English

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Rationale

The study of English is central to the learning and development of all young Australians. It helps create confident communicators, imaginative thinkers and informed citizens. It is through the study of English that individuals learn to analyse, understand, communicate and build relationships with others and with the world around them.

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Aims

The Australian Curriculum: English aims to ensure that students:

learn to listen to, read, view, speak, write, create and reflect on increasingly complex and sophisticated spoken, written and multimodal texts across a growing range of contexts with accuracy, fluency and purpose.

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Key ideas

Texts

Texts provide the means for communication. They can be written, spoken, visual, multimodal, and in print or digital/online forms. Multimodal texts combine language with other means of communication such as visual images, soundtrack or spoken words, as in film or computer presentation media.

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Structure

Strands, sub-strands and threads
The Australian Curriculum: English Foundation to Year 10 is organised into three interrelated strands that support students' growing understanding and use of Standard Australian English (English). Each strand interacts with and enriches the other strands in creative and flexible ways, the fabric of the curriculum being strengthened by the threads within each sub-strand.

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PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: English are available as PDF documents. 
English: Sequence of content
English: Sequence of achievement 

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Glossary

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Year 3

Year 3 Level Description

The English curriculum is built around the three interrelated strands of language, literature and literacy. Teaching and learning programs should balance and integrate all three strands. Together, the strands focus on developing students’ knowledge, understanding and skills in listening, reading, viewing, speaking, writing and creating. Learning in English builds on concepts, skills and processes developed in earlier years, and teachers will revisit and strengthen these as needed.

In Years 3 and 4, students experience learning in familiar contexts and a range of contexts that relate to study in other areas of the curriculum. They interact with peers and teachers from other classes and schools in a range of face-to-face and online/virtual environments.

Students engage with a variety of texts for enjoyment. They listen to, read, view and interpret spoken, written and multimodal texts in which the primary purpose is aesthetic, as well as texts designed to inform and persuade. These encompass traditional oral texts including Aboriginal stories, picture books, various types of print and digital texts, simple chapter books, rhyming verse, poetry, non-fiction, film, multimodal texts, dramatic performances and texts used by students as models for constructing their own work.

The range of literary texts for Foundation to Year 10 comprises Australian literature, including the oral narrative traditions of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, as well as the contemporary literature of these two cultural groups, and classic and contemporary world literature, including texts from and about Asia.

Literary texts that support and extend students in Years 3 and 4 as independent readers describe complex sequences of events that extend over several pages and involve unusual happenings within a framework of familiar experiences. Informative texts include content of increasing complexity and technicality about topics of interest and topics being studied in other areas of the curriculum. These texts use complex language features, including varied sentence structures, some unfamiliar vocabulary, a significant number of high-frequency sight words and words that need to be decoded phonically, and a variety of punctuation conventions, as well as illustrations and diagrams that support and extend the printed text.

Students create a range of imaginative, informative and persuasive types of texts including narratives, procedures, performances, reports, reviews, poetry and expositions.


Year 3 Content Descriptions

Language variation and change

Understand that languages have different written and visual communication systems, different oral traditions and different ways of constructing meaning (ACELA1475 - Scootle )
  • Writing
  • Listening
  • Speaking
  • Reading
  • learning that a word or sign can carry different weight in different cultural contexts, for example that particular respect is due to some people and creatures and that stories can be passed on to teach us how to live appropriately

Language for interaction

Understand that successful cooperation with others depends on shared use of social conventions, including turn-taking patterns, and forms of address that vary according to the degree of formality in social situations (ACELA1476 - Scootle )
  • Listening
  • Speaking
  • identifying roles and collaborative patterns in students’ own groups and pair work (for example initiating a topic, changing a topic through negotiation, affirming other speakers and building on their comments, asking relevant questions, providing useful feedback, prompting and checking individual and group understanding)
Examine how evaluative language can be varied to be more or less forceful (ACELA1477 - Scootle )
  • Writing
  • Listening
  • Speaking
  • Reading
  • exploring how modal verbs, for example ‘must’, ‘might’,’ or ‘could’ indicate degrees of probability or obligation
  • distinguishing how choice of adverbs, nouns and verbs present different evaluations of characters in texts

