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Rationale

In a world that is increasingly culturally diverse and dynamically interconnected, it is important that students come to understand their world, past and present, and develop a capacity to respond to challenges, now and in the future, in innovative, informed, personal and collective ways.

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Aims

The F–6/7 Australian Curriculum for Humanities and Social Sciences aims to ensure that students develop:

a sense of wonder, curiosity and respect about places, people, cultures and systems throughout the world, past and present, and an interest in and enjoyment of the study of these phenomena

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Structure

The Australian Curriculum: Humanities and Social Sciences may be implemented as a combined F–6 program or as an F–7 program. The F–6/7 curriculum is organised into two interrelated strands: knowledge and understanding and inquiry and skills.

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PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Humanities and Social Sciences F-6/7 are available as PDF documents.
F-6/7 HASS - Combined Sequence of Content
F-6/7 HASS - Combined Sequence of Achievement

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Glossary

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Year 6

Year 6 Level Description

Australia in the past and present and its connections with a diverse world

The Year 6 curriculum focuses on the social, economic and political development of Australia as a nation, particularly after 1900, and Australia’s role within a diverse and interconnected world today. Students explore the events and developments that shaped Australia as a democratic nation and stable economy, and the experiences of the diverse groups who have contributed to and are/were affected by these events and developments, past and present. Students investigate the importance of rights and responsibilities and informed decision-making, at the personal level of consumption and civic participation, and at the national level through studies of economic, ecological and government processes and systems. In particular, students examine Asia’s natural, demographic and cultural diversity, with opportunities to understand their connections to Asian environments. These studies enable students to understand how they are interconnected with diverse people and places across the globe.

The content provides opportunities for students to develop humanities and social sciences understanding through key concepts including significance; continuity and change; cause and effect; place and space; interconnections; roles, rights and responsibilities; and perspectives and action. These concepts may provide a focus for inquiries and be investigated across sub-strands or within a particular sub-strand context.

The content at this year level is organised into two strands: knowledge and understanding, and inquiry and skills. The knowledge and understanding strand draws from four sub-strands: history, geography, civics and citizenship and economics and business. These strands (knowledge and understanding, and inquiry and skills) are interrelated and have been developed to be taught in an integrated way, which may include integrating with content from the sub-strands and from other learning areas, and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.

Inquiry Questions

A framework for developing students’ knowledge, understanding and skills is provided by inquiry questions. The following inquiry questions allow for connections to be made across the sub-strands and may be used or adapted to suit local contexts: inquiry questions are also provided for each sub-strand that may enable connections within the humanities and social sciences learning area or across other learning areas.

  • How have key figures, events and values shaped Australian society, its system of government and citizenship?
  • How have experiences of democracy and citizenship differed between groups over time and place, including those from and in Asia?
  • How has Australia developed as a society with global connections, and what is my role as a global citizen?

Year 6 Content Descriptions

Questioning

Develop appropriate questions to guide an inquiry about people, events, developments, places, systems and challenges (ACHASSI122 - Scootle )
  • generating appropriate questions before, during and after an investigation to frame and guide the stages of the inquiry
  • developing different types of research questions for different purposes (for example, probing questions to seek details, open-ended questions to elicit more ideas, practical questions to guide the application of enterprising behaviours, ethical questions regarding sensitivities and cultural protocols)
  • mind-mapping a concept to create research questions that reveal connections between economic, political, and/or environmental systems (for example, ‘How does shipping connect Asia and Australia?’, ‘What is ship ballast?’, ‘How does ballast water in modern ships affect local waters?’, ‘Where in Australia has ballast water been an issue?’, ‘What are the economic and environmental impacts of ballast water?’, ‘What is Australia’s role in managing world ballast water regulation?’)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    • Sustainability
  • developing questions to guide the identification and location of useful sources for an inquiry or an enterprise project

