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Foundation Year

Foundation Year Level Description

The science content includes the three strands of Science Understanding, Science Inquiry Skills and Science as a Human Endeavour. The three strands of the curriculum are interrelated and their content is taught in an integrated way. The order and detail in which the content descriptions are organised into teaching/learning programs are decisions to be made by the teacher.

From Foundation to...

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The science content includes the three strands of Science Understanding, Science Inquiry Skills and Science as a Human Endeavour. The three strands of the curriculum are interrelated and their content is taught in an integrated way. The order and detail in which the content descriptions are organised into teaching/learning programs are decisions to be made by the teacher.

From Foundation to Year 2, students learn that observations can be organised to reveal patterns, and that these patterns can be used to make predictions about phenomena. In Foundation, students observe and describe the behaviours and properties of everyday objects, materials and living things. They explore change in the world around them, including changes that impact on them, such as the weather, and changes they can effect, such as making things move or change shape. They learn that seeking answers to questions and making observations is a core part of science and use their senses to gather different types of information.

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Foundation Year Content Descriptions

Science Understanding
Biological sciences
Earth and space sciences
Physical sciences
Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature and development of science

Science involves exploring and observing the world using the senses (ACSHE013)

Science Inquiry Skills
Questioning and predicting

Respond to questions about familiar objects and events (ACSIS014)

Planning and conducting

Explore and make observations by using the senses (ACSIS011)

Processing and analysing data and information

Engage in discussions about observations and use methods such as drawing to represent ideas (ACSIS233)

Communicating

Share observations and ideas (ACSIS012)

Foundation Year Achievement Standard

By the end of the Foundation year, students describe the properties and behaviour of familiar objects. They suggest how the environment affects them and other living things.

Students share observations of familiar objects and events.

 

Year 1

Year 1 Level Description

The Science Inquiry Skills and Science as a Human Endeavour strands are described across a two-year band. In their planning, schools and teachers refer to the expectations outlined in the Achievement Standard and also to the content of the Science Understanding strand for the relevant year level to ensure that these two strands are addressed over the two-year period. The three strands of the...

Read full description ›

The Science Inquiry Skills and Science as a Human Endeavour strands are described across a two-year band. In their planning, schools and teachers refer to the expectations outlined in the Achievement Standard and also to the content of the Science Understanding strand for the relevant year level to ensure that these two strands are addressed over the two-year period. The three strands of the curriculum are interrelated and their content is taught in an integrated way. The order and detail in which the content descriptions are organised into teaching/learning programs are decisions to be made by the teacher.

From Foundation to Year 2, students learn that observations can be organised to reveal patterns, and that these patterns can be used to make predictions about phenomena. In Year 1, students infer simple cause-and-effect relationships from their observations and experiences, and begin to link events and phenomena with observable effects. They observe changes that can be large or small and happen quickly or slowly. They explore the properties of familiar objects and phenomena, identifying similarities and differences. Students begin to value counting as a means of comparing observations, and are introduced to ways of organising their observations.

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Year 1 Content Descriptions

Science Understanding
Biological sciences

Living things live in different places where their needs are met (ACSSU211)

Chemical sciences
Physical sciences
Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature and development of science

Science involves asking questions about, and describing changes in, objects and events (ACSHE021)

Science Inquiry Skills
Questioning and predicting

Respond to and pose questions, and make predictions about familiar objects and events (ACSIS024)

Planning and conducting

Participate in different types of guided investigations to explore and answer questions, such as manipulating materials, testing ideas, and accessing information sources (ACSIS025)

Use informal measurements in the collection and recording of observations, with the assistance of digital technologies as appropriate (ACSIS026)

Processing and analysing data and information

Use a range of methods to sort information, including drawings and provided tables (ACSIS027)

Through discussion, compare observations with predictions (ACSIS212)

Evaluating
Communicating

Represent and communicate observations and ideas in a variety of ways such as oral and written language, drawing and role play (ACSIS029)

Year 1 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 1, students describe objects and events that they encounter in their everyday lives, and the effects of interacting with materials and objects. They identify a range of habitats. They describe changes to things in their local environment and suggest how science helps people care for environments.

Students make predictions, and investigate everyday phenomena. They follow instructions to record and sort their observations and share their observations with others.

 

Year 2

Year 2 Level Description

The Science Inquiry Skills and Science as a Human Endeavour strands are described across a two-year band. In their planning, schools and teachers refer to the expectations outlined in the Achievement Standards and also to the content of the Science Understanding strand for the relevant year level to ensure that these two strands are addressed over the two-year period. The three strands of the...

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The Science Inquiry Skills and Science as a Human Endeavour strands are described across a two-year band. In their planning, schools and teachers refer to the expectations outlined in the Achievement Standards and also to the content of the Science Understanding strand for the relevant year level to ensure that these two strands are addressed over the two-year period. The three strands of the curriculum are interrelated and their content is taught in an integrated way. The order and detail in which the content descriptions are organised into teaching/learning programs are decisions to be made by the teacher.

