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Rationale

In a world that is increasingly culturally diverse and dynamically interconnected, it is important that students come to understand their world, past and present, and develop a capacity to respond to challenges, now and in the future, in innovative, informed, personal and collective ways.

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Aims

The F–6/7 Australian Curriculum for Humanities and Social Sciences aims to ensure that students develop:

a sense of wonder, curiosity and respect about places, people, cultures and systems throughout the world, past and present, and an interest in and enjoyment of the study of these phenomena

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Structure

The Australian Curriculum: Humanities and Social Sciences may be implemented as a combined F–6 program or as an F–7 program. The F–6/7 curriculum is organised into two interrelated strands: knowledge and understanding and inquiry and skills.

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PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Humanities and Social Sciences F-6/7 are available as PDF documents.
F-6/7 HASS - Combined Sequence of Content
F-6/7 HASS - Combined Sequence of Achievement

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Glossary

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Year 4

Year 4 Level Description

How people, places and environments interact, past and present

The Year 4 curriculum focuses on interactions between people, places and environments over time and space and the effects of these interactions. Students gain opportunities to expand their world knowledge and learn about the significance of environments, examining how people’s need and want of resources over time has affected peoples, societies and environments. Specifically, students study European exploration and colonisation in Australia and elsewhere up to the early 1800s and life for Indigenous Australians pre- and post-contact. They examine the concept of sustainability, and its application to resource use and waste management, past and present, by different groups. The curriculum introduces the role of local government, laws and rules, and group belonging and how they meet people’s needs. Themes of law and citizenship extend into their studies of diverse groups, the colonisation of Australia and other places, and how environmental sustainability is enacted.

The content provides opportunities for students to develop humanities and social sciences understanding through key concepts including significance; continuity and change; cause and effect; place and space; interconnections; roles, rights and responsibilities; and perspectives and action. These concepts may provide a focus for inquiries and be investigated across sub-strands or within a particular sub-strand context.

The content at this year level is organised into two strands: knowledge and understanding, and inquiry and skills. The knowledge and understanding strand draws from three sub-strands: history, geography and civics and citizenship. These strands (knowledge and understanding, and inquiry and skills) are interrelated and have been developed to be taught in an integrated way, which may include integrating with content from the sub-strands and from other learning areas, and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.

Inquiry Questions

A framework for developing students’ knowledge, understanding and skills is provided by inquiry questions. The following inquiry questions allow for connections to be made across the sub-strands and may be used or adapted to suit local contexts: inquiry questions are also provided for each sub-strand that may enable connections within the humanities and social sciences learning area or across other learning areas.

  • How have laws affected the lives of people, past and present?
  • What were the short- and long-term effects of European settlement on the local environment and Indigenous land and water management practices?
  • What is the significance of the environment and what are different views on how it can be used and sustained, past and present?

Year 4 Content Descriptions

Questioning

Pose questions to investigate people, events, places and issues (ACHASSI073 - Scootle )
  • asking questions before, during and after an investigation using tools such as a KWL chart (what they know, what they want to know and what they have learned) and five W’s + H (who, what, when, where, how and why)
  • developing ‘How do we know?’ questions for evidence, ‘What could be done?’ questions about alternatives, and ‘Is that right or fair?’ questions about decisions past and present
  • generating a range of questions (for example, evaluation questions, reflecting questions) about contemporary issues reported in the media
  • discussing how an investigation about the past (for example, a shipwreck explored through a museum display, video or interactive website) is guided by questions at different stages, including ‘Why is that important now?’

