Print/Download

Framework for Aboriginal Languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages - LR

Hide options
 

Foundation to Year 2

Foundation to Year 2 Band Description

The nature of the learner, the pathway and particular language

The Language Revival Learner Pathway (LR) provides opportunities for students to study Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander languages being revived by their owners or custodians and which are in various stages of revitalisation, renewal and reclamation.

LR covers a much broader range of language types and ecologies than either L1...

Read full description ›

The nature of the learner, the pathway and particular language

The Language Revival Learner Pathway (LR) provides opportunities for students to study Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander languages being revived by their owners or custodians and which are in various stages of revitalisation, renewal and reclamation.

LR covers a much broader range of language types and ecologies than either L1 or L2, and the vast majority of Aboriginal languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages are included in the LR category.

Schools offering the Language Revival Learner Pathway (LR) will most likely be located broadly within the geographical region of the language and culture, sometimes in towns and cities, other times in rural and remote regions. Classes will likely include students who relate closely to the language and culture, as well as students with varying degrees of affiliation with the language and culture, and some students who have no connections with either the language or culture. A key expectation in the LR pathway is that of students having opportunities to interact with Elders and particular places on Country/Place.

The Language Revival Learner Pathway draws on the Australian Indigenous Languages Framework (AILF) and takes into account key variables such as: how much is known about and documented for the language; the extent to which it is languages used or remembered, ranging from languages no longer spoken (owners often use the term ‘sleeping’) to those spoken fluently by members of the older generations; and the extent to which it has been reintroduced into the community of owners and custodians.

These variables give rise to the following broad categories of language revival:

  • Language Revitalisation : where there are fluent L1 speakers (typically members of the older generation) but where the intergenerational transmission of the language has been interrupted. Younger generations may understand some of the language and may use some words and phrases but do not speak it as their first language. Examples of revitalisation languages include Walmajarri in the Kimberley, Yindjibarndi in the Pilbara, Meriam in the Torres Strait, Dyirbal in north-eastern Queensland, Wubuy (Nunggubuyu) in Arnhem Land, and Adnyamathanha (Yura Ngawarla) in the Flinders Ranges.
  • Language Renewal : where there are a number of adult speakers who use the language to varying degrees in the community, but not ‘right through’, and where there are other language resources to draw upon. Examples of languages being renewed include Noongar in south-west Western Australia, Gumbaynggirr on the north coast of New South Wales, Ngarrindjeri on the Lower Murray Lakes in South Australia, Djabugay in the Atherton Tablelands in northern Queensland, and Yugambeh in southern Queensland.
  • Language Reclamation : where language revival, by necessity, relies primarily on historical documentation of the language in the absence of active community knowledge of it. Examples of reclamation languages include Kaurna from Adelaide, Narungga from the Yorke Peninsula, Dharuk or Eora (Iyora) from Sydney, Yuwibara from central Queensland, Wemba-Wemba and Woiwurrung from Victoria, and Awabakal from the Newcastle area in New South Wales.

A number of factors and variables will need to be considered when planning for a language revival curriculum or program, and further information on these is presented in the context statement for this pathway and in the section Using the Framework.

Children enter the early years of schooling with established communication skills in one or more languages and varying degrees of acquisition of early literacy. Learning typically focuses on learners’ immediate world of family, home, school, friends and local environment. They are learning how to socialise with new people, share with others, and participate in structured routines and activities at school.

Language learning and use

The language is learnt in parallel with English language and literacy. Learning in the two areas progresses at very different levels, but each supports and enriches the other.

As the program is likely to be on Country/Place, links can be made to local places of significance, local families, and local histories.

The language is used as much as possible in classroom interactions, routines and activities, supported by the use of visual and concrete materials, gestures and body language. At this stage, there is a focus on play and imaginative activities, games, music, movement and familiar routines, which provide scaffolding and context for language development.

Oral language is developed through listening to the sounds, shapes and patterns of the language, through activities such as rhymes, songs, clapping and action games, and through imitating and repeating sounds in aural texts and as modelled by the teaching team, visiting Elders and community speakers.

Learners experiment with simple formulaic expressions, single-idea phrases and with one- or two-word responses to prompts and cues. As they progress to using language for interactions such as greetings, asking for help, talking about self, friends and family, or asking and answering questions, they notice that language behaves differently in different situations. Creative play provides opportunities for exploring these differences and for using language for purposeful interaction.

Students learn about Country/Place and community by interacting with Elders and community members, by exploring Country/Place, and by engaging with stories, songs and other texts such as videos, maps, and pictures. They learn about the concepts of kin and social groupings.