From Foundation to Year 2, students learn that observations can be organised to reveal patterns, and that these patterns can be used to make predictions about phenomena. In Year 2, students describe the components of simple systems, such as stationary objects subjected to pushes or pulls, or combinations of materials, and show how objects and materials interact through direct manipulation. They observe patterns of growth and change in living things, and describe patterns and make predictions. They explore the use of resources from Earth and are introduced to the idea of the flow of matter when considering how water is used. They use counting and informal measurements to make and compare observations and begin to recognise that organising these observations in tables makes it easier to show patterns.

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Year 2 Content Descriptions

Science Understanding
Biological sciences
Chemical sciences

Different materials can be combined, including by mixing, for a particular purpose (ACSSU031)

Earth and space sciences
Physical sciences
Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature and development of science

Science involves asking questions about, and describing changes in, objects and events (ACSHE034)

Use and influence of science
Science Inquiry Skills
Questioning and predicting

Respond to and pose questions, and make predictions about familiar objects and events (ACSIS037)

Planning and conducting

Participate in different types of guided investigations to explore and answer questions, such as manipulating materials, testing ideas, and accessing information sources (ACSIS038)

Use informal measurements in the collection and recording of observations, with the assistance of digital technologies as appropriate (ACSIS039)

Processing and analysing data and information

Use a range of methods to sort information, including drawings and provided tables (ACSIS040)

Through discussion, compare observations with predictions (ACSIS214)

Evaluating
Communicating

Represent and communicate observations and ideas in a variety of ways such as oral and written language, drawing and role play (ACSIS042)

Year 2 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 2, students describe changes to objects, materials and living things. They identify that certain materials and resources have different uses and describe examples of where science is used in people’s daily lives.

Students pose questions about their experiences and predict outcomes of investigations. They use informal measurements to make and compare observations. They follow instructions to record and represent their observations and communicate their ideas to others.

 

Year 3

Year 3 Level Description

The Science Inquiry Skills and Science as a Human Endeavour strands are described across a two-year band. In their planning, schools and teachers refer to the expectations outlined in the Achievement Standard and also to the content of the Science Understanding strand for the relevant year level to ensure that these two strands are addressed over the two-year period. The three strands of the...

Read full description ›

The Science Inquiry Skills and Science as a Human Endeavour strands are described across a two-year band. In their planning, schools and teachers refer to the expectations outlined in the Achievement Standard and also to the content of the Science Understanding strand for the relevant year level to ensure that these two strands are addressed over the two-year period. The three strands of the curriculum are interrelated and their content is taught in an integrated way. The order and detail in which the content descriptions are organised into teaching/learning programs are decisions to be made by the teacher.

Over Years 3 to 6, students develop their understanding of a range of systems operating at different time and geographic scales. In Year 3, students observe heat and its effects on solids and liquids and begin to develop an understanding of energy flows through simple systems. In observing day and night, they develop an appreciation of regular and predictable cycles. Students order their observations by grouping and classifying; in classifying things as living or non-living they begin to recognise that classifications are not always easy to define or apply. They begin to quantify their observations to enable comparison, and learn more sophisticated ways of identifying and representing relationships, including the use of tables and graphs to identify trends. They use their understanding of relationships between components of simple systems to make predictions.

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Year 3 Content Descriptions

Science Understanding
Biological sciences

Living things can be grouped on the basis of observable features and can be distinguished from non-living things (ACSSU044)

Chemical sciences

A change of state between solid and liquid can be caused by adding or removing heat (ACSSU046)

Earth and space sciences

Earth’s rotation on its axis causes regular changes, including night and day (ACSSU048)

Physical sciences
Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature and development of science

Science involves making predictions and describing patterns and relationships (ACSHE050)

Use and influence of science
Science Inquiry Skills
Questioning and predicting

With guidance, identify questions in familiar contexts that can be investigated scientifically and predict what might happen based on prior knowledge (ACSIS053)

Planning and conducting

Suggest ways to plan and conduct investigations to find answers to questions (ACSIS054)

Safely use appropriate materials, tools or equipment to make and record observations, using formal measurements and digital technologies as appropriate (ACSIS055)

Processing and analysing data and information

Use a range of methods including tables and simple column graphs to represent data and to identify patterns and trends (ACSIS057)

Compare results with predictions, suggesting possible reasons for findings (ACSIS215)

Evaluating

Reflect on the investigation, including whether a test was fair or not (ACSIS058)

Communicating

Represent and communicate ideas and findings in a variety of ways such as diagrams, physical representations and simple reports (ACSIS060)

Year 3 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 3, students use their understanding of the movement of the Earth, materials and the behaviour of heat to suggest explanations for everyday observations They describe features common to living things. They describe how they can use science investigations to respond to questions and identify where people use science knowledge in their lives.

Students use their experiences to pose questions and predict the outcomes of investigations. They make formal measurements and follow procedures to collect and present observations in a way that helps to answer the investigation questions. Students suggest possible reasons for their findings. They describe how safety and fairness were considered in their investigations. They use diagrams and other representations to communicate their ideas.

