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Rationale

In a world that is increasingly culturally diverse and dynamically interconnected, it is important that students come to understand their world, past and present, and develop a capacity to respond to challenges, now and in the future, in innovative, informed, personal and collective ways.

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Aims

The F–6/7 Australian Curriculum for Humanities and Social Sciences aims to ensure that students develop:

a sense of wonder, curiosity and respect about places, people, cultures and systems throughout the world, past and present, and an interest in and enjoyment of the study of these phenomena

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Structure

The Australian Curriculum: Humanities and Social Sciences may be implemented as a combined F–6 program or as an F–7 program. The F–6/7 curriculum is organised into two interrelated strands: knowledge and understanding and inquiry and skills.

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PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Humanities and Social Sciences F-6/7 are available as PDF documents.
F-6/7 HASS - Combined Sequence of Content
F-6/7 HASS - Combined Sequence of Achievement

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Glossary

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Year 5

Year 5 Level Description

Australian communities – their past, present and possible futures

The Year 5 curriculum focuses on colonial Australia in the 1800s and the social, economic, political and environmental causes and effects of Australia’s development, and on the relationship between humans and their environment. Students’ geographical knowledge of Australia and the the world is expanded as they explore the continents of Europe and North America, and study Australia’s colonisation, migration and democracy in the 1800s. Students investigate how the characteristics of environments are influenced by humans in different times and places, as they seek resources, settle in new places and manage the spaces within them. They also investigate how environments influence the characteristics of places where humans live and human activity in those places. Students explore how communities, past and present, have worked together based on shared beliefs and values. The curriculum introduces studies about Australia’s democratic values, its electoral system and law enforcement. In studying human desire and need for resources, students make connections to economics and business concepts around decisions and choices, gaining opportunities to consider their own and others’ financial, economic, environmental and social responsibilities and decision-making, past, present and future.

The content provides opportunities for students to develop humanities and social sciences understanding through key concepts including significance; continuity and change; cause and effect; place and space; interconnections; roles, rights and responsibilities; and perspectives and action. These concepts may provide a focus for inquiries and be investigated across sub-strands or within a particular sub-strand context.

The content at this year level is organised into two strands: knowledge and understanding, and inquiry and skills. The knowledge and understanding strand draws from four sub-strands: history, geography, civics and citizenship and economics and business. These strands (knowledge and understanding, and inquiry and skills) are interrelated and have been developed to be taught in an integrated way, which may include integrating with content from the sub-strands and from other learning areas, and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.

Inquiry Questions

A framework for developing students’ knowledge, understanding and skills is provided by inquiry questions. The following inquiry questions allow for connections to be made across the sub-strands and may be used or adapted to suit local contexts: inquiry questions are also provided for each sub-strand that may enable connections within the humanities and social sciences learning area or across other learning areas.

  • How have individuals and groups in the past and present contributed to the development of Australia?
  • What is the relationship between environments and my roles as a consumer and citizen?
  • How have people enacted their values and perceptions about their community, other people and places, past and present?

Year 5 Content Descriptions

Questioning

Develop appropriate questions to guide an inquiry about people, events, developments, places, systems and challenges (ACHASSI094 - Scootle )
  • asking questions before, during and after an investigation to frame and guide the stages of an inquiry
  • developing different types of questions for different purposes (for example, probing questions to seek details, open-ended questions to elicit more ideas, practical questions to guide the application of enterprising behaviours)
  • developing questions to guide the identification and location of useful sources for an investigation or project (for example, ‘Is this source useful?’, ‘Who can help us do this project?’, ‘What rules/protocols must we follow when we do this inquiry/project?’, ‘What resources do we need to conduct this project?’)

