Please select at least one year level to view the content
Please select at least one Strand to view the content

Rationale

In a world that is increasingly culturally diverse and dynamically interconnected, it is important that students come to understand their world, past and present, and develop a capacity to respond to challenges, now and in the future, in innovative, informed, personal and collective ways.

Read More >>

Aims

The F–6/7 Australian Curriculum for Humanities and Social Sciences aims to ensure that students develop:

a sense of wonder, curiosity and respect about places, people, cultures and systems throughout the world, past and present, and an interest in and enjoyment of the study of these phenomena

Read More >>

Structure

The Australian Curriculum: Humanities and Social Sciences may be implemented as a combined F–6 program or as an F–7 program. The F–6/7 curriculum is organised into two interrelated strands: knowledge and understanding and inquiry and skills.

Read More >>

PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Humanities and Social Sciences F-6/7 are available as PDF documents.
F-6/7 HASS - Combined Sequence of Content
F-6/7 HASS - Combined Sequence of Achievement

Read More >>

Glossary

Read More >>

Year 2

Year 2 Level Description

Our past and present connections to people and places

The Year 2 curriculum extends contexts for study beyond the personal to the community and to near and distant places that students are familiar with or aware of, exploring connections between the past and present and between people and places. Students examine remains of the past in their local area, coming to understand how connections have changed the lives of people over time and space and how their community values and preserves connections to the past. They study where they are located in the world and how the world is represented on maps and through place names that reveal the history and value of these places. Students explore other cultures’ connections to their local place and their own connections to distant places. Through a study of technological change, students see how they are both similar and different to people in the past and how they are connected to places near and far. The idea of citizenship is introduced as students think about how people are connected.

The content provides opportunities for students to develop humanities and social sciences understanding through key concepts including significance, continuity and change, cause and effect, place and space, interconnections and perspectives and action. These concepts may provide a focus for inquiries and be investigated across sub-strands or within a particular sub-strand context.

The content at this year level is organised into two strands: knowledge and understanding, and inquiry and skills. The knowledge and understanding strand draws from two sub-strands: history and geography. These strands (knowledge and understanding, and inquiry and skills) are interrelated and have been developed to be taught in an integrated way, which may include integrating with content from the sub-strands and from other learning areas, and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.

Inquiry Questions

A framework for developing students’ knowledge, understanding and skills is provided by inquiry questions. The following inquiry questions allow for connections to be made across the sub-strands and may be used or adapted to suit local contexts: inquiry questions are also provided for each sub-strand that may enable connections within the humanities and social sciences learning area or across other learning areas.

  • What does my place tell me about the past and present?
  • How are people connected to their place and other places, past or present?
  • How has technology affected daily life over time and the connections between people in different places?

Year 2 Content Descriptions

Questioning

Pose questions about past and present objects, people, places and events (ACHASSI034 - Scootle )
  • developing how, when, where, why questions at the start of and during an investigation and then revisiting the questions to check if they have been answered
  • developing inquiry questions about a historical site (for example, ‘What does it look like now?’, ‘What condition is it in?’, ‘What was its purpose?’, ‘How might its use have changed?’, ‘How was it built/created?’, ‘Who built it?’, ‘How is it now used?’, ‘Why is it important?’)
  • developing inquiry questions about places (for example, ‘What are the features of the place?’, ‘How far away is it?’, ‘How easy is it to get to?’, ‘How am I connected to it?’)
  • posing questions using the stems, ‘How do I feel about …’, ’What would it be like to …’ and ‘What effect …’

