Please select at least one year level to view the content
Please select at least one Strand to view the content

Rationale

In a world that is increasingly culturally diverse and dynamically interconnected, it is important that students come to understand their world, past and present, and develop a capacity to respond to challenges, now and in the future, in innovative, informed, personal and collective ways.

Read More >>

Aims

The F–6/7 Australian Curriculum for Humanities and Social Sciences aims to ensure that students develop:

a sense of wonder, curiosity and respect about places, people, cultures and systems throughout the world, past and present, and an interest in and enjoyment of the study of these phenomena

Read More >>

Structure

The Australian Curriculum: Humanities and Social Sciences may be implemented as a combined F–6 program or as an F–7 program. The F–6/7 curriculum is organised into two interrelated strands: knowledge and understanding and inquiry and skills.

Read More >>

PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Humanities and Social Sciences F-6/7 are available as PDF documents.
F-6/7 HASS - Combined Sequence of Content
F-6/7 HASS - Combined Sequence of Achievement

Read More >>

Glossary

Read More >>

Year 6

Year 6 Level Description

Australia in the past and present and its connections with a diverse world

The Year 6 curriculum focuses on the social, economic and political development of Australia as a nation, particularly after 1900, and Australia’s role within a diverse and interconnected world today. Students explore the events and developments that shaped Australia as a democratic nation and stable economy, and the experiences of the diverse groups who have contributed to and are/were affected by these events and developments, past and present. Students investigate the importance of rights and responsibilities and informed decision-making, at the personal level of consumption and civic participation, and at the national level through studies of economic, ecological and government processes and systems. In particular, students examine Asia’s natural, demographic and cultural diversity, with opportunities to understand their connections to Asian environments. These studies enable students to understand how they are interconnected with diverse people and places across the globe.

The content provides opportunities for students to develop humanities and social sciences understanding through key concepts including significance; continuity and change; cause and effect; place and space; interconnections; roles, rights and responsibilities; and perspectives and action. These concepts may provide a focus for inquiries and be investigated across sub-strands or within a particular sub-strand context.

The content at this year level is organised into two strands: knowledge and understanding, and inquiry and skills. The knowledge and understanding strand draws from four sub-strands: history, geography, civics and citizenship and economics and business. These strands (knowledge and understanding, and inquiry and skills) are interrelated and have been developed to be taught in an integrated way, which may include integrating with content from the sub-strands and from other learning areas, and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.

Inquiry Questions

A framework for developing students’ knowledge, understanding and skills is provided by inquiry questions. The following inquiry questions allow for connections to be made across the sub-strands and may be used or adapted to suit local contexts: inquiry questions are also provided for each sub-strand that may enable connections within the humanities and social sciences learning area or across other learning areas.

  • How have key figures, events and values shaped Australian society, its system of government and citizenship?
  • How have experiences of democracy and citizenship differed between groups over time and place, including those from and in Asia?
  • How has Australia developed as a society with global connections, and what is my role as a global citizen?

Year 6 Content Descriptions

Questioning

Develop appropriate questions to guide an inquiry about people, events, developments, places, systems and challenges (ACHASSI122 - Scootle )
Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas
  • Pose questions
  • Organise and process information

Literacy

Grammar knowledge
  • Use knowledge of sentence structures

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Compose texts

  • generating appropriate questions before, during and after an investigation to frame and guide the stages of the inquiry
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Pose questions

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Define and plan information searches

  • developing different types of research questions for different purposes (for example, probing questions to seek details, open-ended questions to elicit more ideas, practical questions to guide the application of enterprising behaviours, ethical questions regarding sensitivities and cultural protocols)
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Pose questions
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • mind-mapping a concept to create research questions that reveal connections between economic, political, and/or environmental systems (for example, ‘How does shipping connect Asia and Australia?’, ‘What is ship ballast?’, ‘How does ballast water in modern ships affect local waters?’, ‘Where in Australia has ballast water been an issue?’, ‘What are the economic and environmental impacts of ballast water?’, ‘What is Australia’s role in managing world ballast water regulation?’)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    • Sustainability
    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Creating with ICT
    • Generate ideas, plans and processes

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Pose questions
    • Organise and process information

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • developing questions to guide the identification and location of useful sources for an inquiry or an enterprise project
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Pose questions
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

Researching

Locate and collect relevant information and data from primary sources and secondary sources (ACHASSI123 - Scootle )
Literacy

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Organise and process information
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • determining the most appropriate methods to find information (for example, personal observation, internet searches, primary and secondary sources) including using excursions and field trips (for example, a study trip to a wetlands, a visit to a war memorial, a cultural site, an Asian food festival, a courthouse, a town hall, a not-for-profit enterprise, a bank)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Define and plan information searches

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • using a range of methods, including digital technologies, to gather relevant historical, geographical, social, economic and business data and information (for example, through online sources such as census data and databases, and/or interviews and surveys)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Define and plan information searches
    • Locate, generate and access data and information

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • identifying key words to search for relevant information when using search tools, such as internet search engines and library catalogues and indexes and recognising that internet domain names ‘com’, ‘edu’, ‘gov’ are indicators of the provenance of a source
    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Locate, generate and access data and information
    • Define and plan information searches

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • applying ethical research methods when conducting inquiries with people and communities, including using accepted protocols for consultation with local Aboriginal/Torres Strait Islander communities, and conforming with respectful behaviours in sacred or significant sites
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Intercultural Understanding

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Communicate across cultures
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Challenge stereotypes and prejudices

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Think about thinking (metacognition)

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social management
    • Communicate effectively

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives
    • Understand relationships

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts

  • exchanging geographical information from schools in countries of the Asia region
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Intercultural Understanding

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Communicate across cultures

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Communicating with ICT
    • Collaborate, share and exchange

Organise and represent data in a range of formats including tables, graphs and large- and small-scale maps, using discipline-appropriate conventions (ACHASSI124 - Scootle )
Critical and Creative Thinking

Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
  • Consider alternatives
  • Seek solutions and put ideas into action

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Organise and process information
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas

Literacy

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose texts
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Comprehend texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Visual Knowledge
  • Understand how visual elements create meaning