Researching

Locate and collect relevant information and data from primary sources and secondary sources (ACHASSI123 - Scootle )
  • determining the most appropriate methods to find information (for example, personal observation, internet searches, primary and secondary sources) including using excursions and field trips (for example, a study trip to a wetlands, a visit to a war memorial, a cultural site, an Asian food festival, a courthouse, a town hall, a not-for-profit enterprise, a bank)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • using a range of methods, including digital technologies, to gather relevant historical, geographical, social, economic and business data and information (for example, through online sources such as census data and databases, and/or interviews and surveys)
  • identifying key words to search for relevant information when using search tools, such as internet search engines and library catalogues and indexes and recognising that internet domain names ‘com’, ‘edu’, ‘gov’ are indicators of the provenance of a source
  • applying ethical research methods when conducting inquiries with people and communities, including using accepted protocols for consultation with local Aboriginal/Torres Strait Islander communities, and conforming with respectful behaviours in sacred or significant sites
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • exchanging geographical information from schools in countries of the Asia region
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
Organise and represent data in a range of formats including tables, graphs and large- and small-scale maps, using discipline-appropriate conventions (ACHASSI124 - Scootle )
  • categorising information using digital and non-digital graphic organisers (for example, flowcharts, consequence wheels, futures timelines, mapping software, decision-making matrixes, digital scattergrams, spreadsheets, and bibliography templates)
  • constructing tables and graphs with digital applications as appropriate to display or categorise data and information for analysis (for example, a table to show the similarities and differences in official languages and religions across a number of countries)
  • creating maps using spatial technologies and cartographic conventions as appropriate (including border, source, scale, legend, title and north point) to show information and data, including location (for example, a large-scale map to show the location of places and their features in Australia and countries of Asia; a flow map or small-scale map to show the connections Australia has with Asian countries such as shipping or migration)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • explaining spatial representations (for example, describing how the representation of the spherical globe on flat paper produces distortions in maps)
Sequence information about people’s lives, events, developments and phenomena using a variety of methods including timelines (ACHASSI125 - Scootle )
  • locating key events, ideas, movements and lives in a chronological sequence on timelines and flowcharts
  • developing flowcharts to show steps in a sequence (for example, the flow of goods and services, the passage of a bill through parliament)
  • selecting, recording and prioritising the key points made in relation to historical, geographical, civic and economic studies when interviewing people (for example, community or family members who migrated to Australia, war veterans, former refugees, members of parliament, leaders of community organisations, business operators, the experiences of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, workers of diverse occupations in an industry)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures

Analysing

Examine primary sources and secondary sources to determine their origin and purpose (ACHASSI126 - Scootle )
  • identifying and distinguishing fact and opinion in information and identifying stereotypes and over-generalisations (for example, over-generalisations about the role of women, the contribution of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, the work of politicians, the beliefs of religious groups)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • proposing reasons why stereotypes and over-generalisations are evident in sources and media of the past and discussing whether the underlying attitudes and values have changed or might have changed over time
  • checking the publishing details of a text to help clarify the publication’s purpose, to identify potential bias in the content and assess its relevance, and to put information presented in an historical or geographical context
  • analysing sources to identify persuasive techniques such as modality (for example, ‘would’, ‘could’, ‘may’, ‘might’) and the use of the passive voice (for example, ‘it is claimed that …’) rather than the active voice (‘The government claims that ...’), and considering reasons for these choices
Examine different viewpoints on actions, events, issues and phenomena in the past and present (ACHASSI127 - Scootle )
  • surveying businesses in the local area to find out what influences their choices concerning the way they provide goods and services
  • analysing where points of view differ about global issues and exploring the reasons for different perspectives (for example, reasons for varying views on issues such as climate change, coal seam mining, or aid to a country of the Asia region; different world views of environmentalists)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    • Sustainability
  • discussing issues where there are, or were, a range of views and proposing reasons for different perspectives (for example, different opinions about the deportation of South Sea Islanders from 1901, the vote for women, how to manage an environment more sustainably)
    • Sustainability
  • exploring historic sources to identify the views of a range of stakeholders affected by Federation and citizenship rights (for example, women, children, men without property, or South Sea Islanders)
  • critiquing points of view about a sustainability issue (for example, considering producers’ and consumers’ views on the sustainable use of resources)
    • Sustainability
Interpret data and information displayed in a range of formats to identify, describe and compare distributions, patterns and trends, and to infer relationships (ACHASSI128 - Scootle )
  • analysing sources to identify the causes and effects of past events, developments and achievements (for example, the causes and effects of the struggles for democratic rights such as the Wave Hill walk-off, the Wik decision; of technological advancements such as the advent of television, the internet and the bionic ear; of health policies)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • using graphic organisers, maps and concept maps to identify patterns (for example, patterns of settlement in regional agricultural areas), trends (for example, changes in Australian immigration statistics) and cause-effect relationships (for example, relationships between war and the movement of refugees, the correlation of low income and poor health, the effects of consumer decisions on the individual, the broader community and on environmental sustainability)
    • Sustainability
  • interpreting graphic representations and making inferences about patterns and/or distributions (for example, proposing the possible impacts of human activity from an analysis of food webs; reflecting on electoral representation after viewing a plan of the seats held in upper and lower houses of parliament)
    • Sustainability
  • comparing spatial and statistical distributions in thematic maps, choropleth maps and tables to identify patterns and relationships (for example, patterns in per capita income of countries from the Asia region; the increasing cultural diversity of present day Australia; relationships between human settlement and the changing environment)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    • Sustainability
  • identifying possible relationships by comparing places similar in one major characteristic but different in others (for example, by comparing places with similar climates but with different cultures as a means of identifying the relative influences of climate and culture)

Evaluating and reflecting

Evaluate evidence to draw conclusions (ACHASSI129 - Scootle )
  • evaluating and connecting information from various sources to defend a position (for example, the responsibilities associated with Australian citizenship, the right to build in a place, why a person is considered significant)
  • contemplating attitudes and actions of the past that now seem strange and unacceptable and imagining what aspects of current society may be viewed in this way in the future
  • proposing reasons why socially sustainable practices such as negotiation, arbitration and Reconciliation and cultural mediation resolve issues peacefully
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • drawing conclusions based on identified evidence (for example, using census data to construct arguments for and against migration; business council information to identify the ways different businesses provide goods and services to a community)
Work in groups to generate responses to issues and challenges (ACHASSI130 - Scootle )
  • planning a project, campaign or enterprise around an identified challenge with specification of the sequence of tasks and activities, responsibilities and deadlines
  • participating collaboratively on committees, in an enterprise or a simulated parliament taking responsibility for respectful interactions with others
  • applying enterprising behaviours (for example, taking on a leadership role in a project, working with others to make decisions)
  • brainstorming solutions to an issue that is significant to a group and using negotiation to reach consensus on a preferred approach to resolving the issue
Use criteria to make decisions and judgements and consider advantages and disadvantages of preferring one decision over others (ACHASSI131 - Scootle )
  • relating the decisions made by individuals and organisations to criteria used to evaluate options (for example, the criteria for Australian of the Year, for the award of the Order of Australia, for the selection of a school captain)
  • examining the trade-offs they might consider when developing criteria for evaluating choices (for example, considering the opportunity cost of choosing one leisure activity over another or considering the trade-offs involved when making a purchasing decision such as a phone)
  • applying economics and business knowledge and skills to everyday problems to identify advantages and disadvantages of a proposed response to the issue
  • determining a preferred option for action by identifying the advantages and disadvantages of different proposals, surveying people’s views and opinions, analysing the data, and debating and voting on alternatives
Reflect on learning to propose personal and/or collective action in response to an issue or challenge, and predict the probable effects (ACHASSI132 - Scootle )
  • reflecting on what they have learnt in relation to an issue and identifying problems that might be experienced when taking action to address the issue
  • collecting evidence to build a case for action that takes account of alternative views, minimises risks and mitigates any negative outcomes
  • suggesting a course of action on a global issue that is significant to them and describing how different groups could respond
  • reflecting on the civic activities that students can participate in and the benefits of active and informed citizenship, including the significance of understanding cultural diversity
  • identifying the possible effects of decisions that have been made about an economic or business issue
  • identfying intercultural experiences and how this may affect future cultural interactions

