sources and media of the past and discussing whether the underlying attitudes and values have changed or might have changed over time
    Intercultural Understanding

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Communicate across cultures
    • Empathise with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Reflect on intercultural experiences
    • Challenge stereotypes and prejudices

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • checking the publishing details of a text to help clarify the publication’s purpose, to identify potential bias in the content and assess its relevance, and to put information presented in an historical or geographical context
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • analysing sources to identify persuasive techniques such as modality (for example, ‘would’, ‘could’, ‘may’, ‘might’) and the use of the passive voice (for example, ‘it is claimed that …’) rather than the active voice (‘The government claims that ...’), and considering reasons for these choices
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

Examine different viewpoints on actions, events, issues and phenomena in the past and present (ACHASSI127 - Scootle )
Literacy

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts

Grammar knowledge
  • Express opinion and point of view

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Use language to interact with others
  • Compose texts

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • surveying businesses in the local area to find out what influences their choices concerning the way they provide goods and services
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • analysing where points of view differ about global issues and exploring the reasons for different perspectives (for example, reasons for varying views on issues such as climate change, coal seam mining, or aid to a country of the Asia region; different world views of environmentalists)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • discussing issues where there are, or were, a range of views and proposing reasons for different perspectives (for example, different opinions about the deportation of South Sea Islanders from 1901, the vote for women, how to manage an environment more sustainably)
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Intercultural Understanding

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Challenge stereotypes and prejudices

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Communicate across cultures

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

  • exploring historic sources to identify the views of a range of stakeholders affected by Federation and citizenship rights (for example, women, children, men without property, or South Sea Islanders)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Define and plan information searches

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Communicate across cultures

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Challenge stereotypes and prejudices

  • critiquing points of view about a sustainability issue (for example, considering producers’ and consumers’ views on the sustainable use of resources)
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

Interpret data and information displayed in a range of formats to identify, describe and compare distributions, patterns and trends, and to infer relationships (ACHASSI128 - Scootle )
Literacy

Visual Knowledge
  • Understand how visual elements create meaning

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Comprehend texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Compose texts

Grammar knowledge
  • Use knowledge of sentence structures

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Numeracy

Interpreting statistical information
  • Interpret data displays

Recognising and using patterns and relationships
  • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

  • analysing sources to identify the causes and effects of past events, developments and achievements (for example, the causes and effects of the struggles for democratic rights such as the Wave Hill walk-off, the Wik decision; of technological advancements such as the advent of television, the internet and the bionic ear; of health policies)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Select and evaluate data and information
    • Define and plan information searches

  • using graphic organisers, maps and concept maps to identify patterns (for example, patterns of settlement in regional agricultural areas), trends (for example, changes in Australian immigration statistics) and cause-effect relationships (for example, relationships between war and the movement of refugees, the correlation of low income and poor health, the effects of consumer decisions on the individual, the broader community and on environmental sustainability)
    • Sustainability
    Numeracy

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Creating with ICT
    • Generate ideas, plans and processes

  • interpreting graphic representations and making inferences about patterns and/or distributions (for example, proposing the possible impacts of human activity from an analysis of food webs; reflecting on electoral representation after viewing a plan of the seats held in upper and lower houses of parliament)
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Numeracy

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

  • comparing spatial and statistical distributions in thematic maps, choropleth maps and tables to identify patterns and relationships (for example, patterns in per capita income of countries from the Asia region; the increasing cultural diversity of present day Australia; relationships between human settlement and the changing environment)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    • Sustainability
    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Select and evaluate data and information

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Numeracy

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

  • identifying possible relationships by comparing places similar in one major characteristic but different in others (for example, by comparing places with similar climates but with different cultures as a means of identifying the relative influences of climate and culture)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

Evaluating and reflecting

Evaluate evidence to draw conclusions (ACHASSI129 - Scootle )
Literacy

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Comprehend texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Compose texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • evaluating and connecting information from various sources to defend a position (for example, the responsibilities associated with Australian citizenship, the right to build in a place, why a person is considered significant)
    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Select and evaluate data and information
    • Locate, generate and access data and information

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • contemplating attitudes and actions of the past that now seem strange and unacceptable and imagining what aspects of current society may be viewed in this way in the future
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