Researching

Locate and collect relevant information and data from primary sources and secondary sources (ACHASSI095 - Scootle )
  • finding information about the past in primary sources (for example, maps, stories, songs, music, dance, diaries, official documents, artworks, artefacts, remains of past industry, newspapers of the day, advertisements, rule lists, interview transcripts)
  • finding geographical information in primary sources (such as fieldwork and photographs) and secondary sources (such as maps, plans and reports in digital and non-digital form)
  • using geographical tools (for example, a globe, wall map or digital application such as Google Earth) to collect information (for example, to identify the environmental characteristics of the major countries of Europe and North America)
  • conducting surveys to gather primary data and summarising the key points or particular points of view relating to an issue (for example, interviewing recipients of awards such as Order of Australia medals; surveying the views of conflicting parties in a planning or environmental dispute)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    • Sustainability
  • finding data and information that supports decision-making processes when investigating an economics or business issue including online, observation and print sources (for example, interviews, surveys, case studies)
  • finding out how to conduct ethical research with people and communities, including the protocols for consultation with local Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, behaviours in sacred or significant sites, and considering sensitivities of people
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
Organise and represent data in a range of formats including tables, graphs and large- and small-scale maps, using discipline-appropriate conventions (ACHASSI096 - Scootle )
  • categorising information using digital and non-digital graphic organisers (for example, flowcharts, consequence wheels, futures timelines, Venn diagrams, scattergrams, decision-making matrixes and bibliography templates)
  • constructing maps, tables and graphs using appropriate digital applications and conventions (such as border, source, scale, legend, title and north point) to display data and information (for example, information about the movement of peoples over time in colonial Australia; the different climates of Europe and North America; population growth of Australian colonies; cultural and religious groups in Australia at different times; influences on consumer purchasing decisions)
  • deciding which recording methods and tools (for example, graphs, tables, field sketches, questionnaires, scattergrams, audio-recorders, video recorders, cameras, water or air quality testing kits, binoculars, clinometers, calculators) suit the data or information to be collected
  • mapping geographical data using spatial technologies (for example, the location of recent bushfires in Australia, or information they have collected through fieldwork)
Sequence information about people’s lives, events, developments and phenomena using a variety of methods including timelines (ACHASSI097 - Scootle )
  • compiling an annotated timeline to show the key stages of a development (for example, significant events in the development of their community, their region or state)
  • creating flowcharts that show the stages of a process (for example, steps in an electoral process such as a class vote or a local council election; the sequence of safety procedures that can be used to mitigate the effects of bushfire or flood, the sequence of actions in a recycling system)
    • Sustainability

Analysing

Examine primary sources and secondary sources to determine their origin and purpose (ACHASSI098 - Scootle )
  • inferring the nature, purpose and origin of artefacts to determine if they have evidence to offer an investigation of a time, place or process
  • identifying stereotypes and over-generalisations relating to age, gender, ethnicity, ability, religion and/or politics presented in sources and media of the past (for example, a newspaper caricature of a colonial era Chinese goldfield worker) and in sources and media of the present (for example, social media opinions about a mining development)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • identifying the purpose and usefulness of information gained from primary and secondary sources (for example, checking publication details)
  • analysing texts relating to a school, club or government election (for example, speeches, advertisements, campaign materials, symbols, how to vote cards, result records) to determine who created them and their purpose
Examine different viewpoints on actions, events, issues and phenomena in the past and present (ACHASSI099 - Scootle )
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • analysing sources to identify and understand the different motives and experiences of individuals and groups involved in past or present events and issues (for example, the reasons people migrated to colonial Australia and their diverse experiences; the struggle for rights by emancipated convicts; the way migrants or refugees have been managed over time and their experiences; the motives of whalers and anti-whaling activists)
    • Sustainability
  • comparing sources of evidence to identify similarities and/or differences in accounts of the past (for example, comparing colonial descriptions of Burke and Wills’ achievements with those that have been recently published with Aboriginal perspectives; different representations of Ned Kelly in past and present publications)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • analysing photographs to identify inferred messages (for example, how workers on a colonial banana plantation are positioned, dressed, posed and/or are absent, to reflect the status of different groups such as English managers, Chinese, Aboriginal and South Sea Islander workers, women and children)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • exploring, through a facilitated role-play or a simulation game, the way different people experienced the same event (for example, the differing experiences and feelings of miners, Chinese workers, women, children, leaders and Aboriginal occupants during the Eureka Stockade; personal intercultural experiences; or people’s differing perceptions of election speeches made by opposing candidates)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
Interpret data and information displayed in a range of formats to identify, describe and compare distributions, patterns and trends, and to infer relationships (ACHASSI100 - Scootle )
  • interpreting data presented in a line, bar, column or pie graph (for example, data about bushfires or floods, election results, common influences on the purchases of class members) to identify the likelihood of an outcome or the probability of an event reoccurring
  • analysing visual and written sources to infer relationships (for example, examining photographs to see how people responded to droughts in enterprising ways; interpreting maps of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander trade routes to propose how ideas, technology and artefacts travelled across them; analysing a food web to reveal how plants, animals, water, air and people are connected)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    • Sustainability
  • making inferences using sources, such as graphs and thematic maps, that show distribution (for example, the number of electors in some state or federal electorates to discuss representation; the distribution of primary resource industries in Australia and their proximity to cities; the spread of the cane toad across Australia and its threat to environments)
    • Sustainability
  • interpreting graphs and tables of data collected from a survey to infer relationships or trends (for example, common influences on purchasing decisions of class members; the increase in social activism for social and environmental causes)
    • Sustainability
  • interpreting and creating maps such as flow and choropleth maps, or plans for specific purposes (for example, a bushfire management plan)