Communicating

Present ideas, findings, viewpoints and conclusions in a range of texts and modes that incorporate source materials, digital and non-digital representations and discipline-specific terms and conventions (ACHASSI133 - Scootle )
  • composing information and expository texts, supported by evidence, to describe conclusions from their economic, civic, historical and geographical inquiries
  • developing persuasive texts such as arguments for a debate, an essay or an opinion piece, citing sources to justify reasoning
  • creating narrative accounts and recounts (for example, a digital multimedia story that records migrant experiences) based on information identified from a range of sources and referring to real characters and events
  • describing the relative location of places and their features in Australia and in selected countries of the Asia region, when investigating and making connections
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • selecting and applying appropriate media and strategies to suit and enhance their communication, including the use of graphs, tables, timelines, photographs and pictures, in digital and non-digital modes
  • using accurate and subject-appropriate terms, for example, historical terms (such as ‘nation’, ‘democracy’, ‘federation’, ‘empire’, ‘immigration’, ‘deportation’, ‘suffrage’, ‘enfranchisement’, ‘heritage’, ‘diversity’, ‘contribution’, ‘achievement’, ‘significance’, ‘development’, ‘rural’, ‘urban’, ‘bias’, ‘stereotype’, ‘perspective’), geographical terms (such as ‘relative location’, ‘scale’, ‘cultural diversity’, ‘inequality’, ‘interconnections’), civics and citizenship terms (such as ‘Westminster system’, ‘courts’, ‘monarchy’ and ‘three levels of government’) and economics and business terms (such as ‘opportunity cost’, ‘trade-offs’, ‘industry sectors’)

History

Concepts for developing understanding

The content in the history sub-strand provides opportunities for students to develop historical understanding through key concepts including sources, continuity and change, cause and effect, perspectives, empathy and significance. The Year 6 curriculum moves from colonial Australia to the development of Australia as a nation, particularly after 1900. Students explore the factors that led to Federation and the different attitudes to Federation and citizenship at the time (continuity and change, cause and effect, perspectives). Through studies of people’s experiences of democracy and citizenship over time (perspectives, empathy), students come to understand the significance of events, ideas and people’s contributions in influencing development of Australia’s system of government (continuity and change, significance). Students learn about the way of life of people who migrated to Australia since Federation and their contributions to Australia’s economic and social development (significance, empathy). In learning about Australia as a nation, students compare a range of sources to determine points of view (sources, perspectives).