Numeracy

Interpreting statistical information
  • Interpret data displays

Using spatial reasoning
  • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • categorising information using digital and non-digital graphic organisers (for example, flowcharts, consequence wheels, futures timelines, mapping software, decision-making matrixes, digital scattergrams, spreadsheets, and bibliography templates)
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Creating with ICT
    • Generate ideas, plans and processes

  • constructing tables and graphs with digital applications as appropriate to display or categorise data and information for analysis (for example, a table to show the similarities and differences in official languages and religions across a number of countries)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Numeracy

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Imagine possibilities and connect ideas

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Creating with ICT
    • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

  • creating maps using spatial technologies and cartographic conventions as appropriate (including border, source, scale, legend, title and north point) to show information and data, including location (for example, a large-scale map to show the location of places and their features in Australia and countries of Asia; a flow map or small-scale map to show the connections Australia has with Asian countries such as shipping or migration)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Creating with ICT
    • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Imagine possibilities and connect ideas

  • explaining spatial representations (for example, describing how the representation of the spherical globe on flat paper produces distortions in maps)
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Imagine possibilities and connect ideas

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Visualise 2D shapes and 3D objects

Sequence information about people’s lives, events, developments and phenomena using a variety of methods including timelines (ACHASSI125 - Scootle )
Literacy

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Compose texts

Visual Knowledge
  • Understand how visual elements create meaning

Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Organise and process information

Numeracy

Recognising and using patterns and relationships
  • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

Using measurement
  • Operate with clocks, calendars and timetables

  • locating key events, ideas, movements and lives in a chronological sequence on timelines and flowcharts
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Numeracy

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

  • developing flowcharts to show steps in a sequence (for example, the flow of goods and services, the passage of a bill through parliament)
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • selecting, recording and prioritising the key points made in relation to historical, geographical, civic and economic studies when interviewing people (for example, community or family members who migrated to Australia, war veterans, former refugees, members of parliament, leaders of community organisations, business operators, the experiences of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, workers of diverse occupations in an industry)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

Analysing

Examine primary sources and secondary sources to determine their origin and purpose (ACHASSI126 - Scootle )
Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas
  • Organise and process information

Literacy

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Comprehend texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Visual Knowledge
  • Understand how visual elements create meaning

  • identifying and distinguishing fact and opinion in information and identifying stereotypes and over-generalisations (for example, over-generalisations about the role of women, the contribution of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, the work of politicians, the beliefs of religious groups)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Intercultural Understanding

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Challenge stereotypes and prejudices
    • Reflect on intercultural experiences

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives
    • Empathise with others
    • Communicate across cultures

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Personal and Social Capability

    Self-awareness
    • Develop reflective practice

  • proposing reasons why stereotypes and over-generalisations are evident in sources and media of the past and discussing whether the underlying attitudes and values have changed or might have changed over time
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Think about thinking (metacognition)

    Intercultural Understanding

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Communicate across cultures
    • Empathise with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Reflect on intercultural experiences
    • Challenge stereotypes and prejudices

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

  • checking the publishing details of a text to help clarify the publication’s purpose, to identify potential bias in the content and assess its relevance, and to put information presented in an historical or geographical context
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • analysing sources to identify persuasive techniques such as modality (for example, ‘would’, ‘could’, ‘may’, ‘might’) and the use of the passive voice (for example, ‘it is claimed that …’) rather than the active voice (‘The government claims that ...’), and considering reasons for these choices
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values
    • Consider points of view

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

Examine different viewpoints on actions, events, issues and phenomena in the past and present (ACHASSI127 - Scootle )
Literacy

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts

Grammar knowledge
  • Express opinion and point of view

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Use language to interact with others
  • Compose texts

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Critical and Creative Thinking

Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
  • Apply logic and reasoning

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas
  • Organise and process information

Reflecting on thinking and processes
  • Think about thinking (metacognition)

Personal and Social Capability

Social awareness
  • Appreciate diverse perspectives

  • surveying businesses in the local area to find out what influences their choices concerning the way they provide goods and services
    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view

  • analysing where points of view differ about global issues and exploring the reasons for different perspectives (for example, reasons for varying views on issues such as climate change, coal seam mining, or aid to a country of the Asia region; different world views of environmentalists)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    • Sustainability
    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Reflect on ethical action
    • Reason and make ethical decisions

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values
    • Consider points of view

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts
    • Explore ethical concepts in context

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Think about thinking (metacognition)

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

  • discussing issues where there are, or were, a range of views and proposing reasons for different perspectives (for example, different opinions about the deportation of South Sea Islanders from 1901, the vote for women, how to manage an environment more sustainably)
    • Sustainability
    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Reason and make ethical decisions
    • Reflect on ethical action

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view
    • Examine values

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Intercultural Understanding

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Challenge stereotypes and prejudices

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Communicate across cultures

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Think about thinking (metacognition)

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

  • exploring historic sources to identify the views of a range of stakeholders affected by Federation and citizenship rights (for example, women, children, men without property, or South Sea Islanders)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view
    • Examine values

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts
    • Explore ethical concepts in context

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Reason and make ethical decisions
    • Reflect on ethical action

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Define and plan information searches

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Communicate across cultures

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Challenge stereotypes and prejudices

  • critiquing points of view about a sustainability issue (for example, considering producers’ and consumers’ views on the sustainable use of resources)
    • Sustainability
    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences
    • Reason and make ethical decisions

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view
    • Examine values

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Think about thinking (metacognition)

Interpret data and information displayed in a range of formats to identify, describe and compare distributions, patterns and trends, and to infer relationships (ACHASSI128 - Scootle )
Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas
  • Organise and process information

Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
  • Draw conclusions and design a course of action
  • Apply logic and reasoning

Reflecting on thinking and processes
  • Reflect on processes
  • Transfer knowledge into new contexts

Literacy

Visual Knowledge
  • Understand how visual elements create meaning

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Comprehend texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Compose texts

Grammar knowledge
  • Use knowledge of sentence structures

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Numeracy

Interpreting statistical information
  • Interpret data displays

Recognising and using patterns and relationships
  • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