 

Year 4

Year 4 Level Description

The Science Inquiry Skills and Science as a Human Endeavour strands are described across a two-year band. In their planning, schools and teachers refer to the expectations outlined in the Achievement Standard and also to the content of the Science Understanding strand for the relevant year level to ensure that these two strands are addressed over the two-year period. The three strands of the...

Read full description ›

The Science Inquiry Skills and Science as a Human Endeavour strands are described across a two-year band. In their planning, schools and teachers refer to the expectations outlined in the Achievement Standard and also to the content of the Science Understanding strand for the relevant year level to ensure that these two strands are addressed over the two-year period. The three strands of the curriculum are interrelated and their content is taught in an integrated way. The order and detail in which the content descriptions are organised into teaching/learning programs are decisions to be made by the teacher.

Over Years 3 to 6, students develop their understanding of a range of systems operating at different time and geographic scales. In Year 4, students broaden their understanding of classification and form and function through an exploration of the properties of natural and processed materials. They learn that forces include non-contact forces and begin to appreciate that some interactions result from phenomena that can’t be seen with the naked eye. They begin to appreciate that current systems, such as Earth’s surface, have characteristics that have resulted from past changes and that living things form part of systems. They understand that some systems change in predictable ways, such as through cycles. They apply their knowledge to make predictions based on interactions within systems, including those involving the actions of humans.

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Year 4 Content Descriptions

Science Understanding
Chemical sciences

Natural and processed materials have a range of physical properties; These properties can influence their use (ACSSU074)

Earth and space sciences

Earth’s surface changes over time as a result of natural processes and human activity (ACSSU075)

Physical sciences

Forces can be exerted by one object on another through direct contact or from a distance (ACSSU076)

Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature and development of science

Science involves making predictions and describing patterns and relationships (ACSHE061)

Use and influence of science
Science Inquiry Skills
Questioning and predicting

With guidance, identify questions in familiar contexts that can be investigated scientifically and predict what might happen based on prior knowledge (ACSIS064)

Planning and conducting

Suggest ways to plan and conduct investigations to find answers to questions (ACSIS065)

Safely use appropriate materials, tools or equipment to make and record observations, using formal measurements and digital technologies as appropriate (ACSIS066)

Processing and analysing data and information

Use a range of methods including tables and simple column graphs to represent data and to identify patterns and trends (ACSIS068)

Compare results with predictions, suggesting possible reasons for findings (ACSIS216)

Evaluating

Reflect on the investigation; including whether a test was fair or not (ACSIS069)

Communicating

Represent and communicate ideas and findings in a variety of ways such as diagrams, physical representations and simple reports (ACSIS071)

Year 4 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 4, students apply the observable properties of materials to explain how objects and materials can be used. They use contact and non-contact forces to describe interactions between objects. They discuss how natural and human processes cause changes to the Earth’s surface. They describe relationships that assist the survival of living things and sequence key stages in the life cycle of a plant or animal. They identify when science is used to ask questions and make predictions. They describe situations where science understanding can influence their own and others’ actions.

Students follow instructions to identify investigable questions about familiar contexts and predict likely outcomes from investigations. They discuss ways to conduct investigations and safely use equipment to make and record observations. They use provided tables and simple column graphs to organise their data and identify patterns in data. Students suggest explanations for observations and compare their findings with their predictions. They suggest reasons why their methods were fair or not. They complete simple reports to communicate their methods and findings.

 

Year 5

Year 5 Level Description

The Science Inquiry Skills and Science as a Human Endeavour strands are described across a two-year band. In their planning, schools and teachers refer to the expectations outlined in the Achievement Standard and also to the content of the Science Understanding strand for the relevant year level to ensure that these two strands are addressed over the two-year period. The three strands of...

Read full description ›

The Science Inquiry Skills and Science as a Human Endeavour strands are described across a two-year band. In their planning, schools and teachers refer to the expectations outlined in the Achievement Standard and also to the content of the Science Understanding strand for the relevant year level to ensure that these two strands are addressed over the two-year period. The three strands of the curriculum are interrelated and their content is taught in an integrated way. The order and detail in which the content descriptions are organised into teaching/learning programs are decisions to be made by the teacher.

Over Years 3 to 6, students develop their understanding of a range of systems operating at different time and geographic scales. In Year 5, students are introduced to cause and effect relationships that relate to form and function through an exploration of adaptations of living things. They explore observable phenomena associated with light and begin to appreciate that phenomena have sets of characteristic behaviours. They broaden their classification of matter to include gases and begin to see how matter structures the world around them. Students consider Earth as a component within a solar system and use models for investigating systems at astronomical scales. Students begin to identify stable and dynamic aspects of systems, and learn how to look for patterns and relationships between components of systems. They develop explanations for the patterns they observe.