Students learn to use appropriate respect terms and to demonstrate respectful and appropriate behaviour when interacting with Elders, community speakers and community texts. Learners for whom the language is their heritage language develop a stronger sense of their own group and individual identity through the study of the language and culture.

Students learn to recognise letters that represent the sounds of the language. They write by tracing and copying, forming letters legibly. They learn to read and write words and sentences independently, using modelled language, for example, matching pictures with single words, labels and captions. The use of repetition and recycling in instruction helps children to identify high-frequency words and simple phrases and to recognise the purpose and intention of simple texts.

Students begin to understand how the language works, and compare it with English and other known languages. They understand its place in the context of broader regional and national language diversity. They learn about their role in developing resources for the language, for example by working with the community language team to create new games and songs in language, understanding how such efforts support the language to grow.

Contexts of interaction

Across Foundation to Year 2, learning occurs largely through interaction with peers and the teaching team, supplemented by some access to Elders and others affiliated with the language for additional enrichment and authentication of the learning experience. Interacting with Country/Place and exploring the environment with Elders and other community members is essential to language learning at all stages, but is particularly important during this early establishment phase, when learning is grounded in the familiar and understanding of language as lived experience is so important.

Texts and resources

Country/Place and its associated community are the most important resources for learning. They are the origin of most of the texts children engage with.

Texts include a variety of spoken, visual, written and digital resources, which are short, clearly structured, and supported by visuals and paralinguistic elements such as tone of voice, facial expression, body gesture. They include repetition and recycling of structures and vocabulary. Children listen and respond to teacher talk, share ideas and join in with songs, stories and different forms of play, performance, conversations and other language-mediated activities. Print and digital texts include word lists, place names, stories, shared Big Books, songs, photos, videos, environmental maps and wall charts. Teacher-generated materials include games and items from the community and local environment. Some texts involve English or another community language in a complementary role, filling in for items or expressions that have not yet been reconstituted in the language. Other texts will be bilingual, with no mixing of languages.

Level of support

Learning is supported via the provision of experiences that are challenging but achievable with appropriate scaffolding and support. This involves modelling, monitoring and moderating by the teacher; provision of multiple and varied sources of input; opportunities for revisiting, recycling and reviewing learned language; and continuous cueing, feedback, response and encouragement.

The role of languages

Learners are encouraged to use the language whenever possible in class interactions and daily routines with the teaching team, Elders and community members. Maximal use of the language will increase learners’ language proficiency and enhance the language revival process.

English and other known languages are used for explanation and discussion, allowing learners to talk about differences and similarities they notice between the language and their first language(s) and culture(s), to ask questions about language and culture, to consider how they feel when they hear or use the language, and to talk about how they view different languages and the people who speak them. This introduction to the ‘meta’ dimension of intercultural learning develops the ability to consider different perspectives and ways of being as mediated by language.

For revival languages that are at the ‘beginning’ end of the revival spectrum, English or another community language might be used in a complementary fashion, for example, to fill in for missing words or expressions. Alternatively, language owners and the community in general may decide to side-step these gaps altogether, thus avoiding the need to use other languages for these purposes.

Hide full description ›

Foundation to Year 2 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Interact with each other, the teaching team and visiting Elders/community members, using language and gestures to greet and talk about self and family
[Key concepts: self, family and relationships; Key processes: interacting, sharing]
(ACLFWC130)

Literacy Personal and Social Capability Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures

Participate in guided group activities, such as games, songs and simple tasks, using movement and gestures to support understanding and to convey meaning
[Key concepts: cooperation, play; Key processes: turn-taking, matching, choosing, cooperating, following instructions]
(ACLFWC131)

Literacy Personal and Social Capability Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures

Interact in classroom routines and respond to teacher instructions
[Key concepts: routine, instruction; Key processes: participating, responding, following instructions]
(ACLFWC132)

Literacy Personal and Social Capability Intercultural Understanding
Informing

Discover key information about Country/Place by exploring Country/Place and listening to stories from Elders and community members
[Key concepts: natural and built environment, community life, Indigenous knowledge; Key processes: listening, observing, identifying, sorting, matching, labelling]
(ACLFWC133)

Literacy Critical and Creative Thinking Personal and Social Capability Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures

Give factual information using simple statements, gestures and captions
[Key concepts: Country/Place, community life; Key processes: labelling, describing, presenting, recounting]
(ACLFWC134)

Literacy Critical and Creative Thinking Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
Creating

Participate in shared listening to, viewing and reading of texts and respond through singing, miming, play-acting, drawing, action and movement
[Key concepts: storytelling, response; Key processes: responding, performing, sharing, expressing; Key text types: songs, dances, stories, paintings and visual design, video clips (IndigiTUBE)]
(ACLFWC135)