  • analysing sources to identify the causes and effects of past events, developments and achievements (for example, the causes and effects of the struggles for democratic rights such as the Wave Hill walk-off, the Wik decision; of technological advancements such as the advent of television, the internet and the bionic ear; of health policies)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Think about thinking (metacognition)

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Select and evaluate data and information
    • Define and plan information searches

    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Reason and make ethical decisions
    • Reflect on ethical action

  • using graphic organisers, maps and concept maps to identify patterns (for example, patterns of settlement in regional agricultural areas), trends (for example, changes in Australian immigration statistics) and cause-effect relationships (for example, relationships between war and the movement of refugees, the correlation of low income and poor health, the effects of consumer decisions on the individual, the broader community and on environmental sustainability)
    • Sustainability
    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Reflect on ethical action
    • Reason and make ethical decisions

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Numeracy

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Think about thinking (metacognition)

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Creating with ICT
    • Generate ideas, plans and processes

  • interpreting graphic representations and making inferences about patterns and/or distributions (for example, proposing the possible impacts of human activity from an analysis of food webs; reflecting on electoral representation after viewing a plan of the seats held in upper and lower houses of parliament)
    • Sustainability
    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences
    • Reflect on ethical action

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Numeracy

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

  • comparing spatial and statistical distributions in thematic maps, choropleth maps and tables to identify patterns and relationships (for example, patterns in per capita income of countries from the Asia region; the increasing cultural diversity of present day Australia; relationships between human settlement and the changing environment)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    • Sustainability
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Select and evaluate data and information

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Numeracy

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

  • identifying possible relationships by comparing places similar in one major characteristic but different in others (for example, by comparing places with similar climates but with different cultures as a means of identifying the relative influences of climate and culture)
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

Evaluating and reflecting

Evaluate evidence to draw conclusions (ACHASSI129 - Scootle )
Critical and Creative Thinking

Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
  • Evaluate procedures and outcomes
  • Draw conclusions and design a course of action
  • Apply logic and reasoning

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas
  • Organise and process information

Reflecting on thinking and processes
  • Reflect on processes

Literacy

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Comprehend texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Compose texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • evaluating and connecting information from various sources to defend a position (for example, the responsibilities associated with Australian citizenship, the right to build in a place, why a person is considered significant)
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Draw conclusions and design a course of action
    • Apply logic and reasoning

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Select and evaluate data and information
    • Locate, generate and access data and information

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Reflect on ethical action

  • contemplating attitudes and actions of the past that now seem strange and unacceptable and imagining what aspects of current society may be viewed in this way in the future
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Reason and make ethical decisions

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

  • proposing reasons why socially sustainable practices such as negotiation, arbitration and Reconciliation and cultural mediation resolve issues peacefully
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Intercultural Understanding

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Challenge stereotypes and prejudices
    • Mediate cultural difference

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Evaluate procedures and outcomes
    • Draw conclusions and design a course of action

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social management
    • Negotiate and resolve conflict

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives
    • Contribute to civil society

    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values

  • drawing conclusions based on identified evidence (for example, using census data to construct arguments for and against migration; business council information to identify the ways different businesses provide goods and services to a community)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Numeracy

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning
    • Draw conclusions and design a course of action

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

Work in groups to generate responses to issues and challenges (ACHASSI130 - Scootle )
Literacy

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose texts
  • Use language to interact with others
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas
  • Organise and process information

Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
  • Seek solutions and put ideas into action

Personal and Social Capability

Social management
  • Work collaboratively

Social awareness
  • Contribute to civil society
  • Appreciate diverse perspectives

  • planning a project, campaign or enterprise around an identified challenge with specification of the sequence of tasks and activities, responsibilities and deadlines
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Seek solutions and put ideas into action

    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose texts
    • Use language to interact with others

  • participating collaboratively on committees, in an enterprise or a simulated parliament taking responsibility for respectful interactions with others
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Explore rights and responsibilities

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Seek solutions and put ideas into action

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social management
    • Work collaboratively

  • applying enterprising behaviours (for example, taking on a leadership role in a project, working with others to make decisions)
    Personal and Social Capability

    Social management
    • Communicate effectively
    • Negotiate and resolve conflict
    • Work collaboratively
    • Develop leadership skills
    • Make decisions

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Seek solutions and put ideas into action

  • brainstorming solutions to an issue that is significant to a group and using negotiation to reach consensus on a preferred approach to resolving the issue
    Personal and Social Capability

    Social management
    • Communicate effectively
    • Work collaboratively
    • Make decisions
    • Develop leadership skills
    • Negotiate and resolve conflict

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Seek solutions and put ideas into action

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Creating with ICT
    • Generate ideas, plans and processes

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Explore rights and responsibilities

Use criteria to make decisions and judgements and consider advantages and disadvantages of preferring one decision over others (ACHASSI131 - Scootle )
Literacy

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Grammar knowledge
  • Use knowledge of sentence structures

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose texts
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas
  • Organise and process information

Reflecting on thinking and processes
  • Reflect on processes

Ethical Understanding

Reasoning in decision making and actions
  • Reason and make ethical decisions
  • Reflect on ethical action
  • Consider consequences

  • relating the decisions made by individuals and organisations to criteria used to evaluate options (for example, the criteria for Australian of the Year, for the award of the Order of Australia, for the selection of a school captain)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Explore rights and responsibilities

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social management
    • Make decisions

  • examining the trade-offs they might consider when developing criteria for evaluating choices (for example, considering the opportunity cost of choosing one leisure activity over another or considering the trade-offs involved when making a purchasing decision such as a phone)
    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Reason and make ethical decisions
    • Reflect on ethical action
    • Consider consequences

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view
    • Examine values

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts
    • Explore ethical concepts in context

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social management
    • Make decisions

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Think about thinking (metacognition)

  • applying economics and business knowledge and skills to everyday problems to identify advantages and disadvantages of a proposed response to the issue
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Evaluate procedures and outcomes

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social management
    • Make decisions
    • Negotiate and resolve conflict