Inquiry Questions

  • Why and how did Australia become a nation?
  • How did Australian society change throughout the twentieth century?
  • Who were the people who came to Australia? Why did they come?
  • What contribution have significant individuals and groups made to the development of Australian society?
Key figures, events and ideas that led to Australia’s Federation and Constitution (ACHASSK134 - Scootle )
  • studying Australia’s path to Federation through an examination of key people (for example, Henry Parkes, Edmund Barton, George Reid, John Quick) and events (for example, the Tenterfield Oration, the Corowa Conference, the referendums held in the colonies between 1898 and 1900)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • comparing the model of Australian federalism with the original model of the United States of America to identify the US influence on Australia’s system of government
  • identifying key elements of Australia’s system of law and government and their origins (for example, the Magna Carta; federalism; constitutional monarchy; the Westminster system and the separation of powers – legislature, executive, judiciary; the houses of parliament; how laws are made)
Experiences of Australian democracy and citizenship, including the status and rights of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, migrants, women and children (ACHASSK135 - Scootle )
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • investigating the lack of citizenship rights for Aboriginal Peoples and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in Australia, illustrated by controls on movement and residence, the forcible removal of children from their families leading to the Stolen Generations, and poor pay and working conditions
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • describing the significance of the 1962 right to vote federally and the 1967 referendum
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • investigating the stories of individuals or groups who advocated or fought for rights in twentieth-century Australia (for example, Jack Patten or the Aborigines Progressive Association)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • investigating the experiences of democracy and citizenship of women (for example, the suffragette movement, the bar on married women working, equal pay, the Sex Discrimination Act 1984)
  • investigating the experiences of democracy and citizenship of migrant groups (for example, White Australia Policy, internment camps during World War II, assimilation policies, anti-discrimination legislation, multiculturalism, Reconciliation, mandatory detention, pay and working conditions)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • investigating the experiences of democracy and citizenship of children who were placed in orphanages, homes and other institutions (for example, their food and shelter, protection, education and contacts with family)
Stories of groups of people who migrated to Australia since Federation (including from ONE country of the Asia region) and reasons they migrated (ACHASSK136 - Scootle )
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • comparing push and pull factors that have contributed to people migrating to Australia (for example, economic migrants and political refugees) from a range of places
  • exploring individual narratives using primary sources (for example, letters, documents and historical objects), interviewing and recording an oral history, and presenting the journey and circumstances of arrival based on the sources (for example, through drama)
  • describing cultural practices related to family life, beliefs and customs of newly arrived migrant groups and comparing these with those of the communities in which they settled within Australia
  • connecting stories of migration to students’ own family histories (where appropriate)
The contribution of individuals and groups to the development of Australian society since Federation (ACHASSK137 - Scootle )
  • examining population data that show the places of birth of Australia’s people at one or more points of time in the past and today
  • investigating the role of specific cultural groups in Australia’s economic and social development (for example, the cattle industry, the Snowy Mountains Scheme, the pearling industry)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • considering notable individuals in Australian public life across a range of fields (for example, the arts, science, sport, education), including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, a range of cultural and social groups, and women and men drawn from the National Living Treasures list, the Australian Dictionary of Biography or the Australian Honours lists)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • considering the contribution of groups and organisations in the development of Australia in the twentieth century (for example, the CSIRO, environmental action groups, farming cooperatives)
    • Sustainability

Geography

Concepts for developing understanding

The content in the geography sub-strand provides opportunities to develop students’ understanding of place, space, environment, interconnection and change. Students explore the diverse environments, peoples and cultures within the Asia region and at a global level (space, place, environment) and expand their mental map of the world. Students examine Australia’s various connections with other countries and places throughout the world, how these are changing, and the effects of these interconnections (interconnections, change).

Inquiry Questions

  • How do places, people and cultures differ across the world?
  • What are Australia’s global connections between people and places?
  • How do people’s connections to places affect their perception of them?
The geographical diversity of the Asia region and the location of its major countries in relation to Australia (ACHASSK138 - Scootle )
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • using geographical tools (for example, a globe wall map or digital application such as Google Earth) to identify the geographical division of Asia into North-East, South-East, South Asia and West Asia (the Middle East)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • exploring the diversity of environments and types of settlement in the Asia region, or in part of the region, or in a country in either North-East, South-East or South Asia and discussing any patterns
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • investigating the differences in the population size, density, life expectancy and per capita income between countries across the world
  • describing the location of places in countries of the Asia region in absolute terms using latitude and longitude
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
Differences in the economic, demographic and social characteristics of countries across the world (ACHASSK139 - Scootle )
  • researching the population size and density of a selection of countries around the world
  • investigating the relationship between per capita income, health (as measured by life expectancy) and energy consumption in a selection of countries around the world, including at least one country from the Asia region
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • comparing people’s lives in places with different levels of income
The world’s cultural diversity, including that of its indigenous peoples (ACHASSK140 - Scootle )
  • identifying examples of indigenous peoples who live in different regions in the world (for example, the Maori of Aotearoa New Zealand, the First Nations of North America and the Orang Asli of Malaysia and Indonesia), appreciating their similarities and differences, and exploring the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • investigating sustainability of the environments in which many indigenous peoples have lived sustainably over time
    • Sustainability
  • investigating the similarities and differences in official languages, religions and spiritual traditions between Australia and selected countries of the Asia region and other parts of the world
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • researching the proportion of the Australian population and of the population from their local area who were born in each world cultural region, using data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics and then comparing aspects of selected cultures
Australia’s connections with other countries and how these change people and places (ACHASSK141 - Scootle )
  • researching connections between Australia and countries in the Asia and Pacific regions (for example, in terms of migration, trade, tourism, aid, education, defence or cultural influences) and explaining the effects of at least one of these connections on their own place and another place in Australia
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • exploring the provision of Australian government or non-government aid to a country in the Asia and Pacific region or elsewhere in the world and analysing its effects on places in that country
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia