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Year 5 Content Descriptions

Science Understanding
Biological sciences

Living things have structural features and adaptations that help them to survive in their environment (ACSSU043)

Chemical sciences

Solids, liquids and gases have different observable properties and behave in different ways (ACSSU077)

Earth and space sciences
Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature and development of science

Science involves testing predictions by gathering data and using evidence to develop explanations of events and phenomena (ACSHE081)

Important contributions to the advancement of science have been made by people from a range of cultures (ACSHE082)

Use and influence of science

Scientific understandings, discoveries and inventions are used to solve problems that directly affect peoples’ lives (ACSHE083)

Science Inquiry Skills
Questioning and predicting

With guidance, pose questions to clarify practical problems or inform a scientific investigation, and predict what the findings of an investigation might be (ACSIS231)

Planning and conducting

With guidance, plan appropriate investigation methods to answer questions or solve problems (ACSIS086)

Decide which variable should be changed and measured in fair tests and accurately observe, measure and record data, using digital technologies as appropriate (ACSIS087)

Use equipment and materials safely, identifying potential risks (ACSIS088)

Processing and analysing data and information

Construct and use a range of representations, including tables and graphs, to represent and describe observations, patterns or relationships in data using digital technologies as appropriate (ACSIS090)

Compare data with predictions and use as evidence in developing explanations (ACSIS218)

Evaluating

Suggest improvements to the methods used to investigate a question or solve a problem (ACSIS091)

Communicating

Communicate ideas, explanations and processes in a variety of ways, including multi-modal texts (ACSIS093)

Year 5 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 5, students classify substances according to their observable properties and behaviours. They explain everyday phenomena associated with the transfer of light. They describe the key features of our solar system. They analyse how the form of living things enables them to function in their environments. Students discuss how scientific developments have affected people’s lives and how science knowledge develops from many people’s contributions.

Students follow instructions to pose questions for investigation, predict what might happen when variables are changed, and plan investigation methods. They use equipment in ways that are safe and improve the accuracy of their observations. Students construct tables and graphs to organise data and identify patterns. They use patterns in their data to suggest explanations and refer to data when they report findings. They describe ways to improve the fairness of their methods and communicate their ideas, methods and findings using a range of text types.

 

Year 6

Year 6 Level Description

The Science Inquiry Skills and Science as a Human Endeavour strands are described across a two-year band. In their planning, schools and teachers refer to the expectations outlined in the Achievement Standard and also to the content of the Science Understanding strand for the relevant year level to ensure that these two strands are addressed over the two-year period. The three strands of the...

Read full description ›

The Science Inquiry Skills and Science as a Human Endeavour strands are described across a two-year band. In their planning, schools and teachers refer to the expectations outlined in the Achievement Standard and also to the content of the Science Understanding strand for the relevant year level to ensure that these two strands are addressed over the two-year period. The three strands of the curriculum are interrelated and their content is taught in an integrated way. The order and detail in which the content descriptions are organised into teaching/learning programs are decisions to be made by the teacher.

Over Years 3 to 6, students develop their understanding of a range of systems operating at different time and geographic scales. In Year 6, students explore how changes can be classified in different ways. They learn about transfer and transformations of electricity, and continue to develop an understanding of energy flows through systems. They link their experiences of electric circuits as a system at one scale, to generation of electricity from a variety of sources at another scale and begin to see links between these systems. They develop a view of Earth as a dynamic system, in which changes in one aspect of the system impact on other aspects; similarly they see that the growth and survival of living things are dependent on matter and energy flows within a larger system. Students begin to see the role of variables in measuring changes and learn how look for patterns and relationships between variables. They develop explanations for the patterns they observe, drawing on evidence.

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Year 6 Content Descriptions

Science Understanding
Biological sciences

The growth and survival of living things are affected by the physical conditions of their environment (ACSSU094)

Chemical sciences

Changes to materials can be reversible, such as melting, freezing, evaporating; or irreversible, such as burning and rusting (ACSSU095)

Earth and space sciences

Sudden geological changes or extreme weather conditions can affect Earth’s surface (ACSSU096)

Physical sciences

Electrical circuits provide a means of transferring and transforming electricity (ACSSU097)

Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature and development of science

Science involves testing predictions by gathering data and using evidence to develop explanations of events and phenomena (ACSHE098)

Important contributions to the advancement of science have been made by people from a range of cultures (ACSHE099)

Use and influence of science

Scientific understandings, discoveries and inventions are used to solve problems that directly affect peoples’ lives (ACSHE100)

Science Inquiry Skills
Questioning and predicting

With guidance, pose questions to clarify practical problems or inform a scientific investigation, and predict what the findings of an investigation might be (ACSIS232)

Planning and conducting

With guidance, plan appropriate investigation methods to answer questions or solve problems (ACSIS103)

Decide which variable should be changed and measured in fair tests and accurately observe, measure and record data, using digital technologies as appropriate (ACSIS104)

Use equipment and materials safely, identifying potential risks (ACSIS105)

Processing and analysing data and information

Construct and use a range of representations, including tables and graphs, to represent and describe observations, patterns or relationships in data using digital technologies as appropriate (ACSIS107)

Compare data with predictions and use as evidence in developing explanations (ACSIS221)

Evaluating

Suggest improvements to the methods used to investigate a question or solve a problem (ACSIS108)

Communicating

Communicate ideas, explanations and processes in a variety of ways, including multi-modal texts (ACSIS110)

Year 6 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 6, students compare and classify different types of observable changes to materials. They analyse requirements for the transfer of electricity and describe how energy can be transformed from one form to another to generate electricity. They explain how natural events cause rapid change to the Earth’s surface. They describe and predict the effect of environmental changes on individual living things. Students explain how scientific knowledge is used in decision making and identify contributions to the development of science by people from a range of cultures.