Text structure and organisation

Understand how different types of texts vary in use of language choices, depending on their purpose and context (for example, tense and types of sentences) (ACELA1478 - Scootle )
  • Writing
  • Listening
  • Speaking
  • Reading
  • becoming familiar with typical structural stages and language features of various types of text, for example narratives, procedures, reports, reviews and expositions
Understand that paragraphs are a key organisational feature of written texts (ACELA1479 - Scootle )
  • Writing
  • Reading
  • noticing how longer texts are organised into paragraphs, each beginning with a topic sentence/paragraph opener which predicts how the paragraph will develop and is then elaborated in various ways
Know that word contractions are a feature of informal language and that apostrophes of contraction are used to signal missing letters (ACELA1480 - Scootle )
  • Writing
  • Listening
  • Speaking
  • Reading
  • recognising both grammatically accurate and inaccurate usage of the apostrophe in everyday texts such as signs in the community and newspaper advertisements
Identify the features of online texts that enhance navigation (ACELA1790 - Scootle )
  • Reading
  • becoming familiar with the typical features of online texts, for example navigation bars and buttons, hyperlinks and sitemaps

Expressing and developing ideas

Understand that a clause is a unit of grammar usually containing a subject and a verb and that these need to be in agreement (ACELA1481 - Scootle )
  • Writing
  • Listening
  • Speaking
  • Reading
  • knowing that a clause is basically a group of words that contains a verb
  • knowing that, in terms of meaning, a basic clause represents: what is happening; what state is being described; who or what is involved; and the surrounding circumstances
Understand that verbs represent different processes, for example doing, thinking, saying, and relating and that these processes are anchored in time through tense (ACELA1482 - Scootle )
  • Writing
  • Listening
  • Speaking
  • Reading
  • identifying different types of verbs and the way they add meaning to a sentence
  • exploring 'doing' and 'saying' verbs in narrative texts to show how they give information about what characters do and say
  • exploring the use of sensing verbs and how they allow readers to know what characters think and feel
  • exploring the use of relating verbs in constructing definitions and descriptions
  • learning how time is represented through the tense of a verb, for example 'She arrived’, ‘She is arriving’ and adverbials of time, for example ‘She arrived yesterday’, ‘She is arriving in the morning’
Identify the effect on audiences of techniques, for example shot size, vertical camera angle and layout in picture books, advertisements and film segments (ACELA1483 - Scootle )
  • Reading
  • noting how the relationship between characters can be depicted in illustrations through: the positioning of the characters (for example facing each other or facing away from each other); the distance between them; the relative size; one character looking up (or down) at the other (power relationships); facial expressions and body gesture
  • observing how images construct a relationship with the viewer through such strategies as: direct gaze into the viewer's eyes, inviting involvement and how close ups are more engaging than distanced images, which can suggest alienation or loneliness
Learn extended and technical vocabulary and ways of expressing opinion including modal verbs and adverbs (ACELA1484 - Scootle )
  • Writing
  • Listening
  • Speaking
  • Reading
  • exploring examples of language which demonstrate a range of feelings and positions, and building a vocabulary to express judgments about characters or events, acknowledging that language and judgments might differ depending on the cultural context

Phonics and word knowledge

Understand how to use letter-sound relationships and less common letter patterns to spell words (ACELA1485 - Scootle )
  • Writing
  • Reading
  • using sound and visual spelling strategies to explore less common letter patterns after a short vowel, for example words that end in ‘dge’ such as ‘badge’, ‘edge’, ‘fridge’, ‘dodge’ and ‘smudge’
  • using sound and visual spelling strategies to spell words with three-letter blends, for example ‘str-ip’
Recognise and know how to write most high frequency words including some homophones (ACELA1486 - Scootle )
  • Writing
  • drawing on meaning and context to spell single-syllable homophones, for example ‘break’ or ‘brake’ and ‘ate’ or ‘eight’
Understand how to apply knowledge of letter-sound relationships, syllables, and blending and segmenting to fluently read and write multisyllabic words with more complex letter patterns (ACELA1826 - Scootle )
  • Writing
  • Reading
  • reading and writing more complex words with consonant digraphs and consonant blends, for example ‘shrinking’, ‘against’ and ‘rocket’
  • reading and writing consonant digraphs representing different sounds, for example ‘machine’, ‘change’ and ‘school’
Know how to use common prefixes and suffixes, and generalisations for adding a suffix to a base word (ACELA1827 - Scootle )
  • Writing
  • Reading
  • exploring generalisations for adding a suffix to a base word to form a plural or past tense, for example to make a word plural when it ends in ‘ss’, ‘sh’, ‘ch’ or ‘z’, add ‘es’

Literature and context

Discuss texts in which characters, events and settings are portrayed in different ways, and speculate on the authors’ reasons (ACELT1594 - Scootle )
  • Listening
  • Speaking
  • Reading
  • reading texts in which Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children/young people are the central characters/protagonists and making links to students’ own lives, noting similarities
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • exploring the ways that the same story can be told in many cultures, identifying variations in the storyline and in music (for example ‘The Ramayana’ story which is told to children in India, Indonesia, Thailand, Cambodia, Burma, Laos, Tibet and Malaysia)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia

Responding to literature

Draw connections between personal experiences and the worlds of texts, and share responses with others (ACELT1596 - Scootle )
  • Writing
  • Listening
  • Speaking
  • Reading
  • discussing relevant prior knowledge and past experiences to make meaningful connections to the people, places, events, issues and ideas in the text
  • exploring texts that highlight issues and problems in making moral decisions and discussing these with others
  • drawing on literature from Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander or Asian cultures, to explore commonalities of experience and ideas as well as recognising difference in lifestyle and world view
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
Develop criteria for establishing personal preferences for literature (ACELT1598 - Scootle )
  • Writing
  • Listening
  • Speaking
  • Reading
  • building a conscious understanding of preference regarding topics and genres of personal interest (for example humorous short stories, school and family stories, mysteries, fantasy and quest, series books)
  • selecting and discussing favourite texts and explaining their reasons for assigning greater or lesser merit to particular texts or types of texts

Examining literature

Discuss how language is used to describe the settings in texts, and explore how the settings shape the events and influence the mood of the narrative (ACELT1599 - Scootle )
  • Writing
  • Listening
  • Speaking
  • Reading
  • identifying and discussing the use of descriptive adjectives (‘in the middle of a vast, bare plain’) to establish setting and atmosphere (‘the castle loomed dark and forbidding’) and to draw readers into events that follow
  • discussing the language used to describe the traits of characters in stories, their actions and motivations: ‘Claire was so lonely; she desperately wanted a pet and she was afraid she would do anything, just anything, to have one to care for’
Discuss the nature and effects of some language devices used to enhance meaning and shape the reader’s reaction, including rhythm and onomatopoeia in poetry and prose (ACELT1600 - Scootle )
  • Writing
  • Listening
  • Speaking
  • Reading
  • identifying the effect of imagery in texts, for example the use of imagery related to nature in haiku poems
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • exploring how rhythm, onomatopoeia and alliteration give momentum to poetry and prose read aloud, and enhance enjoyment

Creating literature

Create imaginative texts based on characters, settings and events from students’ own and other cultures using visual features, for example perspective, distance and angle (ACELT1601 - Scootle )
  • Writing
  • Listening
  • Speaking
  • Reading
  • drawing on literary texts read, viewed and listened to for inspiration and ideas, appropriating language to create mood and characterisation
  • innovating on texts read, viewed and listened to by changing the point of view, revising an ending or creating a sequel
Create texts that adapt language features and patterns encountered in literary texts, for example characterisation, rhyme, rhythm, mood, music, sound effects and dialogue (ACELT1791 - Scootle )
  • Writing
  • Listening
  • Speaking
  • Reading
  • creating visual and multimodal texts based on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander or Asian literature, applying one or more visual elements to convey the intent of the original text
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • creating multimodal texts that combine visual images, sound effects, music and voice overs to convey settings and events in a fantasy world

Texts in context

Identify the point of view in a text and suggest alternative points of view (ACELY1675 - Scootle )
  • Writing
  • Listening
  • Speaking
  • Reading
  • discussing how a text presents the point of view of the main character, and speculating on what other characters might think or feel
  • recognising that there is more than one way of looking at the same event and that stories seen through the eyes of one character privileges some aspects of the story over others
  • speculating about what other characters might think or feel and retelling the story from other perspectives (for example ‘Cinderella’ from the view of the ‘Ugly Sisters’)

Interacting with others

Listen to and contribute to conversations and discussions to share information and ideas and negotiate in collaborative situations (ACELY1676 - Scootle )
  • Listening
  • Speaking
  • participating in collaborative discussions, building on and connecting ideas and opinions expressed by others, and checking students’ own understanding against group views
Use interaction skills, including active listening behaviours and communicate in a clear, coherent manner using a variety of everyday and learned vocabulary and appropriate tone, pace, pitch and volume (ACELY1792 - Scootle )
  • Listening
  • Speaking
  • participating in pair, group and class speaking and listening situations, including informal conversations, class discussions and presentations
  • listening actively including listening for specific information, recognising the value of others’ contributions and responding through comments, recounts and summaries of information
  • learning the specific speaking or listening skills of different group roles, for example group leader, note taker and reporter
  • acquiring new vocabulary in all curriculum areas through listening, reading, viewing and discussion and using this vocabulary in specific ways such as describing people, places, things and processes
  • using language appropriately in different situations such as making a request of a teacher, explaining a procedure to a classmate, engaging in a game with friends
  • experimenting with voice effects in formal presentations such as tone, volume and pace
Plan and deliver short presentations, providing some key details in logical sequence (ACELY1677 - Scootle )
  • Writing
  • drawing on relevant research into a topic to prepare an oral or multimodal presentation, using devices such as storyboards to plan the sequence of ideas and information