Evaluating and reflecting

Evaluate evidence to draw conclusions (ACHASSI101 - Scootle )
  • drawing conclusions about a community and/or the environment (for example, changing democratic values from past to present; patterns of human consumption and changes in environments)
    • Sustainability
  • analysing information to reveal trends and changes (for example, changes over time in who could vote; changing purchasing trends; the rise in the use of energy drawn from alternative sources; the increase in online activism for social and environmental causes)
    • Sustainability
  • exploring maps and sources showing Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander language groups and Countries/Places, to explain the diversity of their cultures
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • exploring past or present representations of people that differ from those commonly conveyed (for example, missing voices of minority groups such as youth, the unemployed, non-citizens, women, children, Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Peoples, migrants, South Sea Islanders)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • acknowledging ethical considerations of decisions they and others make or have made (for example, an election preference; reasons for purchasing an item; why laws are not followed by some people; the acceptance of children working in colonial times; stewardship of natural places)
    • Sustainability
  • explaining enterprising initiatives that address challenges (for example, colonial solutions to challenges of preserving food and accessing resources; sustainable use of materials for housing past and present)
    • Sustainability
  • forecasting probable futures for an issue (for example, how native fauna populations might change if n introduced species such as the cane toad, carp, feral cats or rabbits continues to increase in population) and proposing preferred futures that relate to the issue
    • Sustainability
Work in groups to generate responses to issues and challenges (ACHASSI102 - Scootle )
  • undertaking a project that responds to an identified challenge or issue with strategies to be used that will achieve desired outcomes (for example, bush fire readiness plan, a school fundraising activity, an ecological preservation project, a school-based opinion poll about a relevant issue)
    • Sustainability
  • using communication technologies to exchange information and to facilitate the development of a collaborative response
  • participating in a relevant democratic process (for example, in class votes, mock parliament, school decision-making processes such as student councils)
  • discussing the priorities and ethics evident in past decisions (for example, in clearing of native vegetation for farming, in stealing food to survive)
    • Sustainability
  • applying enterprising and collaborative behaviours in a group activity (for example, working with others to make decisions about the best way to compare prices of products)
Use criteria to make decisions and judgements and consider advantages and disadvantages of preferring one decision over others (ACHASSI103 - Scootle )
  • making judgements about how effectively challenges have been addressed in the past (for example, relative success of solutions to challenges during colonial settlement) or how effectively a current challenge is being addressed (for example, the solution to an environmental issue, or a strategy for economic development)
    • Sustainability
  • evaluating the possible options that people could take to resolve challenges (for example, improving water quality, ensuring fairness, managing excess waste, budgeting choices)
    • Sustainability
  • reflecting on choices in relation to personal criteria and expressing reasoning that influenced decision-making (for example, why they participate in a civic activity, what influenced their purchase of an item)
  • using agreed criteria as the basis for an assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of choices (for example, for determining which actions are most likely to be effective to restore a damaged environment)
    • Sustainability
  • applying economics and business criteria to everyday problems to identify a response to the issue
Reflect on learning to propose personal and/or collective action in response to an issue or challenge, and predict the probable effects (ACHASSI104 - Scootle )
  • reflect on primary and secondary sources used and how this may have influenced the validity of the conclusions of the inquiry (for example, sample size of survey, the date a secondary source was created and the views that prevailed at the time)
  • posing self-reflection questions to influence personal and collective action (for example, ‘What are the effects of my purchasing decisions?’, ‘Are needs and wants the same for everyone?’, ‘Why can’t all needs and wants be satisfied?’, ‘How can I contribute to a sustainable environment?’)
    • Sustainability
  • identifying the effects of decisions about economics and business and/or civics and citizenship issues
  • assessing possible options as actions that people could take to respond to a local issue they have investigated (for example, the redevelopment of a disused quarry in the local area)
    • Sustainability
  • analysing successful solutions to problems and considering if problem-solving approaches can be applied to challenges relevant to their personal or school context