Literacy Personal and Social Capability Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures

Create and present shared stories, songs and performances, using familiar words and patterns and support materials
[Key concepts: story, performance; Key processes: retelling, singing, re-enacting, dancing, drawing, performing; Key text types: songs, dances, stories, paintings and visual design, performances]
(ACLFWC136)

Literacy Critical and Creative Thinking Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
Translating

Translate frequently used words and phrases, using visual cues and resources such as word lists
[Key concepts: similarity, difference, meaning; Key processes: translating, noticing, identifying, explaining]
(ACLFWC137)

Literacy Critical and Creative Thinking Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures

Create simple oral, print or multimodal bilingual texts for the classroom environment, such as captions, signs, labels and wall charts
[Key concepts: meaning, bilingualism; Key processes: labelling, captioning, displaying, matching]
(ACLFWC138)

Literacy Critical and Creative Thinking Intercultural Understanding
Identity

Describe aspects of self, such as family, school/class and language/s spoken, considering how these contribute to their sense of identity
[Key concepts: identity, self, family, belonging; Key processes: describing, explaining, identifying]
(ACLFWC139)

Critical and Creative Thinking Personal and Social Capability Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
Reflecting

Notice how using different languages involves some different ways of communicating and behaving
[Key concepts: language, culture, similarity, difference, respect; Key processes: noticing, comparing, responding]
(ACLFWC140)

Literacy Critical and Creative Thinking Personal and Social Capability Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
Understanding
Systems of language

Learn the different sounds of the language and link these to written symbols and conventions
[Key concepts; pronunciation, intonation, writing; Key processes: imitating, noticing, distinguishing, reading aloud]
(ACLFWU141)

Literacy

Recognise the function of different word types and understand basic elements of language structures
[Key concepts: word function, word order, patterns, rules; Key processes: identifying, recognising, noticing]
(ACLFWU142)

Literacy

Recognise there are many ways of communicating messages in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages
[Key concepts: communication, narrative; Key processes: recognising, identifying]
(ACLFWU143)

Literacy Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures

Identify elements of the kinship system and its links to place and natural species
[Key concepts: kinship and totemic relationships, place, ceremonial expression; Key processes: identifying, recognising]
(ACLFWU144)

Literacy Critical and Creative Thinking Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
Language variation and change

Recognise that different words and language forms are used to address and communicate with people according to relationship and context
[Key concepts: kinship, context; Key processes: noticing, recognising]
(ACLFWU145)

Personal and Social Capability Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures

Notice that languages borrow words from each other
[Key concepts: relatedness, borrowing; Key processes: identifying, recognising, comparing]
(ACLFWU146)

Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
Language awareness

Recognise that the language is part of the broader regional and national language diversity
[Key concepts: linguistic diversity, relationship; Key processes: identifying, recognising]
(ACLFWU147)

Critical and Creative Thinking Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures

Understand that language belongs to communities, and that language learning requires the application of respectful and appropriate behaviour
[Key concepts: ownership, custodianship, belonging, respect; Key processes: demonstrating, applying]
(ACLFWU148)

Personal and Social Capability Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures Sustainability
Role of language and culture

Notice that people use language in ways that reflect their culture, such as where and how they live and what is important to them
[Key concepts: Country/Place, language, culture, symbol; Key processes: noticing, recognising, questioning, making connections]
(ACLFWU149)

Critical and Creative Thinking Personal and Social Capability Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
Role of language building

Recognise that learning Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages can provide language revival benefits to communities
[Key concept: language ownership, language revival; Key processes: identifying, engaging]
(ACLFWU150)

Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures

Build the resources of the language by creating, performing and recording new texts, and by creating new contexts for its use
[Key concepts: language ownership, language revival; Key processes: noticing, building resources]
(ACLFWU151)

Literacy Critical and Creative Thinking Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures

Foundation to Year 2 Achievement Standard

The achievement standards for the Framework for Aboriginal Languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages LR pathway are generalised in order to cater for the wide range of languages which may be learnt as an LR within the school context. The achievement standards will need to be adapted for use for specific Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Languages.

The Achievement Standards in the Language Revival Learner Pathway will be shaped by the current progress of language revival for a particular language, and by the amount of vocabulary and variety of language structures available for teaching and learning.

By the end of Year 2, students interact with the teaching team, Elders and community members to talk about themselves and family, using familiar modelled language and gestures. They use appropriate protocols when interacting with Elders and community speakers, such as appropriate forms of address, terms of respect and behaviour. They use movement, gestures and modelled questions and responses to participate in guided group activities, for example, collaborating to adapt and perform action songs. They interact in familiar classroom exchanges, using routine...