Researching

Locate and collect information and data from different sources, including observations (ACHASSI074 - Scootle )
  • identifying the types of sources suited to historical, geographical, civic and cultural inquiry and discussing why suitable sources might be different
  • identifying sources for a historical study, such as sites, paintings (or their representations), maps, written records/accounts, database information, traditional ballads and stories
  • brainstorming ways that information might be collected for an inquiry (for example, surveys, interviews, tallying) and choosing, with teacher guidance, the most effective sources of data (for example, the internet, thematic maps, photographs, satellite imagery, field data collection)
  • using Google Earth or similar applications to collect geographical information (for example, the extent of vegetation in an area, or to explore settlement along a major river valley in Africa or South America, from its source to the sea)
  • exploring stories about the groups people belong to, for example, about cultural groups (such as groups that value Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander or Asian heritage), from interest and community groups (such as recreational and volunteering organisations) and from gender or religious groups
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • acquiring geographical information about environments and resources from a range of sources, such as a knowledgeable Aboriginal community member or from schools in contrasting parts of Australia and/or other countries in the Southern Hemisphere
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
Record, sort and represent data and the location of places and their characteristics in different formats, including simple graphs, tables and maps, using discipline-appropriate conventions (ACHASSI075 - Scootle )
  • using graphic organisers to sort and record information (for example, flowcharts, consequence wheels, futures timelines, Venn diagrams, Y-charts, network diagrams) or to show simple relationships (for example, a food web in mangrove or Antarctic waters)
  • constructing maps, graphs or tables to display data and information (for example, changes in the distribution of different types of vegetation; the loss of native species; the movement of peoples over time; the population of places over time; resource distribution in places that have been colonised; social, cultural and religious groups in Australia’s society) using digital applications as appropriate
    • Sustainability
  • recording and sorting collected information using tally sheets, murals, surveys, graphs and tables, databases or spreadsheets
  • showing historical and geographic information on maps (for example, collaboratively creating a large class map of world exploration by projecting a world map on a mural, and completing it with relevant geographical and historical details including compass points, sea routes, legends, dates, pictorial details, annotations and captions)
  • annotating maps using the appropriate cartographic conventions including map symbols, scale and north point to show places and their features, in Australia, and in selected countries of Africa and South America
Sequence information about people’s lives and events (ACHASSI076 - Scootle )
  • creating a timeline by accurately placing information about key events or people in chronological order and explaining the sequence
  • using graphic organisers to show the sequential stages of a process (for example, a flowchart that shows the stages of local government decision-making; a consequence wheel that shows causes and effects; seasonal charts such as an Aboriginal representation describing environmental evidence)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • recounting and sequencing events associated with a particular history (for example, developing an annotated map to describe the sea route of the First Fleet and the timing of its passage)

Analysing

Examine information to identify different points of view and distinguish facts from opinions (ACHASSI077 - Scootle )
  • exploring different points of view about a familiar event (for example, Australia Day, National Sorry Day) or issue (for example, a school issue, an environmental issue)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    • Sustainability
  • exploring different stories associated with a past event to discover the experiences, thoughts or feelings of the people at that time (for example, the points of view of male, female and child convicts, soldiers, free settlers, some Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in the early colonial era)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • identifying differing viewpoints and considering their related ethical implications when discussing the past and present (for example, personal preference versus respecting the law such as personal freedom versus following the legal requirement to wear a bike helmet; different views over time about people’s character such as convicts who stole food were sinful)
  • exploring different viewpoints about the sustainable use of a place (for example, environmental management laws and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples’ practices)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    • Sustainability
  • sharing aspects of their cultural identity and considering how it might be similar and different to the cultural identity of others
  • identifying stereotypes presented in texts and pictures, such as generalisations about gender roles, and talking about who is advantaged by stereotypes and who is disadvantaged
Interpret data and information displayed in different formats, to identify and describe distributions and simple patterns (ACHASSI078 - Scootle )
  • decoding the meaning of symbols and emblems associated with Australian history, geography and civic life and applying an understanding of conventions, vocabulary and symbols when interpreting large-scale maps
  • comparing information in sources to identify evidence of change (for example, Aboriginal, Dutch and French place names on Australia’s west coast; past and present distribution of vegetation in North Africa that points to increasing desertification)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    • Sustainability
  • interpreting the data presented in picture, line, bar or column graphs to idenitify simple trends or distributions (for example, explaining survey results about types of waste produced in the school or how people in the community participate)
    • Sustainability
  • interpreting thematic maps and using Google Earth or similar applications to describe the characteristics of a continent or region or to identify the distribution of a particular characteristic (for example, languages of South America, equatorial rainforests, settlement along a major river valley in South America from its source to the sea)
  • comparing environments in places of similar climate and vegetation that are located on different continents (for example, sandy, icy and stony deserts of Australia, Africa, Antarctica and South America)