Researching

Collect data and information from observations and identify information and data from sources provided (ACHASSI035 - Scootle )
  • identifying information in sources relevant to learning about the past (for example, photographs, interviews, newspapers, stories and maps, including those online) and sources relevant to learning about places (satellite images, globes, diagrams, measurements, field photographs)
  • locating historical evidence of the local community’s past (for example, place and street names that commemorate people, monuments, built and non-built historical landmarks, middens, remnants of native vegetation and old building remains)
    • Sustainability
  • surveying peers to discover how they are connected to people in other places in Australia and the world, or to find out how frequently they visit places and for what purpose
  • exploring Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples’ connections to Country/Place through oral histories Dreaming and Creation stories, dance, art and cultural representations
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
Sort and record information and data, including location, in tables and on plans and labelled maps (ACHASSI036 - Scootle )
  • sorting and recording written or pictorial information or survey results in tables under headings such as ‘then/now’, ‘past/present/future’, ‘places near/far’, ‘places visited’, ‘purpose’, ‘frequency’, ‘distance’
  • creating pictorial maps with annotations to show familiar local and/or historical sites, their features and location, and adding further information as extra sites are identified
  • locating the places they are connected to (such as through family, travel, friends), or the places they visit for shopping, recreation or other reasons on a print, electronic or wall map
  • making a map or plan of significant places in the community, incorporating symbols to show location of objects or significant features
Sequence familiar objects and events (ACHASSI037 - Scootle )
  • ordering key events in the history of the local community or in its development (for example, the history of the school; developmental stages of telecommunications technologies)
  • creating a timeline, slideshow or story to show how things develop sequentially (for example, seasonal change in plants, cycles of the weather, personal growth milestones)

Analysing

  • discussing why some places are considered special or significant by others (for example, by parents, Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander Peoples, their grandparents or familiar elders their friends, returned soldiers, wildlife workers)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • examining the points of view of older generations about changes over time (for example, changes to the natural or built environment, changes to daily living)
    • Sustainability
  • listening to different stories (for example, Dreaming and Creation stories) about reasons for the change of seasons or about how natural features of Earth were created
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
Compare objects from the past with those from the present and consider how places have changed over time (ACHASSI039 - Scootle )
  • comparing places that differ over time or across location (for example, climate, natural environment, plants, animals, people’s home)
  • identifying how objects and activities are similar or different depending on conditions in local and distant places (for example, clothes, transport, technology)
  • identifying features of a site that reveal its past (such as decorations and plaques on buildings) and suggesting clues that help understanding of its history (such as dates, ageing, building style)
  • examining a historical site (for example, a home, a school) to explore how technology has changed life over time (for example, how and where food was obtained and prepared, how people travelled, how people stayed warm or cool, how sewerage was managed, types of work, the roles of men, women, boys and girls)
Interpret data and information displayed in pictures and texts and on maps (ACHASSI040 - Scootle )
  • interpreting distance on maps using terms such as ‘metres’, ‘distant’, ‘close’, ‘local’, ‘many hours in a bus/car/plane’, ‘walking distance’ to decide on the accessibility of different features and places
  • interpreting flowcharts and geographic and concept maps to explore system connections (for example, places members of their class are connected to, where some food comes from, how Aboriginal songlines connect places)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • interpreting symbols and codes that provide information (for example, map legends)
  • explaining what intangible boundaries mean or why they exist (for example, the equator as a division on a globe, out-of-bounds areas shown on a plan of the school)

Evaluating and reflecting

Draw simple conclusions based on discussions, observations and information displayed in pictures and texts and on maps (ACHASSI041 - Scootle )
  • drawing conclusions about how traditional Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples were able to overcome the constraints of distance (for example, trading goods and ideas across the continent and its islands)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • making generalisations from data showing patterns and relationships (for example, the relationship between the distance of places and the frequency of visits to them; between rubbish in the school and eating areas; between marine animals and where human rubbish may go; between climate zones and clothing or housing)
    • Sustainability
  • discussing the history or value of places in the local community from an exploration of place names (for example, place names that are linked to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, historical events, early settlers, and political, religious and social figures)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
Reflect on learning to propose how to care for places and sites that are important or significant (ACHASSI042 - Scootle )
  • Sustainability
  • reflecting on their increasing knowledge of special places and natural systems in their local area and, whether their ideas about and behaviours have changed as a result of greater understanding
    • Sustainability
  • sharing with their teacher, other students and members of their family what they know and have learnt about connections with other places, and explaining the significance of these connections
  • using their knowledge about a familiar place or site to imagine how it might change in the future and how they can influence a positive future for it
    • Sustainability