Read full description ›

The achievement standards for the Framework for Aboriginal Languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages LR pathway are generalised in order to cater for the wide range of languages which may be learnt as an LR within the school context. The achievement standards will need to be adapted for use for specific Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Languages.

The Achievement Standards in the Language Revival Learner Pathway will be shaped by the current progress of language revival for a particular language, and by the amount of vocabulary and variety of language structures available for teaching and learning.

By the end of Year 2, students interact with the teaching team, Elders and community members to talk about themselves and family, using familiar modelled language and gestures. They use appropriate protocols when interacting with Elders and community speakers, such as appropriate forms of address, terms of respect and behaviour. They use movement, gestures and modelled questions and responses to participate in guided group activities, for example, collaborating to adapt and perform action songs. They interact in familiar classroom exchanges, using routine classroom language, movement, gesture and action, for example when requesting objects, responding to simple questions, following instructions. They identify key information about Country/Place, under the guidance of Elders and community members. They use simple statements, gestures and written captions to demonstrate their understanding of Country/Place, for example, by naming bush foods, animals, plants and natural objects, and by classifying and labelling these into culturally appropriate categories. They identify places in the local area which have names in the language. They respond to texts such as stories, songs, dance and visual art through singing, miming, play-acting, drawing, action and movement. They demonstrate their understanding by identifying key animals, birds and other characters or by retelling/describing elements of images, performances or stories. Students use familiar words, patterns and support materials to create and present shared stories, songs and performances. They translate and explain the meaning of symbols, words, simple phrases and gestures used in everyday contexts and situations. They create simple bilingual texts for the classroom environment. They identify markers of their own identity, such as family, school/class membership and language/s spoken, and compare these to the importance of Place, family and relationships in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. Students identify similarities and differences in the ways people communicate and behave in different languages and cultures

Students are familiar with most sounds in the target language and can link these to written symbols and writing conventions. They use metalanguage to describe basic structures of the language, recognising that some elements may have fallen into disuse and be unknown today. They understand that messages in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages can be communicated in a number of ways, such as Elders’ story-telling, or through song, dance and visual design. Students identify elements of the kinship system when appropriate, and recognise that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples have their own personal relationships with Place, natural species and phenomena. They identify which stories belong to which natural features, including animals and plants. They know that different words are used to address and communicate with different people, depending on relationship and situation. They identify words in the language that have been borrowed from other languages. They recognise that many different languages are spoken at their school, in their local community, and in other parts of Australia. They identify how language use reflects where and how they live and what is important to them. Students identify the importance of learning Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages, including the benefits to communities of language revival. They recognise that new words can be formed from within the language itself and work with the community language team to build resources for the language, such as new games and songs.

Hide full description ›

 

Years 3 to 6

Years 3 to 6 Band Description

The nature of the learner, the pathway and particular language

The Language Revival Learner Pathway (LR) provides opportunities for students to study Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander languages being revived by their owners or custodians and which are in various stages of revitalisation, renewal and reclamation.

LR covers a much broader range of language types and ecologies than either L1...

Read full description ›

The nature of the learner, the pathway and particular language

The Language Revival Learner Pathway (LR) provides opportunities for students to study Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander languages being revived by their owners or custodians and which are in various stages of revitalisation, renewal and reclamation.

LR covers a much broader range of language types and ecologies than either L1 or L2, and the vast majority of Aboriginal languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages are included in the LR category.

Schools teaching the Language Revival Learner Pathway (LR) will most likely be located broadly within the geographical region of the language and culture, sometimes in towns and cities, at other times in rural and remote regions. Classes will likely include students who relate closely to the language and culture, students with varying degrees of affiliation with the language and culture, and students who have no connections to either the language or culture. A key expectation in the LR pathway is that of students having opportunities to interact with Elders and particular places on Country/Place.

The Language Revival Learner Pathway draws on the Australian Indigenous Languages Framework (AILF) and takes into account key variables such as: how much is known about and documented for the language; the extent to which it is used or remembered, ranging from no longer being spoken (owners often use the term ‘sleeping’) to being spoken fluently by members of the older generations; and the extent to which the language has been reintroduced into the community of owners and custodians.