  • proposing reasons why socially sustainable practices such as negotiation, arbitration and Reconciliation and cultural mediation resolve issues peacefully
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Intercultural Understanding

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Challenge stereotypes and prejudices
    • Mediate cultural difference

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

  • drawing conclusions based on identified evidence (for example, using census data to construct arguments for and against migration; business council information to identify the ways different businesses provide goods and services to a community)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Numeracy

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

Work in groups to generate responses to issues and challenges (ACHASSI130 - Scootle )
Literacy

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose texts
  • Use language to interact with others
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

  • planning a project, campaign or enterprise around an identified challenge with specification of the sequence of tasks and activities, responsibilities and deadlines
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose texts
    • Use language to interact with others

  • participating collaboratively on committees, in an enterprise or a simulated parliament taking responsibility for respectful interactions with others
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

  • applying enterprising behaviours (for example, taking on a leadership role in a project, working with others to make decisions)
  • brainstorming solutions to an issue that is significant to a group and using negotiation to reach consensus on a preferred approach to resolving the issue
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Creating with ICT
    • Generate ideas, plans and processes

Use criteria to make decisions and judgements and consider advantages and disadvantages of preferring one decision over others (ACHASSI131 - Scootle )
Literacy

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Grammar knowledge
  • Use knowledge of sentence structures

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose texts
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

  • relating the decisions made by individuals and organisations to criteria used to evaluate options (for example, the criteria for Australian of the Year, for the award of the Order of Australia, for the selection of a school captain)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • examining the trade-offs they might consider when developing criteria for evaluating choices (for example, considering the opportunity cost of choosing one leisure activity over another or considering the trade-offs involved when making a purchasing decision such as a phone)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • applying economics and business knowledge and skills to everyday problems to identify advantages and disadvantages of a proposed response to the issue
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

  • determining a preferred option for action by identifying the advantages and disadvantages of different proposals, surveying people’s views and opinions, analysing the data, and debating and voting on alternatives
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

Reflect on learning to propose personal and/or collective action in response to an issue or challenge, and predict the probable effects (ACHASSI132 - Scootle )
Literacy

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose texts
  • Use language to interact with others
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • reflecting on what they have learnt in relation to an issue and identifying problems that might be experienced when taking action to address the issue
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • collecting evidence to build a case for action that takes account of alternative views, minimises risks and mitigates any negative outcomes
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

  • suggesting a course of action on a global issue that is significant to them and describing how different groups could respond
    Intercultural Understanding

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Mediate cultural difference

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

  • reflecting on the civic activities that students can participate in and the benefits of active and informed citizenship, including the significance of understanding cultural diversity
    Intercultural Understanding

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Mediate cultural difference
    • Reflect on intercultural experiences
    • Challenge stereotypes and prejudices

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Communicate across cultures
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

  • identifying the possible effects of decisions that have been made about an economic or business issue
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • identfying intercultural experiences and how this may affect future cultural interactions

    Literacy

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion

    Word Knowledge
    • Use spelling knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

Communicating

Present ideas, findings, viewpoints and conclusions in a range of texts and modes that incorporate source materials, digital and non-digital representations and discipline-specific terms and conventions (ACHASSI133 - Scootle )
Literacy

Grammar knowledge
  • Use knowledge of sentence structures
  • Express opinion and point of view

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Use language to interact with others
  • Compose texts
  • Deliver presentations
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Comprehend texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

Visual Knowledge
  • Understand how visual elements create meaning

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary
  • Use spelling knowledge

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

Creating with ICT
  • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

  • composing information and expository texts, supported by evidence, to describe conclusions from their economic, civic, historical and geographical inquiries
  • developing persuasive texts such as arguments for a debate, an essay or an opinion piece, citing sources to justify reasoning
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Deliver presentations

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • creating narrative accounts and recounts (for example, a digital multimedia story that records migrant experiences) based on information identified from a range of sources and referring to real characters and events
    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Creating with ICT
    • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

  • describing the relative location of places and their features in Australia and in selected countries of the Asia region, when investigating and making connections
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Deliver presentations
    • Use language to interact with others

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • selecting and applying appropriate media and strategies to suit and enhance their communication, including the use of graphs, tables, timelines, photographs and pictures, in digital and non-digital modes
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Deliver presentations