Students follow procedures to develop investigable questions and design investigations into simple cause-and-effect relationships. They identify variables to be changed and measured and describe potential safety risks when planning methods. They collect, organise and interpret their data, identifying where improvements to their methods or research could improve the data. They describe and analyse relationships in data using graphic representations and construct multi-modal texts to communicate ideas, methods and findings.

 

Year 7

Year 7 Level Description

The Science Inquiry Skills and Science as a Human Endeavour strands are described across a two-year band. In their planning, schools and teachers refer to the expectations outlined in the Achievement Standards and also to the content of the Science Understanding strand for the relevant year level to ensure that these two strands are addressed over the two-year period. The three strands of the...

Read full description ›

The Science Inquiry Skills and Science as a Human Endeavour strands are described across a two-year band. In their planning, schools and teachers refer to the expectations outlined in the Achievement Standards and also to the content of the Science Understanding strand for the relevant year level to ensure that these two strands are addressed over the two-year period. The three strands of the curriculum are interrelated and their content is taught in an integrated way. The order and detail in which the content descriptions are organised into teaching/learning programs are decisions to be made by the teacher.

Over Years 7 to 10, students develop their understanding of microscopic and atomic structures; how systems at a range of scales are shaped by flows of energy and matter and interactions due to forces, and develop the ability to quantify changes and relative amounts. In Year 7, students explore the diversity of life on Earth and continue to develop their understanding of the role of classification in ordering and organising information. They use and develop models such as food chains, food webs and the water cycle to represent and analyse the flow of energy and matter through ecosystems and explore the impact of changing components within these systems. They consider the interaction between multiple forces when explaining changes in an object’s motion. They explore the notion of renewable and non-renewable resources and consider how this classification depends on the timescale considered. They investigate relationships in the Earth, sun, moon system and use models to predict and explain events. Students make accurate measurements and control variables to analyse relationships between system components and explore and explain these relationships through increasingly complex representations.

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Year 7 Content Descriptions

Science Understanding
Biological sciences

There are differences within and between groups of organisms; classification helps organise this diversity (ACSSU111)

Interactions between organisms can be described in terms of food chains and food webs; human activity can affect these interactions (ACSSU112)

Chemical sciences

Mixtures, including solutions, contain a combination of pure substances that can be separated using a range of techniques (ACSSU113)

Earth and space sciences

Predictable phenomena on Earth, including seasons and eclipses, are caused by the relative positions of the sun, Earth and the moon (ACSSU115)

Physical sciences

Change to an object’s motion is caused by unbalanced forces acting on the object (ACSSU117)

Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature and development of science

Scientific knowledge changes as new evidence becomes available, and some scientific discoveries have significantly changed people’s understanding of the world (ACSHE119)

Science knowledge can develop through collaboration and connecting ideas across the disciplines of science (ACSHE223)

Use and influence of science

Science and technology contribute to finding solutions to a range of contemporary issues; these solutions may impact on other areas of society and involve ethical considerations (ACSHE120)

Science understanding influences the development of practices in areas of human activity such as industry, agriculture and marine and terrestrial resource management (ACSHE121)

People use understanding and skills from across the disciplines of science in their occupations (ACSHE224)

Science Inquiry Skills
Questioning and predicting

Identify questions and problems that can be investigated scientifically and make predictions based on scientific knowledge (ACSIS124)

Planning and conducting

In fair tests, measure and control variables, and select equipment to collect data with accuracy appropriate to the task (ACSIS126)

Processing and analysing data and information

Summarise data, from students’ own investigations and secondary sources, and use scientific understanding to identify relationships and draw conclusions (ACSIS130)

Evaluating

Reflect on the method used to investigate a question or solve a problem, including evaluating the quality of the data collected, and identify improvements to the method (ACSIS131)

Communicating

Year 7 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 7, students describe techniques to separate pure substances from mixtures. They represent and predict the effects of unbalanced forces, including Earth’s gravity, on motion. They explain how the relative positions of the Earth, sun and moon affect phenomena on Earth. They analyse how the sustainable use of resources depends on the way they are formed and cycle through Earth systems. They predict the effect of environmental changes on feeding relationships and classify and organise diverse organisms based on observable differences. Students describe situations where scientific knowledge from different science disciplines has been used to solve a real-world problem. They explain how the solution was viewed by, and impacted on, different groups in society.