    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view

  • determining a preferred option for action by identifying the advantages and disadvantages of different proposals, surveying people’s views and opinions, analysing the data, and debating and voting on alternatives
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Draw conclusions and design a course of action
    • Evaluate procedures and outcomes

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values
    • Explore rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social management
    • Negotiate and resolve conflict
    • Make decisions

Reflect on learning to propose personal and/or collective action in response to an issue or challenge, and predict the probable effects (ACHASSI132 - Scootle )
Personal and Social Capability

Self-management
  • Become confident, resilient and adaptable
  • Develop self-discipline and set goals

Self-awareness
  • Understand themselves as learners
  • Develop reflective practice

Critical and Creative Thinking

Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
  • Apply logic and reasoning
  • Draw conclusions and design a course of action

Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
  • Seek solutions and put ideas into action

Reflecting on thinking and processes
  • Reflect on processes

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas

Literacy

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose texts
  • Use language to interact with others
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • reflecting on what they have learnt in relation to an issue and identifying problems that might be experienced when taking action to address the issue
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Explore rights and responsibilities

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Personal and Social Capability

    Self-awareness
    • Understand themselves as learners
    • Develop reflective practice

  • collecting evidence to build a case for action that takes account of alternative views, minimises risks and mitigates any negative outcomes
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Draw conclusions and design a course of action
    • Apply logic and reasoning

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values
    • Consider points of view
    • Explore rights and responsibilities

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social management
    • Make decisions

  • suggesting a course of action on a global issue that is significant to them and describing how different groups could respond
    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Draw conclusions and design a course of action
    • Apply logic and reasoning

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Intercultural Understanding

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Mediate cultural difference

    Personal and Social Capability

    Self-management
    • Work independently and show initiative

    Social management
    • Develop leadership skills

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

  • reflecting on the civic activities that students can participate in and the benefits of active and informed citizenship, including the significance of understanding cultural diversity
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning
    • Draw conclusions and design a course of action

    Intercultural Understanding

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Mediate cultural difference
    • Reflect on intercultural experiences
    • Challenge stereotypes and prejudices

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Communicate across cultures
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Contribute to civil society

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Explore rights and responsibilities

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

  • identifying the possible effects of decisions that have been made about an economic or business issue
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences

  • identfying intercultural experiences and how this may affect future cultural interactions

    Literacy

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion

    Word Knowledge
    • Use spelling knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Evaluate procedures and outcomes

Communicating

Present ideas, findings, viewpoints and conclusions in a range of texts and modes that incorporate source materials, digital and non-digital representations and discipline-specific terms and conventions (ACHASSI133 - Scootle )
Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Organise and process information
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas

Literacy

Grammar knowledge
  • Use knowledge of sentence structures
  • Express opinion and point of view

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Use language to interact with others
  • Compose texts
  • Deliver presentations
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Comprehend texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

Visual Knowledge
  • Understand how visual elements create meaning

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary
  • Use spelling knowledge

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

Creating with ICT
  • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

  • composing information and expository texts, supported by evidence, to describe conclusions from their economic, civic, historical and geographical inquiries
  • developing persuasive texts such as arguments for a debate, an essay or an opinion piece, citing sources to justify reasoning
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Deliver presentations

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Imagine possibilities and connect ideas

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Explore rights and responsibilities

  • creating narrative accounts and recounts (for example, a digital multimedia story that records migrant experiences) based on information identified from a range of sources and referring to real characters and events
    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Explore rights and responsibilities

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Imagine possibilities and connect ideas

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Creating with ICT
    • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

  • describing the relative location of places and their features in Australia and in selected countries of the Asia region, when investigating and making connections
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Deliver presentations
    • Use language to interact with others

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • selecting and applying appropriate media and strategies to suit and enhance their communication, including the use of graphs, tables, timelines, photographs and pictures, in digital and non-digital modes
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Imagine possibilities and connect ideas

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Deliver presentations

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Managing and operating ICT
    • Select and use hardware and software

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Explore rights and responsibilities

  • using accurate and subject-appropriate terms, for example, historical terms (such as ‘nation’, ‘democracy’, ‘federation’, ‘empire’, ‘immigration’, ‘deportation’, ‘suffrage’, ‘enfranchisement’, ‘heritage’, ‘diversity’, ‘contribution’, ‘achievement’, ‘significance’, ‘development’, ‘rural’, ‘urban’, ‘bias’, ‘stereotype’, ‘perspective’), geographical terms (such as ‘relative location’, ‘scale’, ‘cultural diversity’, ‘inequality’, ‘interconnections’), civics and citizenship terms (such as ‘Westminster system’, ‘courts’, ‘monarchy’ and ‘three levels of government’) and economics and business terms (such as ‘opportunity cost’, ‘trade-offs’, ‘industry sectors’)
    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Numeracy

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

History

Concepts for developing understanding

The content in the history sub-strand provides opportunities for students to develop historical understanding through key concepts including sources, continuity and change, cause and effect, perspectives, empathy and significance. The Year 6 curriculum moves from colonial Australia to the development of Australia as a nation, particularly after 1900. Students explore the factors that led to Federation and the different attitudes to Federation and citizenship at the time (continuity and change, cause and effect, perspectives). Through studies of people’s experiences of democracy and citizenship over time (perspectives, empathy), students come to understand the significance of events, ideas and people’s contributions in influencing development of Australia’s system of government (continuity and change, significance). Students learn about the way of life of people who migrated to Australia since Federation and their contributions to Australia’s economic and social development (significance, empathy). In learning about Australia as a nation, students compare a range of sources to determine points of view (sources, perspectives).