Evaluating and reflecting

Draw simple conclusions based on analysis of information and data (ACHASSI079 - Scootle )
  • describing risks in past times (for example, for those involved in sea travel, exploration and colonisation) and making inferences about similar risks today (for example, the risks of space and deep sea exploration, colonising other planets, adapting to life in a new environment)
  • explaining how seeking resources is connected to trade, world exploration, colonisation and environmental change
    • Sustainability
  • finding connections, in order to draw conclusions, from an analysis of sources (for example, relationships between plants and animals in an ecosystem; languages of countries and the nations which colonised them; shipwreck locations and natural features; local government services and how people benefit)
    • Sustainability
  • concluding from an analysis of historical records how laws, and the consequences of not following them, have changed over time (for example, contrasting penalties applied in eighteenth-century Britain and those applied in modern Australia)
  • using new knowledge to make an argument on a topic relevant to them and their community (for example, whether they agree with a school rule, a proposed change in the community, what the local government can do about an issue)
  • reflecting on how people of the past are represented in fiction and other sources, and critically examining stereotypes in their representations (for example, claims that women did not work, inferences that all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples are the same)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
Interact with others with respect to share points of view (ACHASSI080 - Scootle )
  • participating in role-plays and simple debates which allow for equal presentation of viewpoints
  • exploring and sharing, through a facilitated role-play, the experiences and/or feelings of different people involved in a past event (for example, the points of view of Aboriginal People, convicts, guards, women and children on settling at Botany Bay) or the different views about a current event (for example, the views of farmers, activists and government decision-makers about a road going through an endangered habitat)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    • Sustainability
  • participating in cooperative strategies that enable decision-making about roles and responsibilities (for example, using de Bonos’ hats)
Reflect on learning to propose actions in response to an issue or challenge and consider possible effects of proposed actions (ACHASSI081 - Scootle )
  • reflecting on learning with the assistance of tools such as a KWL chart (what they know, what they want to know and what they have learned) when evaluating responses to an issue
  • forecasting a probable future and a preferred future relating to an environmental, local government or cultural issue (for example, developing a futures scenario of what oceans will be like if humans continue to allow waste plastic to enter waterways, and a preferred scenario of what oceans would be like if plastics were to be replaced by degradable materials)
    • Sustainability
  • reflecting on personal behaviours and identifying attitudes that may affect aspects of the environment at a local or global level (for example, pouring paints down the sink; using products sourced from cleared rainforests) and proposing awareness-raising strategies to reduce impacts on the environment
    • Sustainability
  • proposing possible actions that could be taken to address an issue (for example, improving the management of waste in the school; choosing products not made from endangered species such as elephants) and identifying resources needed to support the actions and likely outcomes (for example, composting lunch waste and using it on the school garden; making socially responsible decisions)
    • Sustainability

Communicating

Present ideas, findings and conclusions in texts and modes that incorporate digital and non-digital representations and discipline-specific terms (ACHASSI082 - Scootle )
  • composing, in a range of different text types, information to communicate findings and conclusions (for example, information presented as imaginative recounts, biographies, journals, reports)
  • selecting appropriate representations to suit and enhance their communication, including graphs, tables, timelines, photographs and pictures, in digital and non-digital modes
  • describing the relative location of different features in a place by distance and compass direction (for example, the distance from their home to the local waste management site, the route of a navigator)
  • using accurate and subject-appropriate terms when speaking, writing and illustrating, for example, using historical terms (such as ‘exploration’, ‘navigation’, ‘trade’, penal’, ‘transportation’, ‘contact’, ‘frontier conflict’, 'colonisation’), using geographical terms (such as ‘continents’, ‘countries’, ‘natural resources’, 'vegetation’, ‘environments’, ‘ecosystems’, ‘sustainability’, ‘consumption’, ‘waste’ and ‘management’) and using civic terms (such as ‘local government’, ‘decision-making’, ‘services’, ‘roles’, ‘responsibilities’, ‘rules’, ‘laws’ and ‘belonging’)
    • Sustainability

History

Concepts for developing understanding

The content in the history sub-strand provides opportunities for students to develop historical understanding through key concepts including sources, continuity and change, cause and effect, perspectives, empathy and significance. The Year 4 curriculum introduces world history and the movement of peoples. Students study the diversity of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, their connection to place (sources, perspectives, significance) and their contact with other societies (change and continuity, perspectives, empathy). Through a study of navigation, exploration and/or trade (sources), students come to learn about Australia’s early colonisation and develop understandings about contact between societies (continuity and change, cause and effect) and its effects on people and their environments (perspectives, empathy).