These variables give rise to the following broad categories of language revival:

  • Language Revitalisation: where there are fluent L1 speakers (typically members of the older generation) but the intergenerational transmission of the language has been interrupted. Younger generations may understand some of the language and may use some words and phrases but do not speak it as their first language. Examples of revitalisation languages include Walmajarri in the Kimberley, Yindjibarndi in the Pilbara, Meriam in the Torres Strait, Dyirbal in north-eastern Queensland, Wubuy (Nunggubuyu) in Arnhem Land, and Adnyamathanha (Yura Ngawarla) in the Flinders Ranges.
  • Language Renewal: where there are a number of adult speakers who use the language to varying degrees in the community, but not ‘right through’, and where other language resources are drawn upon. Examples of languages being renewed include Noongar in south-west Western Australia, Gumbaynggirr on the north coast of New South Wales, Ngarrindjeri on the Lower Murray Lakes in South Australia, Djabugay in the Atherton Tablelands in northern Queensland, and Yugambeh in southern Queensland.
  • Language Reclamation: where language revival, by necessity, relies primarily on historical documentation of the language in the absence of active community knowledge of it. Examples of reclamation languages include Kaurna from Adelaide, Narungga from the Yorke Peninsula, Dharuk or Eora (Iyora) from Sydney, Yuwibara from central Queensland, Wemba-Wemba and Woiwurrung from Victoria, and Awabakal from the Newcastle area in New South Wales.

A number of factors and variables will need to be considered when planning for a language revival curriculum or program, and further information on these is presented in the context statement for this pathway and in the section Using the Framework.

At this level children are developing awareness of their social worlds and of their membership of various groups. They are widening their social networks, experiences, and communicative repertoires, and gaining greater awareness of the world around them. They benefit from varied activity-based learning that builds on their interests and capabilities and makes connections with other learning areas.

Language learning and use

Learners interact with peers, the teaching team, Elders and community members in a variety of learning experiences and activities, using as much language as possible and incorporating sign language as appropriate. Learners use formulaic phrases to participate in classroom routines, presentations and structured conversations. They respond to teacher-generated questions about texts, participate in games, and follow instructions and procedures.

They focus on aspects of their personal worlds and are introduced to content related to the Country/Place and language community.

The development of oral proficiency relies on rich language input. Learners engage in a lot of listening, developing active-listening and comprehension skills by using contextual, grammatical, phonic and non-verbal cues. They extend their oral fluency by focusing on sentence-level intonation and stress, including elements of sign language as appropriate.

Learners participate in shared and guided reading and learn to apply their knowledge of key words and textual features to predict the meaning of unfamiliar language. They use modelled language to create new texts. They require opportunities to extend their language use, for example, by connecting sentences and expanding vocabulary, to the extent made possible by the resources available in the revival language.

Learners are expanding their knowledge of vocabulary and sentence construction. They develop metalanguage for describing additional aspects of the target language and exploring how it works.

Contexts of interaction

Learning occurs largely through interaction with peers and the teaching team, with additional enrichment and authentication of the learning experience provided through access to Elders and other speakers living in the same community. Interacting with Country/Place to explore the environment and learn about Country/Place with Elders and other community members is essential to learning the language. Students may also have access to community centres, such as interpretative museums or art and language centres.

Texts and resources

Country/Place and the community are the most important resources for learning and are the origin of most of the texts children engage with.

Learners interact with a growing range of spoken, visual, written and digital texts that use as much language as possible. These include historical documents, photographs, maps, songs, raps, performance, stories, local environmental and social programs, painting and visual design. Additional teacher-generated materials include games and items from the community and local environment. Some texts will include the use of English or another community language in a complementary role, for example by filling in for items or expressions that have not yet been reconstituted in the language. Other texts will be bilingual, without mixing languages.

Level of support

The primary source of support for learners is the teaching team, who provide instruction, explanation, examples, modelled language use, repetition, reinforcement, and feedback on student work. Tasks and activities are carefully scaffolded and resourced, with sufficient time allowed for experimentation, drafting and redrafting. Learners are provided with opportunities for practice and with guidance in using dictionaries, word charts, vocabulary lists and historical documents.

The role of languages

Learners are encouraged to use the language whenever and to the extent possible in class interactions and daily routines with the teaching team, Elders and community members. Maximal use of the language will increase learners’ development of language proficiency and enhance the process of language revival.

English and other known languages are used for explanation and discussion, allowing learners to talk about differences and similarities they notice between the language and their first language(s) and culture(s), to ask questions about language and culture, to consider how they feel when they hear or use the language, and to talk about how they view different languages and the people who speak them. This introduction to the ‘meta’ dimension of intercultural learning develops the ability to consider different perspectives and ways of being as mediated by language.

For those revival languages that are at the ‘beginning’ end of the revival spectrum, English or another community language might be used in a complementary fashion, for example, to fill in for missing words or expressions. Alternatively, language owners and the community in general may decide to side-step these gaps altogether, thus avoiding the need to use other languages.