Communicating

Present ideas, findings, viewpoints and conclusions in a range of texts and modes that incorporate source materials, digital and non-digital representations and discipline-specific terms and conventions (ACHASSI105 - Scootle )
  • selecting appropriate text types to convey findings, conclusions and understandings (for example, imaginative journals, narrative recounts, reports and arguments)
  • describing the relative location of places and their features in Australia and in selected countries of North America and Europe
  • selecting and applying appropriate media and strategies to suit their communication, including the use of graphs, tables, timelines, photographs and pictures, in digital and non-digital modes
  • using accurate and subject-appropriate terms (for example, historical terms such as ‘colonial’, ‘the gold era’, ‘migration’, ‘penal’; geographic terms such as ‘characteristics’, ‘environmental’, ‘human’, ‘ecosystems’, ‘sustainable’, ‘settlement’, ‘management‘; civics terms such as ‘electoral process’, ‘democracy’, ‘legal system’, ‘shared beliefs’; and economic terms such as ‘scarcity’, ‘choices’, ‘resources’, ‘businesses’, ‘consumers’, ‘needs and wants’, ‘goods and services’)
    • Sustainability

History

Concepts for developing understanding

The content in the history sub-strand provides opportunities for students to develop historical understanding through key concepts including sources, continuity and change, cause and effect, perspectives, empathy and significance. The curriculum in this year provides a study of colonial Australia in the 1800s. Students learn about the reasons for the founding of British colonies in Australia and the impact of a development or event on one Australian colony (continuity and change, cause and effect). They examine what life was like for different groups of people in the colonial period (sources), and explore the reasons for their actions (cause and effect, perspectives, empathy). They examine early migration, settlement patterns, people and their contributions, significant events, and political and economic developments (sources, continuity and change, significance, empathy). Students are also introduced to the concept of sources as they analyse sources to compare information and points of view in the past and present (sources, perspectives).

Inquiry Questions

  • What do we know about the lives of people in Australia’s colonial past and how do we know?
  • How did an Australian colony develop over time and why?
  • How did colonial settlement change the environment?
  • What were the significant events and who were the significant people that shaped Australian colonies?
Reasons (economic, political and social) for the establishment of British colonies in Australia after 1800 (ACHASSK106 - Scootle )
  • investigating the reasons for the establishment of one or more British colonies such as a penal colony (for example, Moreton Bay, Van Diemen’s Land) or a colony that later became a state (for example, Western Australia, Victoria)
The nature of convict or colonial presence, including the factors that influenced patterns of development, aspects of the daily life of the inhabitants (including Aboriginal Peoples and Torres Strait Islander Peoples) and how the environment changed (ACHASSK107 - Scootle )
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • investigating colonial life to discover what life was like at that time for different inhabitants (for example, a European family and an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander language group, a convict and a free settler, a sugar cane farmer and an indentured labourer) in terms of clothing, diet, leisure, paid and unpaid work, shopping or trade, language, housing and children’s lives
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • mapping local, regional and state/territory rural and urban settlement patterns in the 1800s, and noting factors such as geographical features, climate, water resources, the discovery of gold, transport and access to port facilities that shaped these patterns
  • discussing challenges experienced by people in the colonial era and the enterprising or sustainable responses made to these challenges (wind energy, food preservation, communication, accessing water)
    • Sustainability
  • exploring how the colony was governed and how life changed when Governor Macquarie established the rule of law
  • investigating the impact of settlement on the local environment and its ecosystems (for example, comparing the present and past landscape and the flora and fauna of the local community)
    • Sustainability
The impact of a significant development or event on an Australian colony (ACHASSK108 - Scootle )
  • investigating an event or development and explaining its economic, social and political impact on a colony (for example, the consequences of frontier conflict events such as the Myall Creek Massacre, the Pinjarra Massacre; the impact of South Sea Islanders on sugar farming and the timber industry; the impact of the Eureka Stockade on the development of democracy; the impact of internal exploration and the advent of rail on the expansion of farming)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • creating ‘what if’ scenarios by constructing different outcomes for a key event (for example, ‘What if Peter Lalor had encouraged gold miners to pay rather than resist licence fees?’)
The reasons people migrated to Australia and the experiences and contributions of a particular migrant group within a colony (ACHASSK109 - Scootle )
  • identifying the reasons why people migrated to Australia in the 1800s (for example, as convicts; assisted passengers; indentured labourers; people seeking a better life such as gold miners; and those dislocated by events such as the Industrial Revolution, the Irish Potato Famine and the Highland Clearances)
  • investigating the experiences and contributions of a particular migrant group within a colony (for example, Germans in South Australia, Japanese in Broome, Afghan cameleers in the Northern Territory, Chinese at Palmer River, Pacific Islanders in the Torres Strait)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • connecting (where appropriate) stories of migration to students’ own family histories
The role that a significant individual or group played in shaping a colony (ACHASSK110 - Scootle )
  • investigating the contribution or significance of an individual or group to the shaping of a colony in the 1800s (for example, explorers, farmers, pastoralists, miners, inventors, writers, artists, humanitarians, religious and spiritual leaders, political activists, including women, children, and people of diverse cultures)
  • exploring the motivations and actions of an individual or group that shaped a colony

