Civics and Citizenship

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Rationale

A deep understanding of Australia's federal system of government and the liberal democratic values that underpin it is essential in enabling students to become active and informed citizens who participate in and sustain Australia’s democracy.

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Aims

The Australian Curriculum: Civics and Citizenship aims to ensure students develop:

a lifelong sense of belonging to and engagement with civic life as an active and informed citizen in the context of Australia as a secular democratic nation with a dynamic, multicultural, multi-faith society and a Christian heritage

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Structure

The Years 7–10 Australian Curriculum: Civics and Citizenship is organised into two interrelated strands: civics and citizenship knowledge and understanding, and civics and citizenship inquiry and skills.

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PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Civics and Citizenship are available as PDF documents. 
Civics and Citizenship: Sequence of content 7-10
Civics and Citizenship: Sequence of achievement 7-10  

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Glossary

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Year 9

Year 9 Level Description

The Year 9 curriculum builds students’ understanding of Australia’s political system and how it enables change. Students examine the ways political parties, interest groups, media and individuals influence government and decision making processes. They investigate the features and principles of Australia’s court system, including its role in applying and interpreting Australian law. Students also examine global connectedness and how this is shaping contemporary Australian society.

The civics and citizenship content at this year level involves two strands: civics and citizenship knowledge and understanding, and civics and citizenship skills. These strands are interrelated and have been developed to be taught in an integrated way, and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.

Key inquiry questions

A framework for developing students’ civics and citizenship knowledge, understanding and skills at this year level is provided by the following key questions:

  • What influences shape the operation of Australia's political system?
  • How does Australia's court system work in support of a democratic and just society?
  • How do citizens participate in an interconnected world?

Year 9 Content Descriptions

Government and democracy

The role of political parties and independent representatives in Australia’s system of government, including the formation of governments (ACHCK075 - Scootle )
  • investigating how the contemporary party system operates in Australia’s liberal democracy and how governments are formed in parliament
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • discussing the meaning of key concepts such as parliamentary majority, the opposition, hung parliament, minority government
    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • exploring the role of the Senate and state upper Houses, and the balance of power in these Houses
How citizens’ political choices are shaped, including the influence of the media (ACHCK076 - Scootle )
  • examining a range of strategies used to persuade citizens’ electoral choices such as public debate, media, opinion polls, advertising, interest groups and political party campaigns
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • discussing how social media is used to influence people’s understanding of issues
    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Express opinion and point of view
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

The process through which government policy is shaped and developed, including the role of Prime Minister and Cabinet (ACHCK103 - Scootle )
  • investigating the development and implementation of policy and the role of the public service in Australia, including the role of the Prime Minister and Cabinet in proposing policy and the role of parliament in debating it
    Literacy

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

  • identifying the role of parliament and particularly the opposition in debating policy proposed by the Executive, in authorising the government to spend public money and scrutinising the administrative actions of the government
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

Laws and citizens

The key features of Australia’s court system and how courts apply and interpret the law, resolve disputes and make law through judgements (ACHCK077 - Scootle )
  • creating a visual representation of the court jurisdictions in Australia
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • categorising sample cases in relation to the courts in which they would be heard (for example, cases from criminal, consumer, family, human rights and environmental law)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

  • describing the role of a particular court (for example, a supreme court, a magistrates court or the Family Court of Australia)
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

  • exploring how court judgements impact on the development of law (for example, the role of precedents)
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

The key principles of Australia’s justice system, including equality before the law, independent judiciary, and right of appeal (ACHCK078 - Scootle )
  • describing what is meant by each principle and how each works to protect citizens and contribute to a fair society
    Literacy

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • examining factors that can undermine the application of the principles of justice (for example, bribery, coercion of witnesses, trial by media and court delays)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

  • examining how the media, or individuals through social media, could influence the outcome of a trial by publishing information about a defendant that could affect a jury's decision

Citizenship, diversity and identity

How and why individuals and groups, including religious groups, participate in and contribute to civic life (ACHCK079 - Scootle )
  • researching the work of a non-government organisation (NGO), philanthropist, community group or religious group and how and why they contribute to the Australian community
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

  • exploring the concept of ‘the common good’ using examples of how religious groups participate to foster interfaith understanding or social justice
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • investigating why a particular group advocates for change (for example, in relation to gender equity)
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

  • exploring the various ways that individuals can contribute to civic life (for example, by volunteering their services to charities and service groups, becoming a Justice of the Peace, making submissions to public enquiries, attending public meetings, serving on local government bodies and providing voluntary help at schools and nursing homes)
  • discussing how the Australian Honours System recognises, celebrates and says thank you to those who make a difference and serve others
  • investigating how the Australian Honours System works, including the types of awards and how they are announced and presented
The influence of a range of media, including social media, in shaping identities and attitudes to diversity (ACHCK080 - Scootle )
  • analysing how media represent different groups in Australian society and assessing the impact those representations have on community cohesiveness
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