Hide full description ›

Years 3 to 6 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Interact with peers, the teaching team and visiting Elders/community members about aspects of personal worlds, such as experiences at school, home, everyday routines, interests and activities
[Key concepts: relationship, kinship, family, experience; Key Processes: describing, sharing, responding, recounting]
(ACLFWC152)

Literacy Personal and Social Capability Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures

Participate in guided tasks that involve following instructions, making things, cooperating with peers, planning for and conducting shared events, activities or school performances
[Key concepts: collaboration, planning, performance; Key processes: compiling, planning, rehearsing, making]
(ACLFWC153)

Literacy Critical and Creative Thinking Personal and Social Capability Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures

Participate in everyday classroom activities and routines, such as responding to questions and requests, asking permission, requesting help
[Key concepts: routine, interaction; Key processes: responding, contributing, enquiring]
(ACLFWC154)

Literacy Critical and Creative Thinking Intercultural Understanding
Informing

Gather, record and classify information from a range of sources from Country/Place, historical documents and contemporary resources
[Key concepts: community life, leisure, environment, Indigenous knowledge, health, well-being; Key processes: identifying researching, compiling, presenting, tabulating, categorising, giving directions]
(ACLFWC155)

Literacy Critical and Creative Thinking Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures

Convey information on specific topics using formats such as oral or digital presentations, displays, diagrams
[Key concepts: Country/Place, community life; Key processes: creating, presenting, profiling]
(ACLFWC156)

Literacy Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability Critical and Creative Thinking Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
Creating

Listen to, read and view different real and imaginative texts, identifying and making simple statements about key elements, characters and events, and interpreting cultural expressions and behaviours
[Key concepts: visual design, representation, journey; Key processes: participating, describing, predicting, recalling, responding, listening, shared/guided reading; Key text types: songs, dances, stories, paintings and visual design, video clips]
(ACLFWC157)

Literacy Critical and Creative Thinking Personal and Social Capability Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures

Create and present real and imaginative texts suitable for a particular audience, using familiar expressions and modelled language
[Key concepts: imagination, entertainment, audience; Key processes: imagining, creating, experimenting, performing, storytelling; Key text types: raps, songs, dramatic performances, digital texts, video clips, skits, paintings and visual design]
(ACLFWC158)

Literacy Critical and Creative Thinking Personal and Social Capability Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
Translating

Translate simple texts from the language to English and vice versa, identifying elements which require interpretation rather than translation and involve cultural references
[Key concepts: equivalence, meaning, translation; Key processes: translating, predicting, selecting, comparing]
(ACLFWC159)

Literacy Critical and Creative Thinking Personal and Social Capability Intercultural Understanding

Create bilingual texts for the classroom and the school community, such as songs, picture dictionaries, captions for images and displays, photo stories
[Key concepts: bilingualism, expression; Key processes: performing, describing, code-mixing, captioning]
(ACLFWC160)

Literacy Critical and Creative Thinking Personal and Social Capability Intercultural Understanding
Identity

Explore their own sense of identity, including elements such as family, friends, interests, membership of groups, and consider markers of identity that may be important across all cultures
[Key concepts: identity (individual and group), kinship, community, membership; Key processes: creating, representing, discussing, comparing]
(ACLFWC161)

Critical and Creative Thinking Personal and Social Capability Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
Reflecting

Notice and describe ways in which the language and associated communicative behaviours are similar or different to other known languages and cultures
[Key concepts: language, culture, values, similarity, difference, communication; Key processes: noticing, comparing, describing, explaining, questioning, reflecting]
(ACLFWC162)

Literacy Critical and Creative Thinking Personal and Social Capability Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
Understanding
Systems of language

Distinguish and produce the speech sounds of the language, understanding how these are represented in writing
[Key concepts: punctuation, upper and lower case letters, diacritics, intonation, spelling; Key processes: identifying, discriminating, noticing,listening, reading]
(ACLFWU163)

Literacy

Expand vocabulary in the language through word-formation processes and recognise and use simple language structures
[Key concepts: word formation, word class, grammatical person and number, negation, metalanguage; Key processes: noticing, comparing, applying, understanding, modifying meaning]
(ACLFWU164)

Literacy

Understand that texts such as stories, paintings, songs and dances have distinct purposes and particular language features
[Key concepts: text, features, purpose; Key processes: recognising, identifying, distinguishing, applying, linking]
(ACLFWU165)

Literacy Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures

Recognise how kin relationships link people, Place and story
[Key concepts: kinship system, ways of talking, human relationships, interrelatedness; Key processes: recognising, interpreting, discussing
(ACLFWU166)