Civics and citizenship

Concepts for developing understanding

The content in the civics and citizenship sub-strand provides opportunities for students to develop understanding about government and democracy, laws and citizens and citizenship, diversity and identity. Students study the key institutions of Australia’s democratic government, including state/territory and federal parliaments, and the responsibilities of electors and representatives (government and democracy). Students learn how state/territory and federal laws are made in a parliamentary system (law). Students examine Australian citizenship and reflect on the rights and responsibilities that being a citizen entails (citizenship and identity), and explore the obligations that people may have as global citizens (citizenship, diversity and identity).

Inquiry Questions

  • What are the roles and responsibilities of the different levels of government in Australia?
  • How are laws developed in Australia?
  • What does it mean to be an Australian citizen?
The key institutions of Australia’s democratic system of government and how it is based on the Westminster system (ACHASSK143 - Scootle )
  • explaining the role of the monarchy and its representatives in Australia including the Governor-General, and the parliaments and courts in Australia’s system of government
  • recognising the importance of the Westminster system and the Magna Carta in influencing Australia’s parliamentary government
  • investigating sites virtually or in situ associated with key democratic institutions to explore their roles, such as Parliament House in Canberra
The roles and responsibilities of Australia’s three levels of government (ACHASSK144 - Scootle )
  • clarifying the roles and responsibilities of the three levels of government (local, state/territory and federal)
  • identifying issues where federal and state parliaments both have the power to make laws; recognising that federal law will override the state law if federal and state laws conflict on these issues
  • identifying instances where there may be multiple levels of government involved (for example, in relation to the environment such as management of the Murray-Darling river system)
    • Sustainability
The responsibilities of electors and representatives in Australia’s democracy (ACHASSK145 - Scootle )
  • considering the responsibilities of electors (for example, enrolling to vote, being informed and voting responsibly)
  • identifying the characteristics that would make for a ‘good’ representative at the local, state/territory or national level
Where ideas for new laws can come from and how they become law (ACHASSK146 - Scootle )
  • investigating where ideas for new laws come from (for example, from party policy, perhaps announced during an election campaign; from suggestions by members and senators; from interest groups in the community)
  • exploring how bills are debated and scrutinised (for example, the role of parliamentary committees and the ability of citizens to make submissions to these committees)
  • identifying the role of the Executive in relation to the development of policies and the introduction of bills, including the role of Cabinet in approving the drafting of a bill and the role of the public service in drafting and implementing legislation
The shared values of Australian citizenship and the formal rights and responsibilities of Australian citizens (ACHASSK147 - Scootle )
  • investigating how people become Australian citizens
  • discussing the Australian citizenship pledge and comparing it to the former oath of allegiance to the monarch to explore notions of allegiance
  • clarifying the formal rights and responsibilities of Australian citizenship and comparing these to the rights and responsibilities of non-citizens
  • exploring how laws protect human rights (for example, gender, disability, race and age discrimination law)
  • exploring the experiences of people who have migrated to Australia and who have taken up Australian citizenship (for example, those of Asian heritage)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
The obligations citizens may consider they have beyond their own national borders as active and informed global citizens (ACHASSK148 - Scootle )
  • identifying the obligations people may consider they have as global citizens (for example, an awareness of human rights issues, concern for the environment and sustainability, being active and informed about global issues)
    • Sustainability
  • describing dual citizenship and its implications for identity and belonging
  • using a current global issue (for example, immigration across borders or clearing native forests to establish palm oil plantations) to discuss the concept of global citizenship
    • Sustainability