Students identify questions that can be investigated scientifically. They plan fair experimental methods, identifying variables to be changed and measured. They select equipment that improves fairness and accuracy and describe how they considered safety. Students draw on evidence to support their conclusions. They summarise data from different sources, describe trends and refer to the quality of their data when suggesting improvements to their methods. They communicate their ideas, methods and findings using scientific language and appropriate representations.

 

Year 8

Year 8 Level Description

The Science Inquiry Skills and Science as a Human Endeavour strands are described across a two-year band. In their planning, schools and teachers refer to the expectations outlined in the Achievement Standard and also to the content of the Science Understanding strand for the relevant year level to ensure that these two strands are addressed over the two-year period. The three strands of the...

Read full description ›

The Science Inquiry Skills and Science as a Human Endeavour strands are described across a two-year band. In their planning, schools and teachers refer to the expectations outlined in the Achievement Standard and also to the content of the Science Understanding strand for the relevant year level to ensure that these two strands are addressed over the two-year period. The three strands of the curriculum are interrelated and their content is taught in an integrated way. The Science as a Human Endeavour strand can provide relevant contexts in which science can be taught. The order and detail in which the content descriptions are organised into teaching/learning programs are decisions to be made by the teacher.

Over Years 7 to 10, students develop their understanding of microscopic and atomic structures; how systems at a range of scales are shaped by flows of energy and matter and interactions due to forces, and develop the ability to quantify changes and relative amounts. In Year 8, students are introduced to cells as microscopic structures that explain macroscopic properties of living systems. They link form and function at a cellular level and explore the organisation of body systems in terms of flows of matter between interdependent organs. Similarly, they explore changes in matter at a particle level, and distinguish between chemical and physical change. They begin to classify different forms of energy, and describe the role of energy in causing change in systems, including the role of heat and kinetic energy in the rock cycle. Students use experimentation to isolate relationships between components in systems and explain these relationships through increasingly complex representations. They make predictions and propose explanations, drawing on evidence to support their views.

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Year 8 Content Descriptions

Science Understanding
Biological sciences

Cells are the basic units of living things and have specialised structures and functions (ACSSU149)

Multi-cellular organisms contain systems of organs that carry out specialised functions that enable them to survive and reproduce (ACSSU150)

Chemical sciences

The properties of the different states of matter can be explained in terms of the motion and arrangement of particles (ACSSU151)

Differences between elements, compounds and mixtures can be described at a particle level (ACSSU152)

Earth and space sciences

Sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks contain minerals and are formed by processes that occur within Earth over a variety of timescales (ACSSU153)

Physical sciences

Energy appears in different forms including movement (kinetic energy), heat and potential energy, and causes change within systems (ACSSU155)

Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature and development of science

Scientific knowledge changes as new evidence becomes available, and some scientific discoveries have significantly changed people’s understanding of the world (ACSHE134)

Science knowledge can develop through collaboration and connecting ideas across the disciplines of science (ACSHE226)

Use and influence of science

Science and technology contribute to finding solutions to a range of contemporary issues; these solutions may impact on other areas of society and involve ethical considerations (ACSHE135)

Science understanding influences the development of practices in areas of human activity such as industry, agriculture and marine and terrestrial resource management (ACSHE136)

People use understanding and skills from across the disciplines of science in their occupations (ACSHE227)

Science Inquiry Skills
Questioning and predicting

Identify questions and problems that can be investigated scientifically and make predictions based on scientific knowledge (ACSIS139)

Planning and conducting

In fair tests, measure and control variables, and select equipment to collect data with accuracy appropriate to the task (ACSIS141)

Processing and analysing data and information

Summarise data, from students’ own investigations and secondary sources, and use scientific understanding to identify relationships and draw conclusions (ACSIS145)

Evaluating

Reflect on the method used to investigate a question or solve a problem, including evaluating the quality of the data collected, and identify improvements to the method (ACSIS146)

Communicating

Year 8 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 8, students compare physical and chemical changes and use the particle model to explain and predict the properties and behaviours of substances. They identify different forms of energy and describe how energy transfers and transformations cause change in simple systems. They compare processes of rock formation, including the time scales involved. They analyse the relationship between structure and function at cell, organ and body system levels. Students examine the different science knowledge used in occupations. They explain how evidence has led to an improved understanding of a scientific idea and describe situations in which scientists collaborated to generate solutions to contemporary problems.

Students identify and construct questions and problems that they can investigate scientifically. They consider safety and ethics when planning investigations, including designing field or experimental methods. They identify variables to be changed, measured and controlled. Students construct representations of their data to reveal and analyse patterns and trends, and use these when justifying their conclusions. They explain how modifications to methods could improve the quality of their data and apply their own scientific knowledge and investigation findings to evaluate claims made by others. They use appropriate language and representations to communicate science ideas, methods and findings in a range of text types.