Inquiry Questions

  • Why did the great journeys of exploration occur?
  • What was life like for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples before the arrival of the Europeans?
  • Why did the Europeans settle in Australia?
  • What was the nature and consequence of contact between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples and early traders, explorers and settlers?
The diversity of Australia's first peoples and the long and continuous connection of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples to Country/Place (land, sea, waterways and skies) (ACHASSK083 - Scootle )
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • mapping the diversity of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander language groups in Australia and recognising the groups of their local area and state/territory (or considering why there may not be specific local records)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • recognising that Australia has two indigenous cultural groups: Aboriginal Peoples and Torres Strait Islander Peoples
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • studying early archaeological sites (for example, Nauwalabila, Devil’s Lair, Lake Mungo) that show the long and continuous connection of Aboriginal Peoples to Country
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • investigating pre-contact ways of life of the Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Peoples; their knowledge of their environment including land management practices; and their fundamental beliefs about the interconnectedness of Country/Place, People, Culture and Identity
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    • Sustainability
  • exploring how Aboriginal Peoples exchanged ideas, technology and goods with each other and with Torres Strait Islander Peoples across vast distances
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • studying totems in the lives of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Peoples and examining the differences between their totems
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
The journey(s) of AT LEAST ONE world navigator, explorer or trader up to the late eighteenth century, including their contacts with other societies and any impacts (ACHASSK084 - Scootle )
  • identifying key individuals and groups who established contacts with Africa, the Americas, Asia and Oceania during the European age of discovery
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • investigating what motivated countries to explore and colonise
  • examining the journey of one or more explorers (for example, Christopher Columbus, Vasco da Gama, Ferdinand Magellan), using navigation maps to reconstruct their journeys
  • examining the journey of one or more explorers of the Australian coastline (for example, the Macassans, Dirk Hartog, Abel Tasman, James Cook, Comte de la Perouse) using navigation maps to reconstruct their journeys

  • examining the impact of European exploration or colonisation on ONE society
  • investigating networks of exchange and what was exchanged between different groups of people (for example, ideas, spices, food, slaves)
  • recognising that people from many continents have explored parts of the world (for example, Zheng He, Ibn Battuta)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
Stories of the First Fleet, including reasons for the journey, who travelled to Australia, and their experiences following arrival (ACHASSK085 - Scootle )
  • investigating reasons for the First Fleet journey, including an examination of the wide range of crimes punishable by transportation, and looking at the groups who were transported
  • investigating attitudes to the poor, the treatment of prisoners at that time, and the social standing of those who travelled to Australia on the First Fleet, including families, children and convict guards
  • investigating daily life in the Botany Bay penal settlement and challenges experienced by the people there and how they were managed
The nature of contact between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples and others, for example, the Macassans and the Europeans, and the effects of these interactions on, for example, people and environments (ACHASSK086 - Scootle )
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • investigating contact with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples before 1788 (for example, the repulsion of the Dutch at Cape Keerweer in 1606 and the trade between the Macassans and the Yolngu people)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • comparing the European concept of land ownership, including terra nullius, with the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples' relationship with the land, sea, waterways and sky, and how this affected relations between the groups
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • exploring early contact of Aboriginal people with the British including people (for example, Pemulwuy, Bennelong) and events of conciliation and resistance (such as the Black War)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • exploring the impact that British colonisation had on the lives of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (dispossession; dislocation; and the loss of lives through conflict, disease, loss of food sources and medicines)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • considering whether the interactions between Europeans and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples had positive or negative effects
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • examining paintings and accounts (by observers such as Watkin Tench and David Collins) to determine the impact of early British colonisation on Aboriginal Peoples' Country
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia

Geography

Concepts for developing understanding

The content in the geography sub-strand provides opportunities to develop students’ understanding of place, space, environment, interconnection and sustainability. The content focuses on understandings about sustainability – the ongoing capacity of the environment to sustain human life and wellbeing. Students explore the features and functions of environments that support humans and other living things (environment, interconnection). They examine the use and management of resources and waste, and views about how to achieve sustainability (environment, interconnection, sustainability), including the custodial responsibility of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples to their Country/Place (interconnection, sustainability). Students’ mental map of the world expands to South America and Africa and their main countries and characteristics (space, place, environment).