Communicating

Present narratives, information and findings in oral, graphic and written forms using simple terms to denote the passing of time and to describe direction and location (ACHASSI043 - Scootle )
  • conveying information about the past and familiar places by representing ideas in written, spoken, pictorial or performance modes and by creating imaginative responses
  • composing reports with multimedia to share findings (for example, findings of a comparison of past and present daily life, a report on how access to and use of a place has changed over time, or recommendations on a building of significance)
  • describing a significant person from their community’s past in a short report or biography or through a fictional journal based on facts
  • using terms in speech and writing to denote the passing of time (for example, ‘in the past’, ‘years ago’, ‘the olden days’, ‘in the future’) and to describe direction and location (for example, north, south, opposite, near, far)

History

Concepts for developing understanding

The content in the history sub-strand provides opportunities for students to develop historical understanding through key concepts including continuity and change, cause and effect, perspectives, empathy and significance. Through studies of their local area, students explore, recognise and appreciate the history of their community. Students examine remains of the past and consider why they should be preserved (significance, cause and effect, perspectives). They examine the impact of technology of people’s lives (continuity and change, cause and effect), and speculate about people’s lives in the past to further develop their understanding that people lived differently in the past (continuity and change, perspectives, empathy).

Inquiry Questions

  • What aspects of the past can you see today? What do they tell us?
  • What remains of the past are important to the local community? Why?
  • How have changes in technology shaped our daily life?
The history of a significant person, building, site and/or part of the natural environment in the local community and what it reveals about the past (ACHASSK044 - Scootle )
  • using the internet, newspapers, community information guides and local knowledge to identify and list the people and places promoted as being of historic interest in the local community
  • suggesting reasons for the location of a local landmark (for example, community building, landmark or war memorial) before searching for resources that provide an explanation
  • investigating the history of a chosen person, building, site or landmark in the local community using sources (for example, books, newspapers, oral histories, audiovisual material, digital sources, letters, photographs) and relating a story which these reveal about the past
The importance today of a historical site of cultural or spiritual significance in the local area, and why it should be preserved (ACHASSK045 - Scootle )
  • discussing why a particular site has heritage significance/cultural value for present generations (for example, it provides a record of a significant historical event, has aesthetic value, reflects the community’s identity)
  • identifying, in consultation with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, and visiting (where appropriate) local sites, places and landscapes of significance to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (for example, engraving sites, rock paintings, natural sites or features such as the Birrigai rock shelter, creeks or mountains)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • identifying and designing a local historical tour of a building or site (for example, one related to a particular cultural group)
How changing technology affected people’s lives (at home and in the ways they worked, travelled, communicated and played in the past) (ACHASSK046 - Scootle )
  • examining changes in technology over several generations by comparing past and present objects and photographs, and discussing how these changes have shaped people’s lives (for example, changes to land, air and sea transport; the move from wood-fired stoves to gas/electrical appliances; the introduction of transistors, television, FM radio and digital technologies; how people shopped and what they liked to buy, changes in the nature of waste and how waste is managed)
    • Sustainability
  • identifying technologies used in the childhoods of their grandparents or familiar elders and in their own childhood, and finding out where each was produced
  • examining the traditional toys used by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children to play and learn (for example, Arrernte children learn to play string games so they can remember stories they have been told)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • creating models of toys used by children who lived when electricity was not available
  • identifying some rules for children of past generations that do not apply in the present, and some rules of the present that did not exist in the past due to technological changes

Geography

Concepts for developing understanding

The content in the geography sub-strand provides opportunities to develop students’ understanding of place, space, environment and interconnection. Students develop a mental map of the world by learning the major geographical divisions on Earth (place, space, environment) and where they are located in relation to Australia (space). Students learn about the hierarchy of scale by which places are defined – from the personal scale of their home to the national scale of their country (scale). Students explore how distance and accessibility influence how often they visit places, and for what purpose (space, interconnection) and investigate their links with places locally and throughout the world (interconnection). They see how places have meaning to people and the connection Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples have with Country/Place (place, environment, interconnection).