Economics and business

Concepts for developing understanding

The content in the economics and business sub-strand develops key ideas, with a focus on developing students’ understanding of opportunity cost and why decisions about the ways resources are allocated to meet needs and wants in their community involve trade-offs. The limited nature of resources means that businesses and consumers make choices (resource allocation and making choices). This involves consumers choosing what to purchase and businesses choosing the way they provide goods and services (consumer literacy, business environment). Students consider the effect of consumer and financial decisions on individuals, the community and the environment (consumer and financial literacy). The emphasis is on community or regional issues, with opportunities for concepts to also be considered in national, regional or global contexts where appropriate.

Inquiry Questions

  • Why are there trade-offs associated with making decisions?
  • What are the possible effects of my consumer and financial choices?
  • Why do businesses exist and what are the different ways they provide goods and services?
How the concept of opportunity cost involves choices about the alternative use of resources and the need to consider trade-offs (ACHASSK149 - Scootle )
  • explaining why when one choice is made, the next best alternative is not available (trade-off) (for example, if a student chooses to spend their time (resource) riding their bike after school, they cannot go for a swim (trade-off))
  • explaining why choices have to be made when faced with unlimited wants and limited resources (for example, by compiling a list of personal needs and wants, determining priorities (including sustainability of natural environments) and identifying the needs and wants that can be satisfied with the resources available)
    • Sustainability
  • exploring some national needs and wants in Australia and an Asian country (for example, access to water, education, health care) and comparing resource limitations and decisions
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
The effect that consumer and financial decisions can have on the individual, the broader community and the environment (ACHASSK150 - Scootle )
  • exploring how a decision to buy an item affects the family (for example, ‘Did the family have to put off buying another item to have this one?’)
  • investigating whether buying at the local supermarket helps the local community
  • considering if their actions have an effect on the environment (for example, does choosing to use recyclable shopping bags have an effect on the natural environment?)
    • Sustainability
  • investigating questions (for example, ‘Does what my family buys in the supermarket affect what businesses might sell or produce?’)
The reasons businesses exist and the different ways they provide goods and services (ACHASSK151 - Scootle )
  • identifying why businesses exist (for example, to produce goods and services, to make a profit, to provide employment) and investigating the different ways that goods and services are provided to people such as through shopping centres, local markets, online, small independent stores, remote community stores
  • explaining the difference between not-for-profit and for-profit businesses
  • distinguishing between businesses in the primary, secondary and tertiary industry sectors and discussing what they produce or provide (such as agriculture and mining; textiles and food; and information, tourism and telecommunications)

Year 6 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 6, students explain the significance of an event/development, an individual and/or group. They identify and describe continuities and changes for different groups in the past and present. They describe the causes and effects of change on society. They compare the experiences of different people in the past. Students describe, compare and explain the diverse characteristics of different places in different locations from local to global scales. They describe how people, places, communities and environments are diverse and globally interconnected and identify the effects of these interconnections over time. Students explain the importance of people, institutions and processes to Australia’s democracy and legal system. They describe the rights and responsibilities of Australian citizens and the obligations they may have as global citizens. Students recognise why choices about the allocation of resources involve trade-offs. They explain why it is important to be informed when making consumer and financial decisions. They identify the purpose of business and recognise the different ways that businesses choose to provide goods and services. They explain different views on how to respond to an issue or challenge.