Personal and Social Capability Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
Language variation and change

Understand that speakers vary language forms according to kin relationship and context of situation
[Key concepts: kinship, respect, register, silence, taboo; Key processes: observing, examining, explaining, investigating; noticing, recognising]
(ACLFWU167)

Personal and Social Capability Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures

Recognise that languages change over time
[Key concepts: regional languages, language shift, language loss, borrowing, relatedness; Key processes: identifying, recognising, comparing]
(ACLFWU168)

Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
Language awareness

Explore the language situation of language communities and the diversity of language contexts in Australia
[Key concepts: change, sign, context; Key processes: recognising, discussing, investigating]
(ACLFWU169)

Critical and Creative Thinking Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures

Understand that the use of stories and names in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages is culturally determined
[Key concepts: ownership, custodianship, cultural safety; Key processes: recognising, observing, discussing]
(ACLFWU170)

Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
Role of language and culture

Explore connections between identity and cultural values and beliefs and the expression of these connections in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages
[Key concepts: Country/Place, cultural expression and transmission, values, beliefs, spirituality; Key processes: observing, making connections, discussing, investigating]
(ACLFWU171)

Critical and Creative Thinking Personal and Social Capability Ethical Understanding Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
Role of language building

Identify available resources and protocols to be followed when building language
[Key concept: language revival, language building, language resources, keeping places, protocols; Key processes: identifying, locating, discussing]
(ACLFWU172)

Critical and Creative Thinking Personal and Social Capability Intercultural Understanding

Understand how the language has been recorded in the past, and how this affects language building processes
[Key concepts: language revival, language resources, linguistic techniques, documentation, keeping places, protocols; Key processes: identifying, discussing, language building]
(ACLFWU173)

Critical and Creative Thinking Intercultural Understanding

Years 3 to 6 Achievement Standard

The achievement standards for the Framework for Aboriginal Languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages LR pathway are generalised in order to cater for the wide range of languages which may be learnt as an LR within the school context. The achievement standards will need to be adapted for use for specific Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages.

The Achievement Standards in the Language Revival Learner Pathway will be shaped by the current progress of language revival for a particular language and the amount of vocabulary and variety of language structures available for teaching and learning.

By the end of Year 6, students use familiar language and modelled sentence patterns to share information about aspects of their personal worlds, such as their family and friends, interests, everyday routines and activities. They interact appropriately with Elders and community speakers and apply principles and protocols of cultural safety when interacting with Country/Place and engaging with cultural material such as artefacts, works of art, texts and performances. Students ask and respond to simple questions, request help, repetition or clarification, and respond

Read full description ›

The achievement standards for the Framework for Aboriginal Languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages LR pathway are generalised in order to cater for the wide range of languages which may be learnt as an LR within the school context. The achievement standards will need to be adapted for use for specific Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages.

The Achievement Standards in the Language Revival Learner Pathway will be shaped by the current progress of language revival for a particular language and the amount of vocabulary and variety of language structures available for teaching and learning.

By the end of Year 6, students use familiar language and modelled sentence patterns to share information about aspects of their personal worlds, such as their family and friends, interests, everyday routines and activities. They interact appropriately with Elders and community speakers and apply principles and protocols of cultural safety when interacting with Country/Place and engaging with cultural material such as artefacts, works of art, texts and performances. Students ask and respond to simple questions, request help, repetition or clarification, and respond to questions and requests using rehearsed phrases and sentences. Whenever possible they use the language to interact and collaborate in games and other activities, including the use of hand signs as appropriate. They interact with Country/Place to gather information and knowledge and demonstrate their understanding of Country/Place, for example, by explaining the origins and meanings of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander names of streets, parks, public institutions and social programs. They label, order and classify natural objects, animals and plants, by making simple statements about key features. They identify features of landforms, infrastructure and built environment, identifying places which have special significance to community. Students listen to, read and view a range of resources in the language, such as historical documents, stories, photos, images and art works, and demonstrate understanding of content by locating, recording and interpreting key words and phrases, and locating key points of information. They present information they have obtained that relates to language, culture, environment and community personalities, using short sentence structures, familiar vocabulary, photos and concrete materials. They demonstrate understanding of stories, songs, visual design and performance, for example by mapping sites, landforms and features through which a travelling story or songline passes, or by selecting and writing simple modelled statements to describe main characters and events. They create their own texts and works of art to tell a story, incorporating illustrations and visual props, significant symbols and techniques appropriate to Country/Place.