Geography

Concepts for developing understanding

The content in the geography sub-strand provides opportunities to develop students’ understanding of place, space, environment, interconnection, change and sustainability. The curriculum focuses on the factors that shape the characteristics of places. They explore how climate and landforms influence the human characteristics of places, and how human actions influence the environmental characteristics of places (change, environment, place, interconnection). Students examine the way spaces within places are organised and managed (space, place), and how people work to prevent, mitigate and prepare for natural hazards (environment, place). Students’ mental map of the world expands to Europe and North America and their main countries and characteristics (space, place, environment).

Inquiry Questions

  • How do people and environments influence one another?
  • How do people influence the human characteristics of places and the management of spaces within them?
  • How can the impact of bushfires or floods on people and places be reduced?
The influence of people on the environmental characteristics of places in Europe and North America and the location of their major countries in relation to Australia (ACHASSK111 - Scootle )
  • using geographical tools (for example, a globe, wall map or digital application such as Google Earth) to identify the relative location of the major countries of Europe and North America and their environmental characteristics
  • using a printed or electronic atlas to identify the main characteristics of continents of Europe and North America
  • researching the changes made by people to a particular environment in a country in Europe and a country in North America
The influence of people, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, on the environmental characteristics of Australian places (ACHASSK112 - Scootle )
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • Sustainability
  • identifying how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities altered the environment and sustained ways of living through their methods of land and resource management
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    • Sustainability
  • exploring the extent of change in the local environment over time (for example, through vegetation clearance, fencing, urban development, drainage, irrigation, farming, forest plantations or mining), and evaluating the positive and negative effects of change on environmental sustainability
    • Sustainability
The environmental and human influences on the location and characteristics of a place and the management of spaces within them (ACHASSK113 - Scootle )
  • comparing how people have responded to climatic conditions in similar and different places and explaining why most Australians live close to the coast compared to inland Australia
  • investigating the influence of landforms (for example, river valleys such as the Murray-Darling, Yellow (Huang He), Yangtze, Amazon, Mekong or Ganges), on the development of settlements that are involved in food and fibre production
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • examining the effects of landforms (for example, valleys, hills, natural harbours and rivers) on the location and characteristics of their place and other places they know
  • exploring the extent of change in the local environment over time and the impact of change on ecosystems
    • Sustainability
  • exploring how a unique environment is used and managed (for example, settlement and human use of Antarctica and the practices and laws that aim to manage human impact)
    • Sustainability
  • examining how the use of the space within their local place is organised through zoning
  • investigating a current local planning issue (for example, redevelopment of a site, protection of a unique species), exploring why people have different views on the issue, and developing a class response to it
    • Sustainability
The impact of bushfires or floods on environments and communities, and how people can respond (ACHASSK114 - Scootle )
  • mapping and explaining the location, frequency and severity of bushfires or flooding in Australia
  • explaining the impacts of fire on Australian vegetation and the significance of fire damage on communities
  • researching how the application of principles of prevention, mitigation and preparedness minimises the harmful effects of bushfires or flooding

Civics and citizenship

Concepts for developing understanding

The content in the civics and citizenship sub-strand provides opportunities for students to develop understanding about government and democracy, laws and citizens and citizenship, diversity and identity. Students are introduced to the key values of Australia’s liberal democratic system of government, such as freedom, equality, fairness and justice (government and democracy). Students begin to understand representative democracy by examining the features of the voting processes in Australia (government and democracy). Students expand on their knowledge of the law by studying the role of laws and law enforcement (laws and citizens). Students investigate how diverse groups cooperate and participate in our community (citizenship, diversity and identity).