Inquiry Questions

  • How does the environment support the lives of people and other living things?
  • How do different views about the environment influence approaches to sustainability?
  • How can people use environments more sustainably?
The main characteristics of the continents of Africa and South America and the location of their major countries in relation to Australia (ACHASSK087 - Scootle )
  • using geographical tools (for example, a globe, a wall map or digital application such as Google Earth) to identify the major countries of Africa and South America and their relative locations
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • using a globe to investigate the Great Circle routes of aeroplane travel between Australia and the major countries of Africa and South America
  • researching the main types of natural vegetation and native animals in a climate zone in Australia, and comparing them with those found in a similar climate in Africa or South America
  • using a printed or electronic atlas to identify the main characteristics of the continents of Africa and South America (for example, topographic features, environments, cities)
The importance of environments, including natural vegetation, to animals and people (ACHASSK088 - Scootle )
  • Sustainability
  • identifying the main types of vegetation, including forest, savannah, grassland, woodland and desert, and explaining the relationship between climate and natural vegetation
  • exploring how vegetation has an important role in sustaining the environment by producing oxygen, protecting food-producing land from erosion, retaining rainfall, providing habitat for animals, sheltering crops and livestock, providing shade for people, cooling urban places, producing medicines, wood and fibre, and making places appear more attractive
    • Sustainability
  • explaining how people’s connections with their environment can also be aesthetic, emotional and spiritual
  • explaining the significance of vegetation endemic in the local area to survival of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Peoples (for example, as a source of food, shelter, medicine, tools and weapons)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    • Sustainability
  • exploring strategies to protect particular environments that provide the habitats for animals (for example, planting bird-attracting vegetation)
    • Sustainability
The custodial responsibility Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples have for Country/Place, and how this influences views about sustainability (ACHASSK089 - Scootle )
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • Sustainability
  • recognising that the distribution of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples before colonisation was across Australia, but concentrated in sustainable areas such as in the coastal and riverine areas of Australia
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • investigating how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples' ways of living were adapted to the resources of their Country/Place (for example, the alpine country of the Ngarigo People; the rainforests, beaches and dunes of the KuKu Yalanji People; the desert country of the Arrernte People; the savannah country of the Jawoyn People; the riverine plains of the Wiradjuri People; and the local Country/Place)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • investigating how knowledge and practices shared among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples are linked to sustainable use of resources and environments (such as rotational use and harvesting of resources, mutton-bird harvesting in Tasmania, the use of fire, and the collection of bush food from semi-arid rangelands)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    • Sustainability
The use and management of natural resources and waste, and the different views on how to do this sustainably (ACHASSK090 - Scootle )
  • Sustainability
  • identifying some of the resources produced by the environment and where they come from (for example, water, food and raw materials such as fibres, timber and metals that make the things they use)
  • exploring how some natural resources are used and managed in sustainable and non-sustainable ways
    • Sustainability
  • identifying renewable and non-renewable resources
    • Sustainability
  • investigating where a particular renewable natural resource comes from, how it is used and sustainable management strategies (for example, recycling paper or planting more trees)
    • Sustainability
  • exploring the work of groups and organisations which manage natural resources and/or waste
    • Sustainability

Civics and citizenship

Concepts for developing understanding

The content in the civics and citizenship sub-strand provides opportunities for students to develop understanding about government and democracy, laws and citizens and citizenship, diversity and identity. Students’ understanding of democratic decision-making is further developed through a study of the role of their local government and the services it provides to their community (government and democracy). They examine how rules and laws affect them and the importance of laws in society (laws and citizens) and they explore cultural diversity in their community; in particular, how belonging to different groups can shape personal identity (diversity and identity).