 

Year 9

Year 9 Level Description

The Science Inquiry Skills and the Science as a Human Endeavour strands are described across a two-year band. In their planning, schools and teachers refer to the expectations outlined in the Achievement Standards and also to the content of the Science Understanding strand for the relevant year level to ensure that these two strands are addressed over the two-year period. The three strands of...

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The Science Inquiry Skills and the Science as a Human Endeavour strands are described across a two-year band. In their planning, schools and teachers refer to the expectations outlined in the Achievement Standards and also to the content of the Science Understanding strand for the relevant year level to ensure that these two strands are addressed over the two-year period. The three strands of the curriculum are interrelated and their content is taught in an integrated way. The order and detail in which the content descriptions are organised into teaching/learning programs are decisions to be made by the teacher.

Over Years 7 to 10, students develop their understanding of microscopic and atomic structures, how systems at a range of scales are shaped by flows of energy and matter and interactions due to forces, and develop the ability to quantify changes and relative amounts. In Year 9, students consider the operation of systems at a range of scales. They explore ways in which the human body as a system responds to its external environment and the interdependencies between biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems. They are introduced to the notion of the atom as a system of protons, electrons and neutrons, and how this system can change through nuclear decay. They learn that matter can be rearranged through chemical change and that these changes play an important role in many systems. They are introduced to the concept of the conservation of matter and begin to develop a more sophisticated view of energy transfer. They begin to apply their understanding of energy and forces to global systems such as continental movement.

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Year 9 Content Descriptions

Science Understanding
Biological sciences

Multi-cellular organisms rely on coordinated and interdependent internal systems to respond to changes to their environment (ACSSU175)

Ecosystems consist of communities of interdependent organisms and abiotic components of the environment; matter and energy flow through these systems (ACSSU176)

Chemical sciences

All matter is made of atoms which are composed of protons, neutrons and electrons; natural radioactivity arises from the decay of nuclei in atoms (ACSSU177)

Chemical reactions involve rearranging atoms to form new substances; during a chemical reaction mass is not created or destroyed (ACSSU178)

Chemical reactions, including combustion and the reactions of acids, are important in both non-living and living systems and involve energy transfer (ACSSU179)

Earth and space sciences
Physical sciences

Energy transfer through different mediums can be explained using wave and particle models (ACSSU182)

Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature and development of science

Scientific understanding, including models and theories, are contestable and are refined over time through a process of review by the scientific community (ACSHE157)

Advances in scientific understanding often rely on developments in technology and technological advances are often linked to scientific discoveries (ACSHE158)

Use and influence of science

People can use scientific knowledge to evaluate whether they should accept claims, explanations or predictions (ACSHE160)

Advances in science and emerging sciences and technologies can significantly affect people’s lives, including generating new career opportunities (ACSHE161)

Science Inquiry Skills
Questioning and predicting
Planning and conducting

Plan, select and use appropriate investigation methods, including field work and laboratory experimentation, to collect reliable data; assess risk and address ethical issues associated with these methods (ACSIS165)

Processing and analysing data and information

Analyse patterns and trends in data, including describing relationships between variables and identifying inconsistencies (ACSIS169)

Use knowledge of scientific concepts to draw conclusions that are consistent with evidence (ACSIS170)

Evaluating

Evaluate conclusions, including identifying sources of uncertainty and possible alternative explanations, and describe specific ways to improve the quality of the data (ACSIS171)

Critically analyse the validity of information in secondary sources and evaluate the approaches used to solve problems (ACSIS172)

Communicating

Communicate scientific ideas and information for a particular purpose, including constructing evidence-based arguments and using appropriate scientific language, conventions and representations (ACSIS174)

Year 9 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 9, students explain chemical processes and natural radioactivity in terms of atoms and energy transfers and describe examples of important chemical reactions. They describe models of energy transfer and apply these to explain phenomena. They explain global features and events in terms of geological processes and timescales. They analyse how biological systems function and respond to external changes with reference to interdependencies, energy transfers and flows of matter. They describe social and technological factors that have influenced scientific developments and predict how future applications of science and technology may affect people’s lives.

Students design questions that can be investigated using a range of inquiry skills. They design methods that include the control and accurate measurement of variables and systematic collection of data and describe how they considered ethics and safety. They analyse trends in data, identify relationships between variables and reveal inconsistencies in results. They analyse their methods and the quality of their data, and explain specific actions to improve the quality of their evidence. They evaluate others’ methods and explanations from a scientific perspective and use appropriate language and representations when communicating their findings and ideas to specific audiences.

 

Year 10

Year 10 Level Description

The Science Inquiry Skills and Science as a Human Endeavour strands are described across a two-year band. In their planning, schools and teachers refer to the expectations outlined in the Achievement Standard and also to the content of the Science Understanding strand for the relevant year level to ensure that these two strands are addressed over the two-year period. The three strands of the...