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Managing and operating ICT
    • Select and use hardware and software

  • using accurate and subject-appropriate terms, for example, historical terms (such as ‘nation’, ‘democracy’, ‘federation’, ‘empire’, ‘immigration’, ‘deportation’, ‘suffrage’, ‘enfranchisement’, ‘heritage’, ‘diversity’, ‘contribution’, ‘achievement’, ‘significance’, ‘development’, ‘rural’, ‘urban’, ‘bias’, ‘stereotype’, ‘perspective’), geographical terms (such as ‘relative location’, ‘scale’, ‘cultural diversity’, ‘inequality’, ‘interconnections’), civics and citizenship terms (such as ‘Westminster system’, ‘courts’, ‘monarchy’ and ‘three levels of government’) and economics and business terms (such as ‘opportunity cost’, ‘trade-offs’, ‘industry sectors’)
    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Numeracy

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

History

Concepts for developing understanding

The content in the history sub-strand provides opportunities for students to develop historical understanding through key concepts including sources, continuity and change, cause and effect, perspectives, empathy and significance. The Year 6 curriculum moves from colonial Australia to the development of Australia as a nation, particularly after 1900. Students explore the factors that led to Federation and the different attitudes to Federation and citizenship at the time (continuity and change, cause and effect, perspectives). Through studies of people’s experiences of democracy and citizenship over time (perspectives, empathy), students come to understand the significance of events, ideas and people’s contributions in influencing development of Australia’s system of government (continuity and change, significance). Students learn about the way of life of people who migrated to Australia since Federation and their contributions to Australia’s economic and social development (significance, empathy). In learning about Australia as a nation, students compare a range of sources to determine points of view (sources, perspectives).

Inquiry Questions

  • Why and how did Australia become a nation?
  • How did Australian society change throughout the twentieth century?
  • Who were the people who came to Australia? Why did they come?
  • What contribution have significant individuals and groups made to the development of Australian society?
Key figures, events and ideas that led to Australia’s Federation and Constitution (ACHASSK134 - Scootle )
Intercultural Understanding

Recognising culture and developing respect
  • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

  • studying Australia’s path to Federation through an examination of key people (for example, Henry Parkes, Edmund Barton, George Reid, John Quick) and events (for example, the Tenterfield Oration, the Corowa Conference, the referendums held in the colonies between 1898 and 1900)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Deliver presentations
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

  • comparing the model of Australian federalism with the original model of the United States of America to identify the US influence on Australia’s system of government
    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • identifying key elements of Australia’s system of law and government and their origins (for example, the Magna Carta; federalism; constitutional monarchy; the Westminster system and the separation of powers – legislature, executive, judiciary; the houses of parliament; how laws are made)
    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

Experiences of Australian democracy and citizenship, including the status and rights of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, migrants, women and children (ACHASSK135 - Scootle )
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
Intercultural Understanding

Recognising culture and developing respect
  • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
  • Challenge stereotypes and prejudices

Interacting and empathising with others
  • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

  • investigating the lack of citizenship rights for Aboriginal Peoples and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in Australia, illustrated by controls on movement and residence, the forcible removal of children from their families leading to the Stolen Generations, and poor pay and working conditions
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Intercultural Understanding

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Empathise with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Challenge stereotypes and prejudices
    • Reflect on intercultural experiences

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

  • describing the significance of the 1962 right to vote federally and the 1967 referendum
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Deliver presentations

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Intercultural Understanding

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives
    • Communicate across cultures
    • Empathise with others

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

  • investigating the stories of individuals or groups who advocated or fought for rights in twentieth-century Australia (for example, Jack Patten or the Aborigines Progressive Association)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • investigating the experiences of democracy and citizenship of women (for example, the suffragette movement, the bar on married women working, equal pay, the Sex Discrimination Act 1984)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

  • investigating the experiences of democracy and citizenship of migrant groups (for example, White Australia Policy, internment camps during World War II, assimilation policies, anti-discrimination legislation, multiculturalism, Reconciliation, mandatory detention, pay and working conditions)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Intercultural Understanding

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Communicate across cultures
    • Empathise with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Reflect on intercultural experiences
    • Challenge stereotypes and prejudices