Students develop appropriate questions to frame an investigation. They locate and collect useful data and information from primary and secondary sources. They examine sources to determine their origin and purpose and to identify different perspectives in the past and present. They interpret data to identify, describe and compare distributions, patterns and trends, and to infer relationships, and evaluate evidence to draw conclusions. Students sequence information about events, the lives of individuals and selected phenomena in chronological order and represent time by creating timelines. They organise and represent data in a range of formats, including large- and small-scale maps, using appropriate conventions. They collaboratively generate alternative responses to an issue, use criteria to make decisions and identify the advantages and disadvantages of preferring one decision over others. They reflect on their learning to propose action in response to an issue or challenge and describe the probable effects of their proposal. They present ideas, findings, viewpoints and conclusions in a range of communication forms that incorporate source materials, mapping, graphing, communication conventions and discipline-specific terms.

By the end of Year 6 students explain the significance of an event/development, an individual or group. They identify and describe continuities and changes for different groups in the past. They describe the causes and effects of change on society. They compare the experiences of different people in the past.

Students sequence information about events and the lives of individuals in chronological order and represent time by creating timelines. When researching, students develop appropriate questions to frame a historical inquiry. They identify a range of primary and secondary sources and locate, collect, organise and categorise relevant information to answer inquiry questions. They analyse information or sources for evidence to determine their origin and purpose and to identify different perspectives. Students develop texts, particularly narrative recounts and descriptions. In developing these texts and organising and presenting their information, they use historical terms and concepts, and incorporate relevant sources.

By the end of Year 6, students describe the location of places in selected countries in absolute and relative terms. They describe and explain the diverse characteristics of places in different locations from local to global scales. They describe the interconnections between people in different places, identify factors that influence these interconnections and describe how interconnections change places and affect people. They identify and compare different possible responses to a geographical challenge.

Students develop appropriate geographical questions to frame an inquiry. They locate, collect and organise useful data and information from primary and secondary sources. They record and represent data and the location of places and their characteristics in different graphic forms, including large-scale and small-scale maps that use cartographic conventions of border, source, scale, legend, title and north point. Students interpret maps, data and other information to identify, describe and compare spatial distributions, patterns and trends, to infer relationships and to draw conclusions. They present findings and ideas using geographical terminology and digital technologies in a range of communication forms. They propose action in response to a geographical challenge and describe the probable effects of their proposal.

By the end of Year 6, students explain the role and importance of people, institutions, and processes to Australia’s democracy and legal system. They describe the rights and responsibilities of Australian citizens and the obligations they may have as global citizens.

Students develop appropriate questions to frame an investigation about the society in which they live. They locate, collect and organise useful information from a range of different sources to answer these questions. They examine sources to determine their origin and purpose and describe different perspectives. They evaluate information to draw conclusions. When planning for action, they identify different points of view and solutions to an issue. They reflect on their learning to identify the ways they can participate as citizens in the school or elsewhere. They present ideas, findings, viewpoints and conclusions in a range of communication forms that incorporate source materials and civics and citizenship terms and concepts.

By the end of Year 6, students recognise why choices about the allocation of resources involve trade-offs. They explain why it is important to be informed when making consumer and financial decisions. They identify the purpose of business and recognise the different ways that businesses choose to provide goods and services.

Students develop appropriate questions to frame an investigation about an economics or business issue, challenge or event. They locate and collect useful data and information from primary and secondary sources. They examine sources to determine their origin and purpose and evaluate evidence to draw conclusions. They interpret, organise and represent data in a range of formats using appropriate conventions. They generate alternative responses to an issue or challenge and identify the advantages and disadvantages of preferring one decision over others. They reflect on their learning to propose action in response to a challenge and identify the possible effects of their decision. They apply economics and business knowledge and skills to familiar problems. Students present ideas, findings, viewpoints and conclusions in a range of communication forms that incorporate source materials and economics and business terms.