Inquiry Questions

  • Why and how did Australia become a nation?
  • How did Australian society change throughout the twentieth century?
  • Who were the people who came to Australia? Why did they come?
  • What contribution have significant individuals and groups made to the development of Australian society?
Key figures, events and ideas that led to Australia’s Federation and Constitution (ACHASSK134 - Scootle )
Intercultural Understanding

Recognising culture and developing respect
  • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Organise and process information
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • studying Australia’s path to Federation through an examination of key people (for example, Henry Parkes, Edmund Barton, George Reid, John Quick) and events (for example, the Tenterfield Oration, the Corowa Conference, the referendums held in the colonies between 1898 and 1900)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Deliver presentations
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Pose questions
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • comparing the model of Australian federalism with the original model of the United States of America to identify the US influence on Australia’s system of government
    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Pose questions
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • identifying key elements of Australia’s system of law and government and their origins (for example, the Magna Carta; federalism; constitutional monarchy; the Westminster system and the separation of powers – legislature, executive, judiciary; the houses of parliament; how laws are made)
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Pose questions

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

Experiences of Australian democracy and citizenship, including the status and rights of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, migrants, women and children (ACHASSK135 - Scootle )
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
Ethical Understanding

Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
  • Consider points of view
  • Explore rights and responsibilities

Reasoning in decision making and actions
  • Consider consequences

Understanding ethical concepts and issues
  • Recognise ethical concepts

Intercultural Understanding

Recognising culture and developing respect
  • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
  • Challenge stereotypes and prejudices

Interacting and empathising with others
  • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Organise and process information
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • investigating the lack of citizenship rights for Aboriginal Peoples and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in Australia, illustrated by controls on movement and residence, the forcible removal of children from their families leading to the Stolen Generations, and poor pay and working conditions
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Pose questions

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view
    • Examine values

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Intercultural Understanding

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Empathise with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Challenge stereotypes and prejudices
    • Reflect on intercultural experiences

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives
    • Contribute to civil society

  • describing the significance of the 1962 right to vote federally and the 1967 referendum
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Deliver presentations

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Intercultural Understanding

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives
    • Communicate across cultures
    • Empathise with others

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts

  • investigating the stories of individuals or groups who advocated or fought for rights in twentieth-century Australia (for example, Jack Patten or the Aborigines Progressive Association)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Reason and make ethical decisions

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Pose questions
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

  • investigating the experiences of democracy and citizenship of women (for example, the suffragette movement, the bar on married women working, equal pay, the Sex Discrimination Act 1984)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Reason and make ethical decisions

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Pose questions

  • investigating the experiences of democracy and citizenship of migrant groups (for example, White Australia Policy, internment camps during World War II, assimilation policies, anti-discrimination legislation, multiculturalism, Reconciliation, mandatory detention, pay and working conditions)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Reason and make ethical decisions

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Pose questions
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Intercultural Understanding

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Communicate across cultures
    • Empathise with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Reflect on intercultural experiences
    • Challenge stereotypes and prejudices

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

  • investigating the experiences of democracy and citizenship of children who were placed in orphanages, homes and other institutions (for example, their food and shelter, protection, education and contacts with family)
    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Reason and make ethical decisions

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives
    • Empathise with others

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Pose questions

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

Stories of groups of people who migrated to Australia since Federation (including from ONE country of the Asia region) and reasons they migrated (ACHASSK136 - Scootle )
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas
  • Organise and process information

Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
  • Apply logic and reasoning

Intercultural Understanding

Interacting and empathising with others
  • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
  • Reflect on intercultural experiences
  • Challenge stereotypes and prejudices

Recognising culture and developing respect
  • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

  • comparing push and pull factors that have contributed to people migrating to Australia (for example, economic migrants and political refugees) from a range of places
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Pose questions
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

  • exploring individual narratives using primary sources (for example, letters, documents and historical objects), interviewing and recording an oral history, and presenting the journey and circumstances of arrival based on the sources (for example, through drama)
    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Deliver presentations
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives
    • Communicate across cultures
    • Empathise with others

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Reflect on intercultural experiences
    • Challenge stereotypes and prejudices

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Locate, generate and access data and information
    • Define and plan information searches

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

  • describing cultural practices related to family life, beliefs and customs of newly arrived migrant groups and comparing these with those of the communities in which they settled within Australia
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Deliver presentations

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view
    • Examine values

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives
    • Empathise with others

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Reflect on intercultural experiences
    • Challenge stereotypes and prejudices

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

  • connecting stories of migration to students’ own family histories (where appropriate)
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Transfer knowledge into new contexts

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Communicate across cultures
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives
    • Empathise with others

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Reflect on intercultural experiences

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others

    Personal and Social Capability

    Self-awareness
    • Develop reflective practice

The contribution of individuals and groups to the development of Australian society since Federation (ACHASSK137 - Scootle )
Intercultural Understanding

Recognising culture and developing respect
  • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
  • Develop respect for cultural diversity

Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas
  • Organise and process information

Personal and Social Capability

Social awareness
  • Appreciate diverse perspectives

  • examining population data that show the places of birth of Australia’s people at one or more points of time in the past and today
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Numeracy

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

  • investigating the role of specific cultural groups in Australia’s economic and social development (for example, the cattle industry, the Snowy Mountains Scheme, the pearling industry)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • considering notable individuals in Australian public life across a range of fields (for example, the arts, science, sport, education), including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, a range of cultural and social groups, and women and men drawn from the National Living Treasures list, the Australian Dictionary of Biography or the Australian Honours lists)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • considering the contribution of groups and organisations in the development of Australia in the twentieth century (for example, the CSIRO, environmental action groups, farming cooperatives)
    • Sustainability
    Intercultural Understanding

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Empathise with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Pose questions

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values

Geography

Concepts for developing understanding

The content in the geography sub-strand provides opportunities to develop students’ understanding of place, space, environment, interconnection and change. Students explore the diverse environments, peoples and cultures within the Asia region and at a global level (space, place, environment) and expand their mental map of the world. Students examine Australia’s various connections with other countries and places throughout the world, how these are changing, and the effects of these interconnections (interconnections, change).