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • investigating the experiences of democracy and citizenship of children who were placed in orphanages, homes and other institutions (for example, their food and shelter, protection, education and contacts with family)
    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives
    • Empathise with others

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

Stories of groups of people who migrated to Australia since Federation (including from ONE country of the Asia region) and reasons they migrated (ACHASSK136 - Scootle )
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
Intercultural Understanding

Interacting and empathising with others
  • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
  • Reflect on intercultural experiences
  • Challenge stereotypes and prejudices

Recognising culture and developing respect
  • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

  • comparing push and pull factors that have contributed to people migrating to Australia (for example, economic migrants and political refugees) from a range of places
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

  • exploring individual narratives using primary sources (for example, letters, documents and historical objects), interviewing and recording an oral history, and presenting the journey and circumstances of arrival based on the sources (for example, through drama)
    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Deliver presentations
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives
    • Communicate across cultures
    • Empathise with others

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Reflect on intercultural experiences
    • Challenge stereotypes and prejudices

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Locate, generate and access data and information
    • Define and plan information searches

  • describing cultural practices related to family life, beliefs and customs of newly arrived migrant groups and comparing these with those of the communities in which they settled within Australia
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Deliver presentations

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives
    • Empathise with others

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Reflect on intercultural experiences
    • Challenge stereotypes and prejudices

  • connecting stories of migration to students’ own family histories (where appropriate)
    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Communicate across cultures
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives
    • Empathise with others

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Reflect on intercultural experiences

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others

The contribution of individuals and groups to the development of Australian society since Federation (ACHASSK137 - Scootle )
Intercultural Understanding

Recognising culture and developing respect
  • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
  • Develop respect for cultural diversity

  • examining population data that show the places of birth of Australia’s people at one or more points of time in the past and today
    Numeracy

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

  • investigating the role of specific cultural groups in Australia’s economic and social development (for example, the cattle industry, the Snowy Mountains Scheme, the pearling industry)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • considering notable individuals in Australian public life across a range of fields (for example, the arts, science, sport, education), including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, a range of cultural and social groups, and women and men drawn from the National Living Treasures list, the Australian Dictionary of Biography or the Australian Honours lists)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • considering the contribution of groups and organisations in the development of Australia in the twentieth century (for example, the CSIRO, environmental action groups, farming cooperatives)
    • Sustainability
    Intercultural Understanding

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Empathise with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

Geography

Concepts for developing understanding

The content in the geography sub-strand provides opportunities to develop students’ understanding of place, space, environment, interconnection and change. Students explore the diverse environments, peoples and cultures within the Asia region and at a global level (space, place, environment) and expand their mental map of the world. Students examine Australia’s various connections with other countries and places throughout the world, how these are changing, and the effects of these interconnections (interconnections, change).

Inquiry Questions

  • How do places, people and cultures differ across the world?
  • What are Australia’s global connections between people and places?
  • How do people’s connections to places affect their perception of them?
The geographical diversity of the Asia region and the location of its major countries in relation to Australia (ACHASSK138 - Scootle )
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
Numeracy

Using spatial reasoning
  • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • using geographical tools (for example, a globe wall map or digital application such as Google Earth) to identify the geographical division of Asia into North-East, South-East, South Asia and West Asia (the Middle East)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Define and plan information searches
    • Select and evaluate data and information

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

  • exploring the diversity of environments and types of settlement in the Asia region, or in part of the region, or in a country in either North-East, South-East or South Asia and discussing any patterns
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

  • investigating the differences in the population size, density, life expectancy and per capita income between countries across the world
    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

  • describing the location of places in countries of the Asia region in absolute terms using latitude and longitude
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

Differences in the economic, demographic and social characteristics of countries across the world (ACHASSK139 - Scootle )
Numeracy

Interpreting statistical information
  • Interpret data displays

Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
  • Estimate and calculate

Using spatial reasoning
  • Interpret maps and diagrams

Recognising and using patterns and relationships
  • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

Intercultural Understanding

Recognising culture and developing respect
  • Develop respect for cultural diversity

  • researching the population size and density of a selection of countries around the world
    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • investigating the relationship between per capita income, health (as measured by life expectancy) and energy consumption in a selection of countries around the world, including at least one country from the Asia region
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives
    • Empathise with others