Inquiry Questions

  • What is democracy in Australia and why is voting in a democracy important?
  • Why do we have laws and regulations?
  • How and why do people participate in groups to achieve shared goals?
The key values that underpin Australia’s democracy (ACHASSK115 - Scootle )
  • discussing the meaning of democracy
  • discussing the meaning and importance of the key values of Australian democracy (for example, freedom of election and being elected; freedom of assembly and political participation; freedom of speech, expression and religious belief; rule of law; other basic human rights)
  • considering how students apply democratic values in familiar contexts
The key features of the electoral process in Australia (ACHASSK116 - Scootle )
  • exploring the secret ballot and compulsory voting as key features of Australia’s democracy
  • recognising the role of the Australian Electoral Commission in administering elections that are open, free and fair
  • clarifying who has the right to vote and stand for election in Australia
Why regulations and laws are enforced and the personnel involved (ACHASSK117 - Scootle )
  • categorising the different types of laws and regulations in their community and who enforces them (road laws – police; health laws – public health department; pollution laws – environmental protection officer)
    • Sustainability
  • identifying and researching the role of different people associated with law enforcement (for example, quarantine and customs officials, police) and the legal system (for example, judges and lawyers)
    • Sustainability
How people with shared beliefs and values work together to achieve a civic goal (ACHASSK118 - Scootle )
  • discussing how and why people volunteer for groups in their community (for example, rural fire services, emergency services groups and youth groups)
  • using social media to share and discuss ideas about how people can work together as local, regional and global citizens(for example, as communities for a local environmental issue or project)
    • Sustainability
  • examining Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander organisations and the services they provide
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • discussing ways people resolve differences (for example, through negotiation and Reconciliation)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures

Economics and business

Concepts for developing understanding

The content in the economics and business sub-strand develops key ideas, with a focus on developing an understanding of why decisions need to be made when allocating resources (resource allocation) for society’s needs and wants, and the various factors that may influence them when making decisions (making choices). Methods that help with these decisions, particularly for consumer and financial decisions, are considered (consumer and financial literacy).

Inquiry Questions

  • Why do I have to make choices as a consumer?
  • What influences the decisions I make?
  • What can I do to make informed decisions?
The difference between needs and wants and why choices need to be made about how limited resources are used (ACHASSK119 - Scootle )
  • Sustainability
  • debating whether one person’s need is another person’s need or want
  • explaining the concept of scarcity (that is, needs and unlimited wants compared to limited resources) and why individuals cannot have all the items they want and therefore must make a choice
    • Sustainability
  • explaining reasons for differences in needs and wants for different groups
Types of resources (natural, human, capital) and the ways societies use them to satisfy the needs and wants of present and future generations (ACHASSK120 - Scootle )
  • categorising resources as natural (water, coal, wheat), human (workers, business owners, designing, making, thinking) and capital (tools, machines, technologies)
  • brainstorming resources that a local community might use
  • identifying and categorising the factors of production used in the production of goods and services that satisfy the needs and wants of a local community
  • listing the needs and wants of a local community and exploring the ways resources are currently used to meet these needs and wants and how resources might be used more sustainably to meet these needs and wants into the future
    • Sustainability
  • exploring how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples' traditional and contemporary use of resources reflects their spiritual connections to the land, sea, sky and waterways
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
Influences on consumer choices and methods that can be used to help make informed personal consumer and financial choices (ACHASSK121 - Scootle )
  • identifying goods they have purchased and categorising and explaining factors that influence consumer purchasing decisions (for example, personal preferences, social trends, economic factors such as budgets and the amount of money available to spend; psychological factors such as advertising and peer pressure; cultural, environmental, legal and ethical factors)
    • Sustainability
  • comparing the influence of a variety of selling and advertising strategies used by businesses on consumer choices (for example, the influence of television and internet advertising compared to email promotions)
  • recognising that financial transactions can include the use of notes, coins, credit and debit cards, and barter items; explaining the advantages and disadvantages of the different transaction types; and considering how these may influence the way people purchase items
  • exploring the strategies that can be used when making consumer and financial decisions (for example, finding more information, comparing prices, keeping a record of money spent, saving for the future)