Inquiry Questions

  • How can local government contribute to community life?
  • What is the difference between rules and laws and why are they important?
  • How has my identity been shaped by the groups to which I belong?
The role of local government and the decisions it makes on behalf of the community (ACHASSK091 - Scootle )
  • examining how local government is chosen and by whom
  • exploring what local government does, including the services it provides (for example, environment and waste, libraries, health, parks, cultural events, pools and sport, arts and pet management)
    • Sustainability
  • describing how local government services impact on the lives of students
The differences between ‘rules’ and ‘laws’, why laws are important and how they affect the lives of people, including experiences of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (ACHASSK092 - Scootle )
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • distinguishing between ‘laws’ (for example, speeding in school zones) and ‘rules’ (for example, sun safety in the school)
  • exploring the purpose of laws and recognising that laws apply to everyone in society
  • discussing examples of laws and why they are important to students’ lives
  • investigating the impact of laws on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (for example, environmental laws, native title laws and laws concerning sacred sites)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
The different cultural, religious and/or social groups to which they and others in the community belong (ACHASSK093 - Scootle )
  • identifying diversity through the different social, cultural and religious groups students belong to
  • listing and comparing the different beliefs, traditions and symbols used by groups
  • recognising that the identity of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in Australia is shaped by Country/Place, language and knowledge traditions
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • describe real, virtual or vicarious experiences with other cultures and groups


Year 4 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 4, students recognise the significance of events in bringing about change and the importance of the environment. They explain how and why life changed in the past and identify aspects of the past that have remained the same. They describe the experiences of an individual or group in the past. They describe and compare the diverse characteristics of different places at local to national scales. Students identify the interconnections between components of the environment and between people and the environment. They identify structures that support their local community and recognise the importance of laws in society. They describe factors that shape a person’s identity and sense of belonging. They identify different views on how to respond to an issue or challenge.

Students develop questions to investigate. They locate and collect information and data from different sources, including observations to answer these questions. When examining information, they distinguish between facts and opinions and detect points of view. They interpret data and information to identify and describe distributions and simple patterns and draw conclusions. They share their points of view, respecting the views of others. Students sequence information about events and the lives of individuals in chronological order with reference to key dates. They sort, record and represent data in different formats, including large-scale maps using basic cartographic conventions. They reflect on their learning to propose action in response to an issue or challenge, and identify the possible effects of their proposed action. Students present ideas, findings and conclusions using discipline-specific terms in a range of communication forms.

By the end of Year 4, students recognise the significance of events in bringing about change. They explain how and why life changed in the past and identify aspects of the past that have remained the same. They describe the experiences of an individual or group in the past.

Students sequence information about events and the lives of individuals in chronological order with reference to key dates. They develop questions about the past and locate, collect and sort information from different sources to answer these questions. They analyse sources to detect points of view. Students develop and present texts, including narrative recounts, using historical terms.

By the end of Year 4, students describe the location of selected countries using compass direction. They describe and compare the characteristics of places in different locations at local to national scales. They identify the interconnections between components of the environment and between people and the environment. Students recognise the importance of the environment and identify different possible responses to a geographical challenge.

Students develop geographical questions to investigate and locate, collect and sort information and data from different sources to answer these questions. They record and represent data and the location of places and their characteristics in simple graphic forms, including large-scale maps that use the cartographic conventions of scale, legend, title and north point. They describe the location of places and their features using grid references and compass direction. Students interpret geographical data to identify spatial distributions and simple patterns and draw conclusions. They present findings using geographical terminology in a range of texts. They propose individual action in response to a local geographical challenge and identify some possible effects of their proposed action.

By the end of Year 4, students identify structures and decisions that support their local community and recognise the importance of laws in society. They describe factors that shape a person’s identity and sense of belonging.

Students develop questions about the society in which they live and locate and collect information from different sources to answer these questions. They examine information to distinguish between facts and opinions, identify points of view and to draw conclusions. They share their points of view, respecting the views of others, and identify the groups they belong to. Students present ideas and conclusions using discipline-specific terms in a range of communication forms.