    Numeracy

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

  • comparing people’s lives in places with different levels of income
    Intercultural Understanding

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Empathise with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Reflect on intercultural experiences

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

The world’s cultural diversity, including that of its indigenous peoples (ACHASSK140 - Scootle )
Intercultural Understanding

Recognising culture and developing respect
  • Develop respect for cultural diversity

  • identifying examples of indigenous peoples who live in different regions in the world (for example, the Maori of Aotearoa New Zealand, the First Nations of North America and the Orang Asli of Malaysia and Indonesia), appreciating their similarities and differences, and exploring the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Empathise with others
    • Communicate across cultures
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • investigating sustainability of the environments in which many indigenous peoples have lived sustainably over time
    • Sustainability
    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • investigating the similarities and differences in official languages, religions and spiritual traditions between Australia and selected countries of the Asia region and other parts of the world
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Intercultural Understanding

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Reflect on intercultural experiences

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Empathise with others
    • Communicate across cultures

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

  • researching the proportion of the Australian population and of the population from their local area who were born in each world cultural region, using data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics and then comparing aspects of selected cultures
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Numeracy

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

Australia’s connections with other countries and how these change people and places (ACHASSK141 - Scootle )
Intercultural Understanding

Recognising culture and developing respect
  • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
  • Develop respect for cultural diversity
  • Investigate culture and cultural identity

  • researching connections between Australia and countries in the Asia and Pacific regions (for example, in terms of migration, trade, tourism, aid, education, defence or cultural influences) and explaining the effects of at least one of these connections on their own place and another place in Australia
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Communicate across cultures
    • Empathise with others

  • exploring the provision of Australian government or non-government aid to a country in the Asia and Pacific region or elsewhere in the world and analysing its effects on places in that country
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Intercultural Understanding

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Challenge stereotypes and prejudices
    • Mediate cultural difference
    • Reflect on intercultural experiences

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Communicate across cultures
    • Empathise with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

    Literacy

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

Civics and citizenship

Concepts for developing understanding

The content in the civics and citizenship sub-strand provides opportunities for students to develop understanding about government and democracy, laws and citizens and citizenship, diversity and identity. Students study the key institutions of Australia’s democratic government, including state/territory and federal parliaments, and the responsibilities of electors and representatives (government and democracy). Students learn how state/territory and federal laws are made in a parliamentary system (law). Students examine Australian citizenship and reflect on the rights and responsibilities that being a citizen entails (citizenship and identity), and explore the obligations that people may have as global citizens (citizenship, diversity and identity).

Inquiry Questions

  • What are the roles and responsibilities of the different levels of government in Australia?
  • How are laws developed in Australia?
  • What does it mean to be an Australian citizen?
The key institutions of Australia’s democratic system of government and how it is based on the Westminster system (ACHASSK143 - Scootle )
  • explaining the role of the monarchy and its representatives in Australia including the Governor-General, and the parliaments and courts in Australia’s system of government
    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

  • recognising the importance of the Westminster system and the Magna Carta in influencing Australia’s parliamentary government
    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

  • investigating sites virtually or in situ associated with key democratic institutions to explore their roles, such as Parliament House in Canberra
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

The roles and responsibilities of Australia’s three levels of government (ACHASSK144 - Scootle )
  • clarifying the roles and responsibilities of the three levels of government (local, state/territory and federal)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • identifying issues where federal and state parliaments both have the power to make laws; recognising that federal law will override the state law if federal and state laws conflict on these issues
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • identifying instances where there may be multiple levels of government involved (for example, in relation to the environment such as management of the Murray-Darling river system)
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

The responsibilities of electors and representatives in Australia’s democracy (ACHASSK145 - Scootle )
  • considering the responsibilities of electors (for example, enrolling to vote, being informed and voting responsibly)
  • identifying the characteristics that would make for a ‘good’ representative at the local, state/territory or national level
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

Where ideas for new laws can come from and how they become law (ACHASSK146 - Scootle )
  • investigating where ideas for new laws come from (for example, from party policy, perhaps announced during an election campaign; from suggestions by members and senators; from interest groups in the community)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

  • exploring how bills are debated and scrutinised (for example, the role of parliamentary committees and the ability of citizens to make submissions to these committees)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