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The Science Inquiry Skills and Science as a Human Endeavour strands are described across a two-year band. In their planning, schools and teachers refer to the expectations outlined in the Achievement Standard and also to the content of the Science Understanding strand for the relevant year level to ensure that these two strands are addressed over the two-year period. The three strands of the curriculum are interrelated and their content should be taught in an integrated way.

The order and detail in which the content descriptions are organised into teaching/learning programs are decisions to be made by the teacher.

In the Year 10 curriculum students explore systems at different scales and connect microscopic and macroscopic properties to explain phenomena. Students explore the biological, chemical, geological and physical evidence for different theories, such as the theories of natural selection and the Big Bang. Atomic theory is developed to understand relationships within the periodic table. Understanding motion and forces are related by applying physical laws. Relationships between aspects of the living, physical and chemical world are applied to systems on a local and global scale and this enables students to predict how changes will affect equilibrium within these systems.

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Year 10 Content Descriptions

Science Understanding
Biological sciences

The transmission of heritable characteristics from one generation to the next involves DNA and genes (ACSSU184)

The theory of evolution by natural selection explains the diversity of living things and is supported by a range of scientific evidence (ACSSU185)

Chemical sciences

The atomic structure and properties of elements are used to organise them in the Periodic Table (ACSSU186)

Different types of chemical reactions are used to produce a range of products and can occur at different rates (ACSSU187)

Earth and space sciences

The universe contains features including galaxies, stars and solar systems and the Big Bang theory can be used to explain the origin of the universe (ACSSU188)

Global systems, including the carbon cycle, rely on interactions involving the biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere (ACSSU189)

Physical sciences

Energy conservation in a system can be explained by describing energy transfers and transformations (ACSSU190)

The motion of objects can be described and predicted using the laws of physics (ACSSU229)

Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature and development of science

Scientific understanding, including models and theories, are contestable and are refined over time through a process of review by the scientific community (ACSHE191)

Advances in scientific understanding often rely on developments in technology and technological advances are often linked to scientific discoveries (ACSHE192)

Use and influence of science

People can use scientific knowledge to evaluate whether they should accept claims, explanations or predictions (ACSHE194)

Advances in science and emerging sciences and technologies can significantly affect people’s lives, including generating new career opportunities (ACSHE195)

Science Inquiry Skills
Questioning and predicting
Planning and conducting

Plan, select and use appropriate investigation methods, including field work and laboratory experimentation, to collect reliable data; assess risk and address ethical issues associated with these methods (ACSIS199)

Processing and analysing data and information

Analyse patterns and trends in data, including describing relationships between variables and identifying inconsistencies (ACSIS203)

Use knowledge of scientific concepts to draw conclusions that are consistent with evidence (ACSIS204)

Evaluating

Evaluate conclusions, including identifying sources of uncertainty and possible alternative explanations, and describe specific ways to improve the quality of the data (ACSIS205)

Critically analyse the validity of information in secondary sources and evaluate the approaches used to solve problems (ACSIS206)

Communicating

Communicate scientific ideas and information for a particular purpose, including constructing evidence-based arguments and using appropriate scientific language, conventions and representations (ACSIS208)

Year 10 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 10, students analyse how the periodic table organises elements and use it to make predictions about the properties of elements. They explain how chemical reactions are used to produce particular products and how different factors influence the rate of reactions. They explain the concept of energy conservation and represent energy transfer and transformation within systems. They apply relationships between force, mass and acceleration to predict changes in the motion of objects. Students describe and analyse interactions and cycles within and between Earth’s spheres. They evaluate the evidence for scientific theories that explain the origin of the universe and the diversity of life on Earth. They explain the processes that underpin heredity and evolution. Students analyse how the models and theories they use have developed over time and discuss the factors that prompted their review.

Students develop questions and hypotheses and independently design and improve appropriate methods of investigation, including field work and laboratory experimentation. They explain how they have considered reliability, safety, fairness and ethical actions in their methods and identify...

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By the end of Year 10, students analyse how the periodic table organises elements and use it to make predictions about the properties of elements. They explain how chemical reactions are used to produce particular products and how different factors influence the rate of reactions. They explain the concept of energy conservation and represent energy transfer and transformation within systems. They apply relationships between force, mass and acceleration to predict changes in the motion of objects. Students describe and analyse interactions and cycles within and between Earth’s spheres. They evaluate the evidence for scientific theories that explain the origin of the universe and the diversity of life on Earth. They explain the processes that underpin heredity and evolution. Students analyse how the models and theories they use have developed over time and discuss the factors that prompted their review.

Students develop questions and hypotheses and independently design and improve appropriate methods of investigation, including field work and laboratory experimentation. They explain how they have considered reliability, safety, fairness and ethical actions in their methods and identify where digital technologies can be used to enhance the quality of data. When analysing data, selecting evidence and developing and justifying conclusions, they identify alternative explanations for findings and explain any sources of uncertainty. Students evaluate the validity and reliability of claims made in secondary sources with reference to currently held scientific views, the quality of the methodology and the evidence cited. They construct evidence-based arguments and select appropriate representations and text types to communicate science ideas for specific purposes.

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