Inquiry Questions

  • How do places, people and cultures differ across the world?
  • What are Australia’s global connections between people and places?
  • How do people’s connections to places affect their perception of them?
The geographical diversity of the Asia region and the location of its major countries in relation to Australia (ACHASSK138 - Scootle )
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
Numeracy

Using spatial reasoning
  • Interpret maps and diagrams

Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas
  • Organise and process information

  • using geographical tools (for example, a globe wall map or digital application such as Google Earth) to identify the geographical division of Asia into North-East, South-East, South Asia and West Asia (the Middle East)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Define and plan information searches
    • Select and evaluate data and information

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

  • exploring the diversity of environments and types of settlement in the Asia region, or in part of the region, or in a country in either North-East, South-East or South Asia and discussing any patterns
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Pose questions
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • investigating the differences in the population size, density, life expectancy and per capita income between countries across the world
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

  • describing the location of places in countries of the Asia region in absolute terms using latitude and longitude
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

Differences in the economic, demographic and social characteristics of countries across the world (ACHASSK139 - Scootle )
Numeracy

Interpreting statistical information
  • Interpret data displays

Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
  • Estimate and calculate

Using spatial reasoning
  • Interpret maps and diagrams

Recognising and using patterns and relationships
  • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Organise and process information
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas

Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
  • Consider alternatives

Intercultural Understanding

Recognising culture and developing respect
  • Develop respect for cultural diversity

  • researching the population size and density of a selection of countries around the world
    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • investigating the relationship between per capita income, health (as measured by life expectancy) and energy consumption in a selection of countries around the world, including at least one country from the Asia region
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives
    • Empathise with others

    Numeracy

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • comparing people’s lives in places with different levels of income
    Intercultural Understanding

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Empathise with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Reflect on intercultural experiences

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Consider alternatives

The world’s cultural diversity, including that of its indigenous peoples (ACHASSK140 - Scootle )
Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Organise and process information
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas

Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
  • Consider alternatives

Intercultural Understanding

Recognising culture and developing respect
  • Develop respect for cultural diversity

  • identifying examples of indigenous peoples who live in different regions in the world (for example, the Maori of Aotearoa New Zealand, the First Nations of North America and the Orang Asli of Malaysia and Indonesia), appreciating their similarities and differences, and exploring the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Empathise with others
    • Communicate across cultures
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view
    • Examine values

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Pose questions

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

  • investigating sustainability of the environments in which many indigenous peoples have lived sustainably over time
    • Sustainability
    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Pose questions
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • investigating the similarities and differences in official languages, religions and spiritual traditions between Australia and selected countries of the Asia region and other parts of the world
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Intercultural Understanding

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Reflect on intercultural experiences

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Empathise with others
    • Communicate across cultures

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view
    • Examine values

  • researching the proportion of the Australian population and of the population from their local area who were born in each world cultural region, using data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics and then comparing aspects of selected cultures
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Consider alternatives

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Numeracy

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

Australia’s connections with other countries and how these change people and places (ACHASSK141 - Scootle )
Intercultural Understanding

Recognising culture and developing respect
  • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
  • Develop respect for cultural diversity
  • Investigate culture and cultural identity

Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas
  • Organise and process information

Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
  • Consider alternatives

  • researching connections between Australia and countries in the Asia and Pacific regions (for example, in terms of migration, trade, tourism, aid, education, defence or cultural influences) and explaining the effects of at least one of these connections on their own place and another place in Australia
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Communicate across cultures
    • Empathise with others

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

  • exploring the provision of Australian government or non-government aid to a country in the Asia and Pacific region or elsewhere in the world and analysing its effects on places in that country
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Intercultural Understanding

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Challenge stereotypes and prejudices
    • Mediate cultural difference
    • Reflect on intercultural experiences

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Communicate across cultures
    • Empathise with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

    Literacy

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Consider alternatives

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Think about thinking (metacognition)

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Understand relationships
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values
    • Consider points of view

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts

Civics and citizenship

Concepts for developing understanding

The content in the civics and citizenship sub-strand provides opportunities for students to develop understanding about government and democracy, laws and citizens and citizenship, diversity and identity. Students study the key institutions of Australia’s democratic government, including state/territory and federal parliaments, and the responsibilities of electors and representatives (government and democracy). Students learn how state/territory and federal laws are made in a parliamentary system (law). Students examine Australian citizenship and reflect on the rights and responsibilities that being a citizen entails (citizenship and identity), and explore the obligations that people may have as global citizens (citizenship, diversity and identity).

Inquiry Questions

  • What are the roles and responsibilities of the different levels of government in Australia?
  • How are laws developed in Australia?
  • What does it mean to be an Australian citizen?
The key institutions of Australia’s democratic system of government and how it is based on the Westminster system (ACHASSK143 - Scootle )
Personal and Social Capability

Social awareness
  • Understand relationships
  • Contribute to civil society

Ethical Understanding

Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
  • Explore rights and responsibilities
  • Examine values

Understanding ethical concepts and issues
  • Explore ethical concepts in context

  • explaining the role of the monarchy and its representatives in Australia including the Governor-General, and the parliaments and courts in Australia’s system of government
    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Pose questions
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts

  • recognising the importance of the Westminster system and the Magna Carta in influencing Australia’s parliamentary government
    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Pose questions
    • Organise and process information

  • investigating sites virtually or in situ associated with key democratic institutions to explore their roles, such as Parliament House in Canberra
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

The roles and responsibilities of Australia’s three levels of government (ACHASSK144 - Scootle )
Personal and Social Capability

Social awareness
  • Contribute to civil society
  • Understand relationships

Ethical Understanding

Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
  • Explore rights and responsibilities

Reasoning in decision making and actions
  • Consider consequences

Understanding ethical concepts and issues
  • Explore ethical concepts in context

  • clarifying the roles and responsibilities of the three levels of government (local, state/territory and federal)
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values

  • identifying issues where federal and state parliaments both have the power to make laws; recognising that federal law will override the state law if federal and state laws conflict on these issues
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view
    • Examine values

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • identifying instances where there may be multiple levels of government involved (for example, in relation to the environment such as management of the Murray-Darling river system)
    • Sustainability
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values
    • Consider points of view

The responsibilities of electors and representatives in Australia’s democracy (ACHASSK145 - Scootle )
Ethical Understanding

Understanding ethical concepts and issues
  • Explore ethical concepts in context

Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
  • Explore rights and responsibilities

Reasoning in decision making and actions
  • Consider consequences

  • considering the responsibilities of electors (for example, enrolling to vote, being informed and voting responsibly)
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Pose questions
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values