  • investigating a human rights campaign that uses social media and how members of the public have engaged in the issue
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

How ideas about and experiences of Australian identity are influenced by global connectedness and mobility (ACHCK081 - Scootle )
  • examining stories of how Australian citizens’ perspectives on their role in the global community have been influenced by their experiences of living and working in other countries
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

  • examining forms of global connectedness such as digital technology, arts, trade, language learning, employment, travel and immigration
    Literacy

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • debating the concepts of ‘global identity’ and ‘global citizenship’ and their implications for Australian citizens
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

Questioning and research

Develop, select and evaluate a range of questions to investigate Australia's political and legal systems (ACHCS082 - Scootle )
Literacy

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Comprehend texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose texts
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

  • selecting key questions to investigate an aspect of Australia’s political and legal systems (for example, the role of juries)
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

  • posing questions which evaluate Australia’s democracy such as ‘how equal?’, ‘how representative?’ and ‘how accountable?’
    Literacy

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

Identify, gather and sort information and ideas from a range of sources and reference as appropriate (ACHCS083 - Scootle )
Literacy

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Comprehend texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose texts
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • developing categories for sorting information from surveys about people’s views on political or legal issues
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • identifying why some information has greater accuracy and reliability than other information
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

Analysis, synthesis and interpretation

Critically evaluate information and ideas from a range of sources in relation to civics and citizenship topics and issues (ACHCS084 - Scootle )
Literacy

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Compose texts

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • exploring texts for stereotype, over-generalisation and misrepresentation (for example, how cultural groups are represented in the media)
    Literacy

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • explaining the assumptions or missing information that may affect the reliability of an opinion about an issue (for example, commentary from a traditional form of media)
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • comparing and contrasting the varying policies of different political groups on an issue
    Literacy

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • applying criteria used to make judgements in civic contexts (for example, Awards for the Order of Australian of the Year, Student Citizen of the Year) to propose candidates for the year ahead
Account for different interpretations and points of view (ACHCS085 - Scootle )
Literacy

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Compose texts

Grammar knowledge
  • Express opinion and point of view

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

  • taking on roles for a discussion to explore various points of view about a contemporary political or social issue
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • developing an evidence-based argument which recognises different interpretations (for example, about the role of social media in contemporary debates)
    Literacy

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Problem-solving and decision-making

Recognise and consider multiple perspectives and ambiguities, and use strategies to negotiate and resolve contentious issues (ACHCS086 - Scootle )
Literacy

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose texts
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

Grammar knowledge
  • Express opinion and point of view

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

  • recognising that common issues may need to be seen through diverse cultural lenses
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

  • recognising that people will not always agree and using strategies to accommodate difference and accept compromise
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

  • using skills associated with the negotiation process (stating your position clearly, active listening, highlighting strengths, applying reason and logic, identifying common ground)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

Use democratic processes to reach consensus on a course of action relating to a civics or citizenship issue and plan for that action (ACHCS087 - Scootle )
Literacy

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Use language to interact with others
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Compose texts

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Comprehend texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Grammar knowledge
  • Express opinion and point of view

  • considering the most appropriate democratic decision-making processes to reach a consensus, such as achieving an absolute majority
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others

  • developing a plan of action using digital technologies that incorporates democratic decision-making processes
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

Communication and reflection

Present evidence-based civics and citizenship arguments using subject-specific language (ACHCS088 - Scootle )
Literacy

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose texts
  • Deliver presentations

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Listen and respond to learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts

Grammar knowledge
  • Express opinion and point of view

  • using appropriate terms and concepts such as jurisdictions, parliamentary majority and mandate
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • using digital technologies to present an evidence-based argument for persuading an audience to a point of view
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

Reflect on their role as a citizen in Australian, regional and global contexts (ACHCS089 - Scootle )
  • considering Australian, regional and global futures and how students might contribute as active and informed citizens
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others

  • considering how digital technologies enables them to engage with a global community
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others


Year 9 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 9, students evaluate features of Australia’s political system, and identify and analyse the influences on people’s political choices. They explain the key principles of Australia’s system of justice and analyse the role of Australia’s court system. They analyse a range of factors that influence identities and attitudes to diversity. They reflect on how groups participate and contribute to civic life.

When researching, students analyse a range of questions to investigate Australia’s political and legal systems and critically analyse information gathered from different sources for relevance and reliability. They compare and account for different interpretations and points of view on civics and citizenship issues. When planning for action, students take into account multiple perspectives, use democratic processes, and negotiate solutions to an issue. Students develop and present evidence-based arguments on civics and citizenship issues using appropriate texts, subject-specific language and concepts. They analyse ways they can be active and informed citizens in different contexts.