Interpreting, analysing, evaluating

Identify the audience and purpose of imaginative, informative and persuasive texts (ACELY1678 - Scootle )
  • Writing
  • Listening
  • Speaking
  • Reading
  • identifying the author’s point of view on a topic and key words and images that seem intended to persuade listeners, viewers or readers to agree with the view presented
Read an increasing range of different types of texts by combining contextual, semantic, grammatical and phonic knowledge, using text processing strategies, for example monitoring, predicting, confirming, rereading, reading on and self-correcting (ACELY1679 - Scootle )
  • Reading
  • combining different types of knowledge (for example word knowledge, vocabulary, grammar, phonics) to make decisions about unknown words, reading on, reviewing and summarising meaning
  • analysing the way illustrations help to construct meaning and interpreting different types of illustrations and graphics
  • reading text types from a student’s culture to enhance confidence in building reading strategies
  • reading aloud with fluency and intonation
  • reading a wider range of texts, including chapter books and informative texts, for pleasure
Use comprehension strategies to build literal and inferred meaning and begin to evaluate texts by drawing on a growing knowledge of context, text structures and language features (ACELY1680 - Scootle )
  • Listening
  • Speaking
  • Reading
  • making connections between the text and students own experience and other texts
  • making connections between the information in print and images
  • making predictions and asking and answering questions about the text drawing on knowledge of the topic, subject-specific vocabulary and experience of texts on the same topic
  • using text features and search tools to locate information in written and digital texts efficiently
  • determining important ideas, events or details in texts commenting on things learned or questions raised by reading, referring explicitly to the text for verification
  • making considered inferences taking into account topic knowledge or a character’s likely actions and feelings

Creating texts

Plan, draft and publish imaginative, informative and persuasive texts demonstrating increasing control over text structures and language features and selecting print,and multimodal elements appropriate to the audience and purpose (ACELY1682 - Scootle )
  • Reading
  • using print and digital resources to gather information about a topic
  • selecting appropriate text structure for a writing purpose and sequencing content for clarity and audience impact
  • using appropriate simple, compound and complex sentences to express and combine ideas
  • using vocabulary, including technical vocabulary, relevant to the text type and purpose, and appropriate sentence structures to express and combine ideas
Re-read and edit texts for meaning, appropriate structure, grammatical choices and punctuation (ACELY1683 - Scootle )
  • Reading
  • using glossaries, print and digital dictionaries and spell check to edit spelling, realising that spell check accuracy depends on understanding the word function, for example there/their; rain/reign
Write using joined letters that are clearly formed and consistent in size (ACELY1684 - Scootle )
  • Writing
  • practising how to join letters to construct a fluent handwriting style
Use software including word processing programs with growing speed and efficiency to construct and edit texts featuring visual, print and audio elements (ACELY1685 - Scootle )
  • Reading
  • using features of relevant technologies to plan, sequence, compose and edit multimodal texts

Year 3 Achievement Standards

Receptive modes (listening, reading and viewing)

By the end of Year 3, students understand how content can be organised using different text structures depending on the purpose of the text. They understand how language features, images and vocabulary choices are used for different effects.

They read texts that contain varied sentence structures, a range of punctuation conventions, and images that provide extra information. They use phonics and word knowledge to fluently read more complex words. They identify literal and implied meaning connecting ideas in different parts of a text. They select information, ideas and events in texts that relate to their own lives and to other texts. They listen to others’ views and respond appropriately using interaction skills.

Productive modes (speaking, writing and creating)

Students understand how language features are used to link and sequence ideas. They understand how language can be used to express feelings and opinions on topics. Their texts include writing and images to express and develop, in some detail, experiences, events, information, ideas and characters.

Students create a range of texts for familiar and unfamiliar audiences. They contribute actively to class and group discussions, asking questions, providing useful feedback and making presentations. They demonstrate understanding of grammar and choose vocabulary and punctuation appropriate to the purpose and context of their writing. They use knowledge of letter-sound relationships including consonant and vowel clusters and high-frequency words to spell words accurately. They re-read and edit their writing, checking their work for appropriate vocabulary, structure and meaning. They write using joined letters that are accurately formed and consistent in size.


Year 3 Work Sample Portfolios