  • identifying the characteristics that would make for a ‘good’ representative at the local, state/territory or national level
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values

Where ideas for new laws can come from and how they become law (ACHASSK146 - Scootle )
Ethical Understanding

Reasoning in decision making and actions
  • Consider consequences
  • Reason and make ethical decisions

Understanding ethical concepts and issues
  • Explore ethical concepts in context

Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
  • Explore rights and responsibilities

  • investigating where ideas for new laws come from (for example, from party policy, perhaps announced during an election campaign; from suggestions by members and senators; from interest groups in the community)
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values

  • exploring how bills are debated and scrutinised (for example, the role of parliamentary committees and the ability of citizens to make submissions to these committees)
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Pose questions
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view

  • identifying the role of the Executive in relation to the development of policies and the introduction of bills, including the role of Cabinet in approving the drafting of a bill and the role of the public service in drafting and implementing legislation
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Pose questions
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

The shared values of Australian citizenship and the formal rights and responsibilities of Australian citizens (ACHASSK147 - Scootle )
Ethical Understanding

Understanding ethical concepts and issues
  • Explore ethical concepts in context

Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
  • Examine values
  • Consider points of view

Personal and Social Capability

Social awareness
  • Contribute to civil society
  • Appreciate diverse perspectives

  • investigating how people become Australian citizens
    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Mediate cultural difference

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Contribute to civil society

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Pose questions

  • discussing the Australian citizenship pledge and comparing it to the former oath of allegiance to the monarch to explore notions of allegiance
    Intercultural Understanding

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Mediate cultural difference

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Contribute to civil society

  • clarifying the formal rights and responsibilities of Australian citizenship and comparing these to the rights and responsibilities of non-citizens
    Intercultural Understanding

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Mediate cultural difference

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Empathise with others

    Literacy

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Pose questions
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view
    • Examine values

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Contribute to civil society

  • exploring how laws protect human rights (for example, gender, disability, race and age discrimination law)
    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Contribute to civil society
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Communicate across cultures

    Numeracy

    Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
    • Estimate and calculate

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • exploring the experiences of people who have migrated to Australia and who have taken up Australian citizenship (for example, those of Asian heritage)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view

    Intercultural Understanding

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Empathise with others

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity

The obligations citizens may consider they have beyond their own national borders as active and informed global citizens (ACHASSK148 - Scootle )
Ethical Understanding

Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
  • Explore rights and responsibilities
  • Consider points of view
  • Examine values

Understanding ethical concepts and issues
  • Explore ethical concepts in context

Personal and Social Capability

Social awareness
  • Contribute to civil society
  • Understand relationships
  • Appreciate diverse perspectives

Intercultural Understanding

Recognising culture and developing respect
  • Investigate culture and cultural identity

Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Organise and process information
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • identifying the obligations people may consider they have as global citizens (for example, an awareness of human rights issues, concern for the environment and sustainability, being active and informed about global issues)
    • Sustainability
    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Contribute to civil society
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Intercultural Understanding

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Mediate cultural difference
    • Reflect on intercultural experiences

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Empathise with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives
    • Communicate across cultures

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • describing dual citizenship and its implications for identity and belonging
    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Understand relationships

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Intercultural Understanding

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Mediate cultural difference

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

  • using a current global issue (for example, immigration across borders or clearing native forests to establish palm oil plantations) to discuss the concept of global citizenship
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Imagine possibilities and connect ideas

    Intercultural Understanding

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Empathise with others
    • Communicate across cultures
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

    Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
    • Mediate cultural difference
    • Reflect on intercultural experiences

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Contribute to civil society

Economics and business

Concepts for developing understanding

The content in the economics and business sub-strand develops key ideas, with a focus on developing students’ understanding of opportunity cost and why decisions about the ways resources are allocated to meet needs and wants in their community involve trade-offs. The limited nature of resources means that businesses and consumers make choices (resource allocation and making choices). This involves consumers choosing what to purchase and businesses choosing the way they provide goods and services (consumer literacy, business environment). Students consider the effect of consumer and financial decisions on individuals, the community and the environment (consumer and financial literacy). The emphasis is on community or regional issues, with opportunities for concepts to also be considered in national, regional or global contexts where appropriate.

Inquiry Questions

  • Why are there trade-offs associated with making decisions?
  • What are the possible effects of my consumer and financial choices?
  • Why do businesses exist and what are the different ways they provide goods and services?
How the concept of opportunity cost involves choices about the alternative use of resources and the need to consider trade-offs (ACHASSK149 - Scootle )
Ethical Understanding

Reasoning in decision making and actions
  • Reason and make ethical decisions
  • Consider consequences
  • Reflect on ethical action

Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
  • Examine values

Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Pose questions
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas
  • Organise and process information

  • explaining why when one choice is made, the next best alternative is not available (trade-off) (for example, if a student chooses to spend their time (resource) riding their bike after school, they cannot go for a swim (trade-off))
    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences

    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social management
    • Make decisions

  • explaining why choices have to be made when faced with unlimited wants and limited resources (for example, by compiling a list of personal needs and wants, determining priorities (including sustainability of natural environments) and identifying the needs and wants that can be satisfied with the resources available)
    • Sustainability
    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view
    • Examine values

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences
    • Reason and make ethical decisions
    • Reflect on ethical action

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts
    • Explore ethical concepts in context

    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social management
    • Make decisions

    Self-management
    • Develop self-discipline and set goals

    Self-awareness
    • Understand themselves as learners

  • exploring some national needs and wants in Australia and an Asian country (for example, access to water, education, health care) and comparing resource limitations and decisions
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Transfer knowledge into new contexts

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Reflect on ethical action
    • Consider consequences
    • Reason and make ethical decisions

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Intercultural Understanding

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives
    • Communicate across cultures
    • Empathise with others

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity

The effect that consumer and financial decisions can have on the individual, the broader community and the environment (ACHASSK150 - Scootle )
Personal and Social Capability

Social management
  • Make decisions

Self-management
  • Develop self-discipline and set goals

Ethical Understanding

Reasoning in decision making and actions
  • Reflect on ethical action
  • Consider consequences
  • Reason and make ethical decisions

Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Organise and process information
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas

Numeracy

Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
  • Use money

  • exploring how a decision to buy an item affects the family (for example, ‘Did the family have to put off buying another item to have this one?’)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Numeracy

    Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
    • Use money

    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social management
    • Make decisions

  • investigating whether buying at the local supermarket helps the local community
    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Contribute to civil society

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences
    • Reason and make ethical decisions

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • considering if their actions have an effect on the environment (for example, does choosing to use recyclable shopping bags have an effect on the natural environment?)
    • Sustainability
    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Contribute to civil society

  • investigating questions (for example, ‘Does what my family buys in the supermarket affect what businesses might sell or produce?’)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Pose questions

The reasons businesses exist and the different ways they provide goods and services (ACHASSK151 - Scootle )
Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas
  • Organise and process information

Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
  • Consider alternatives

Ethical Understanding

Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
  • Explore rights and responsibilities
  • Examine values
  • Consider points of view

  • identifying why businesses exist (for example, to produce goods and services, to make a profit, to provide employment) and investigating the different ways that goods and services are provided to people such as through shopping centres, local markets, online, small independent stores, remote community stores
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Pose questions
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • explaining the difference between not-for-profit and for-profit businesses
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values
    • Consider points of view

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts

  • distinguishing between businesses in the primary, secondary and tertiary industry sectors and discussing what they produce or provide (such as agriculture and mining; textiles and food; and information, tourism and telecommunications)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Consider alternatives


Year 6 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 6, students explain the significance of an event/development, an individual and/or group. They identify and describe continuities and changes for different groups in the past and present. They describe the causes and effects of change on society. They compare the experiences of different people in the past. Students describe, compare and explain the diverse characteristics of different places in different locations from local to global scales. They describe how people, places, communities and environments are diverse and globally interconnected and identify the effects of these interconnections over time. Students explain the importance of people, institutions and processes to Australia’s democracy and legal system. They describe the rights and responsibilities of Australian citizens and the obligations they may have as global citizens. Students recognise why choices about the allocation of resources involve trade-offs. They explain why it is important to be informed when making consumer and financial decisions. They identify the purpose of business and recognise the different ways that businesses choose to provide goods and services. They explain different views on how to respond to an issue or challenge.

Students develop appropriate questions to frame an investigation. They locate and collect useful data and information from primary and secondary sources. They examine sources to determine their origin and purpose and to identify different perspectives in the past and present. They interpret data to identify, describe and compare distributions, patterns and trends, and to infer relationships, and evaluate evidence to draw conclusions. Students sequence information about events, the lives of individuals and selected phenomena in chronological order and represent time by creating timelines. They organise and represent data in a range of formats, including large- and small-scale maps, using appropriate conventions. They collaboratively generate alternative responses to an issue, use criteria to make decisions and identify the advantages and disadvantages of preferring one decision over others. They reflect on their learning to propose action in response to an issue or challenge and describe the probable effects of their proposal. They present ideas, findings, viewpoints and conclusions in a range of communication forms that incorporate source materials, mapping, graphing, communication conventions and discipline-specific terms.

By the end of Year 6 students explain the significance of an event/development, an individual or group. They identify and describe continuities and changes for different groups in the past. They describe the causes and effects of change on society. They compare the experiences of different people in the past.

Students sequence information about events and the lives of individuals in chronological order and represent time by creating timelines. When researching, students develop appropriate questions to frame a historical inquiry. They identify a range of primary and secondary sources and locate, collect, organise and categorise relevant information to answer inquiry questions. They analyse information or sources for evidence to determine their origin and purpose and to identify different perspectives. Students develop texts, particularly narrative recounts and descriptions. In developing these texts and organising and presenting their information, they use historical terms and concepts, and incorporate relevant sources.

By the end of Year 6, students describe the location of places in selected countries in absolute and relative terms. They describe and explain the diverse characteristics of places in different locations from local to global scales. They describe the interconnections between people in different places, identify factors that influence these interconnections and describe how interconnections change places and affect people. They identify and compare different possible responses to a geographical challenge.

Students develop appropriate geographical questions to frame an inquiry. They locate, collect and organise useful data and information from primary and secondary sources. They record and represent data and the location of places and their characteristics in different graphic forms, including large-scale and small-scale maps that use cartographic conventions of border, source, scale, legend, title and north point. Students interpret maps, data and other information to identify, describe and compare spatial distributions, patterns and trends, to infer relationships and to draw conclusions. They present findings and ideas using geographical terminology and digital technologies in a range of communication forms. They propose action in response to a geographical challenge and describe the probable effects of their proposal.

By the end of Year 6, students explain the role and importance of people, institutions, and processes to Australia’s democracy and legal system. They describe the rights and responsibilities of Australian citizens and the obligations they may have as global citizens.

Students develop appropriate questions to frame an investigation about the society in which they live. They locate, collect and organise useful information from a range of different sources to answer these questions. They examine sources to determine their origin and purpose and describe different perspectives. They evaluate information to draw conclusions. When planning for action, they identify different points of view and solutions to an issue. They reflect on their learning to identify the ways they can participate as citizens in the school or elsewhere. They present ideas, findings, viewpoints and conclusions in a range of communication forms that incorporate source materials and civics and citizenship terms and concepts.

By the end of Year 6, students recognise why choices about the allocation of resources involve trade-offs. They explain why it is important to be informed when making consumer and financial decisions. They identify the purpose of business and recognise the different ways that businesses choose to provide goods and services.

Students develop appropriate questions to frame an investigation about an economics or business issue, challenge or event. They locate and collect useful data and information from primary and secondary sources. They examine sources to determine their origin and purpose and evaluate evidence to draw conclusions. They interpret, organise and represent data in a range of formats using appropriate conventions. They generate alternative responses to an issue or challenge and identify the advantages and disadvantages of preferring one decision over others. They reflect on their learning to propose action in response to a challenge and identify the possible effects of their decision. They apply economics and business knowledge and skills to familiar problems. Students present ideas, findings, viewpoints and conclusions in a range of communication forms that incorporate source materials and economics and business terms.