Inquiry Questions

  • What is a place?
  • How are people connected to their place and other places?
  • What factors affect my connection to places?
The way the world is represented in geographic divisions and the location of Australia in relation to these divisions (ACHASSK047 - Scootle )
  • investigating the definition of a continent and the seven-continent and six-continent models
  • using geographical tools (for example, a globe and world map) or digital applications such as Google Earth to locate and name the continents, oceans, equator, North and South Poles, tropics and hemispheres and then labelling an outline map
  • describing the location of continents and oceans relative to Australia, using terms such as north, south, opposite, near, far
The idea that places are parts of Earth’s surface that have been named by people, and how places can be defined at a variety of scales (ACHASSK048 - Scootle )
  • examining the names of features and places in the local area, the meaning of these names and why they were chosen
  • investigating the names and meanings given to local features and places by the local Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander Peoples
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • describing the scale of places, from the personal (home), the local (their suburb, town or district), the regional (state) to the national (country)
The ways in which Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples maintain special connections to particular Country/Place (ACHASSK049 - Scootle )
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • explaining that some Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have special connections to many Countries/Places (for example, through marriage, birth, residence and chosen or forced movement)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • discussing how some people are connected to one Country (for example, because it is “mother’s” Country or “father’s” Country)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • describing the connections of the local Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples with the land, sea, waterways, sky and animals of their Country/Place, and how this influences their views on the use of environmental resources
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    • Sustainability
The connections of people in Australia to people in other places in Australia and across the world (ACHASSK050 - Scootle )
  • examining the ways people are connected to other places (for example, through relatives, friends, things people buy or obtain, holidays, sport, family origin, beliefs, or through environmental practices such as where their waste ends up and its effect on people there)
    • Sustainability
  • exploring how their place may be connected to events that have happened in other places (for example, sporting events such as the Olympic Games or natural disasters like the tsunami in Indonesia)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
The influence of purpose, distance and accessibility on the frequency with which people visit places (ACHASSK051 - Scootle )
  • investigating the places they and their families visit for shopping, recreation, religious or ceremonial activities, or other reasons
  • suggesting what their pattern of visits to places might have been one or two generations ago and comparing this to their current pattern
  • investigating how people's connections with places are affected by transport and information and telecommunications technologies

Year 2 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 2, students describe a person, site and/or event of significance in the local community and explain why places are important to people. They identify how and why the lives of people have changed over time while others have remained the same. They recognise that the world is divided into geographic divisions and that places can be described at different scales. Students describe how people in different places are connected to each other and identify factors that influence these connections. They recognise that places have different meaning for different people and why the significant features of places should be preserved.

Students pose questions about the past and familiar and unfamiliar objects and places. They locate information from observations and from sources provided. They compare objects from the past and present and interpret information and data to identify a point of view and draw simple conclusions. They sequence familiar objects and events in order and sort and record data in tables, plans and on labelled maps. They reflect on their learning to suggest ways to care for places and sites of significance. Students develop narratives about the past and communicate findings in a range of texts using language to describe direction, location and the passing of time.

By the end of Year 2, students describe a person, site and/or event of significance in the local community. They identify how and why the lives of people have changed over time while others have remained the same.

Students sequence events in order, using a range of terms related to time. They pose questions about the past and use sources provided to answer these questions and to identify a point of view. They compare objects from the past and present. Students develop a narrative about the past using a range of texts.

By the end of Year 2, students identify the features that define places and recognise that places can be described at different scales. Students recognise that the world can be divided into major geographical divisions. They describe how people in different places are connected to each other and identify factors that influence these connections. They explain why places are important to people, recognising that places have meaning.

Students pose questions about familiar and unfamiliar places and answer them by locating information from observations and from sources provided. They represent data and the location of places and their features in tables, plans and on labelled maps. They interpret geographical information to draw conclusions. Students present findings in a range of texts and use simple geographical terms to describe the direction and location of places. They suggest action in response to the findings of their inquiry.