Year 5 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 5, students describe the significance of people and events/developments in bringing about change. They identify the causes and effects of change on particular communities and describe aspects of the past that have remained the same. They describe the experiences of different people in the past. Students explain the characteristics of places in different locations at local to national scales. They identify and describe the interconnections between people and the human and environmental characteristics of places, and between components of environments. They identify the effects of these interconnections on the characteristics of places and environments. Students identify the importance of values and processes to Australia’s democracy and describe the roles of different people in Australia’s legal system. They recognise that choices need to be made when allocating resources. They describe factors that influence their choices as consumers and identify strategies that can be used to inform these choices. They describe different views on how to respond to an issue or challenge.

Students develop questions for an investigation. They locate and collect data and information from a range of sources to answer inquiry questions. They examine sources to determine their purpose and to identify different viewpoints. They interpret data to identify and describe distributions, simple patterns and trends, and to infer relationships, and suggest conclusions based on evidence. Students sequence information about events, the lives of individuals and selected phenomena in chronological order using timelines. They sort, record and represent data in different formats, including large-scale and small-scale maps, using basic conventions. They work with others to generate alternative responses to an issue or challenge and reflect on their learning to independently propose action, describing the possible effects of their proposed action. They present their ideas, findings and conclusions in a range of communication forms using discipline-specific terms and appropriate conventions.

By the end of Year 5, students describe the significance of people and events/developments in bringing about change. They identify the causes and effects of change on particular communities and describe aspects of the past that have remained the same. They describe the experiences of different people in the past.

Students sequence information about events and the lives of individuals in chronological order using timelines. When researching, students develop questions for a historical inquiry. They identify a range of sources and locate, collect and organise information related to this inquiry. They analyse sources to determine their origin and purpose and to identify different viewpoints. Students develop, organise and present their texts, particularly narrative recounts and descriptions, using historical terms and concepts.

By the end of Year 5, students describe the location of selected countries in relative terms. They explain the characteristics of places in different locations at local to national scales. They identify and describe the interconnections between people and the human and environmental characteristics of places, and between components of environments. They identify the effects of these interconnections on the characteristics of places and environments. They identify and describe different possible responses to a geographical challenge.

Students develop appropriate geographical questions for an investigation. They locate, collect and organise data and information from a range of sources to answer inquiry questions. They represent data and the location of places and their characteristics in graphic forms, including large-scale and small-scale maps that use the cartographic conventions of border, scale, legend, title and north point. They describe the location of places and their characteristics using compass direction and distance. Students interpret maps, geographical data and other information to identify and describe spatial distributions, simple patterns and trends, and suggest conclusions. They present findings and ideas using geographical terminology in a range of communication forms. They propose action in response to a geographical challenge and identify the possible effects of their proposed action.

By the end of Year 5, students identify the importance of values and processes to Australia’s democracy and describe the roles of different people in Australia’s legal system. They identify various ways people can participate effectively in groups to achieve shared goals and describe different views on how to respond to a current issue or challenge.

Students develop questions for an investigation about the society in which they live. They locate and collect information from different sources to answer these questions. They examine sources to determine their purpose and identify different viewpoints. They interpret information to suggest conclusions based on evidence. Students identify possible solutions to an issue as part of a plan for action and reflect on how they work together. They present their ideas, conclusions and viewpoints in a range of communication forms using civics and citizenship terms and concepts.

By the end of Year 5, students distinguish between needs and wants and recognise that choices need to be made when allocating resources. They describe factors that influence their choices as consumers. Students identify individual strategies that can be used to make informed consumer and financial choices.

Students develop questions for an investigation about an economics or business issue or event. They locate and collect data and information from a range of sources to answer these questions. They examine sources to determine their purpose and suggest conclusions based on evidence. They interpret, sort and represent data in different formats. They generate alternative responses to an issue or challenge and reflect on their learning to propose action, describing the possible effects of their decision. Students apply economics and business skills to everyday problems. They present their ideas, findings and conclusions in a range of communication forms using economics and business terms.