  • identifying the role of the Executive in relation to the development of policies and the introduction of bills, including the role of Cabinet in approving the drafting of a bill and the role of the public service in drafting and implementing legislation
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

The shared values of Australian citizenship and the formal rights and responsibilities of Australian citizens (ACHASSK147 - Scootle )
  • investigating how people become Australian citizens
    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Mediate cultural difference

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • discussing the Australian citizenship pledge and comparing it to the former oath of allegiance to the monarch to explore notions of allegiance
    Intercultural Understanding

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Mediate cultural difference

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose texts
    • Use language to interact with others

  • clarifying the formal rights and responsibilities of Australian citizenship and comparing these to the rights and responsibilities of non-citizens
    Intercultural Understanding

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Mediate cultural difference

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Empathise with others

    Literacy

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • exploring how laws protect human rights (for example, gender, disability, race and age discrimination law)
    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Communicate across cultures

    Numeracy

    Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
    • Estimate and calculate

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • exploring the experiences of people who have migrated to Australia and who have taken up Australian citizenship (for example, those of Asian heritage)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Intercultural Understanding

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Empathise with others

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity

The obligations citizens may consider they have beyond their own national borders as active and informed global citizens (ACHASSK148 - Scootle )
Intercultural Understanding

Recognising culture and developing respect
  • Investigate culture and cultural identity

  • identifying the obligations people may consider they have as global citizens (for example, an awareness of human rights issues, concern for the environment and sustainability, being active and informed about global issues)
    • Sustainability
    Intercultural Understanding

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Mediate cultural difference
    • Reflect on intercultural experiences

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Empathise with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives
    • Communicate across cultures

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

  • describing dual citizenship and its implications for identity and belonging
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Intercultural Understanding

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Mediate cultural difference

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

  • using a current global issue (for example, immigration across borders or clearing native forests to establish palm oil plantations) to discuss the concept of global citizenship
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Intercultural Understanding

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Empathise with others
    • Communicate across cultures
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Mediate cultural difference
    • Reflect on intercultural experiences

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

Economics and business

Concepts for developing understanding

The content in the economics and business sub-strand develops key ideas, with a focus on developing students’ understanding of opportunity cost and why decisions about the ways resources are allocated to meet needs and wants in their community involve trade-offs. The limited nature of resources means that businesses and consumers make choices (resource allocation and making choices). This involves consumers choosing what to purchase and businesses choosing the way they provide goods and services (consumer literacy, business environment). Students consider the effect of consumer and financial decisions on individuals, the community and the environment (consumer and financial literacy). The emphasis is on community or regional issues, with opportunities for concepts to also be considered in national, regional or global contexts where appropriate.

Inquiry Questions

  • Why are there trade-offs associated with making decisions?
  • What are the possible effects of my consumer and financial choices?
  • Why do businesses exist and what are the different ways they provide goods and services?
How the concept of opportunity cost involves choices about the alternative use of resources and the need to consider trade-offs (ACHASSK149 - Scootle )
  • explaining why when one choice is made, the next best alternative is not available (trade-off) (for example, if a student chooses to spend their time (resource) riding their bike after school, they cannot go for a swim (trade-off))
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

  • explaining why choices have to be made when faced with unlimited wants and limited resources (for example, by compiling a list of personal needs and wants, determining priorities (including sustainability of natural environments) and identifying the needs and wants that can be satisfied with the resources available)
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

  • exploring some national needs and wants in Australia and an Asian country (for example, access to water, education, health care) and comparing resource limitations and decisions
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Intercultural Understanding

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives
    • Communicate across cultures
    • Empathise with others

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity

The effect that consumer and financial decisions can have on the individual, the broader community and the environment (ACHASSK150 - Scootle )
Numeracy

Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
  • Use money

  • exploring how a decision to buy an item affects the family (for example, ‘Did the family have to put off buying another item to have this one?’)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Numeracy

    Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
    • Use money

  • investigating whether buying at the local supermarket helps the local community
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • considering if their actions have an effect on the environment (for example, does choosing to use recyclable shopping bags have an effect on the natural environment?)
    • Sustainability
  • investigating questions (for example, ‘Does what my family buys in the supermarket affect what businesses might sell or produce?’)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

The reasons businesses exist and the different ways they provide goods and services (ACHASSK151 - Scootle )