Students use simple, formulaic language to retell excerpts from stories and to create new songs and stories, understanding their role in helping to build a community of learner-speakers who use the language. They apply their knowledge of grammar and vocabulary to translate short texts, such as word lists, labels, songs and historical texts, explaining culture-specific concepts and expressions that do not translate easily into English. They create bilingual texts for the classroom and school community that explain words and associated cultural ideas. Students identify markers of identity across cultures, and recognise the importance of language, Country/Place and culture to the identity of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. They reflect on their own cultural identity in light of their experience of learning the language, considering how their ideas and ways of communicating are influenced by their own cultural backgrounds.

Students know that the language has its own pronunciation, spelling and grammar. They apply this knowledge to predict the sound, spelling and meaning of new words. They use metalanguage for language explanation, for making comparisons with English forms and other known languages, for reflecting on the experience of learning the language and culture, and for explaining the purpose and techniques of language building. They describe different ways of communicating in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages, for example, through story, song, sign language and artistic expression. Students know that language use varies according to age, relationships and situation, and they identify and explain kin terms in particular Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander languages where it is appropriate. They provide examples of how languages change over time. They recognise that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages are in various states of maintenance, development and revival and can give some historical reasons for this. They explain the current situation of the language they are learning, including details about what is known about it, its current usage, generational differences and revival plans. They explain the importance of maintaining, strengthening and reviving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages for specific communities and for the broader Australian community. They demonstrate their understanding of the link between language, culture, Country and Place by working with the community language groups to develop a short ‘Welcome to Country/Place’ and/or ‘Acknowledgement of Country/Place’ to present at formal school functions or community events. Students describe language building efforts in their community. They explain protocols for language building, such as consulting and involving language owners. They identify contemporary and historical language materials that may assist communities with language building efforts and the challenges involved in using these. They understand their own role in helping to build a community of language-learner speakers and in the development of new language resources. They explain how the language was recorded in the past, by whom and for what purpose, and can give reasons for some different spellings of words within the language. Students know that the language is primarily oral and explain the importance of story and story-telling in transmitting language and culture. They recognise that ownership of songs, stories, dances and designs is determined by traditional kinship and other social groupings, place, History and Journey. They know that language in its various forms carries Indigenous knowledge in the context of Country/Place.

Hide full description ›

 

Years 7 to 10

Years 7 to 10 Band Description

The nature of the learner, the pathway and particular language

The Language Revival Learner Pathway (LR) provides opportunities for students to study Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander languages being revived by their owners or custodians and which are in various stages of revitalisation, renewal and reclamation.

LR covers a much broader range of language types and ecologies than either L1...

Read full description ›

The nature of the learner, the pathway and particular language

The Language Revival Learner Pathway (LR) provides opportunities for students to study Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander languages being revived by their owners or custodians and which are in various stages of revitalisation, renewal and reclamation.

LR covers a much broader range of language types and ecologies than either L1 or L2, and the vast majority of Aboriginal languages and Torres Strait Islander languages are included in the LR category.

Schools teaching the Language Revival Learner Pathway (LR) will most likely be located broadly within the geographical region of the language and culture, sometimes in towns and cities and other times in rural and remote regions. Classes will likely include students who relate closely to the language and culture, students with varying degrees of affiliation with the language and culture, and students who have no connections to the language and culture. A key expectation in the LR pathway is that of students having opportunities to interact with Elders and particular places on Country/Place.

The Language Revival Learner Pathway draws on the Australian Indigenous Languages Framework (AILF) and takes into account key variables such as: how much is known about and documented for the language; the extent to which it is used or remembered, ranging from no longer being spoken (owners often use the term ‘sleeping’) to being spoken fluently by members of the older generations; and the extent to which it has been reintroduced into the community of owners and custodians.

These variables give rise to the following broad categories of language revival:

  • Language Revitalisation: where there are fluent L1 speakers (typically members of the older generation) but where the intergenerational transmission of the language has been interrupted. Younger generations may understand some of the language and may use some words and phrases, but do not speak it as their first language. Examples of revitalisation languages include Walmajarri in the Kimberley, Yindjibarndi in the Pilbara, Meriam in the Torres Strait, Dyirbal in north-eastern Queensland, Wubuy (Nunggubuyu) in Arnhem Land, and Adnyamathanha (Yura Ngawarla) in the Flinders Ranges.
  • Language Renewal: where there are a number of adult speakers who use the language to varying degrees in the community, but not ‘right through’, and where other language resources are drawn upon. Examples of renewal languages include Noongar in south-west Western Australia, Gumbaynggirr on the north coast of New South Wales, Ngarrindjeri on the Lower Murray Lakes in South Australia, Djabugay in the Atherton Tablelands in northern Queensland, and Yugambeh in southern Queensland.
  • Language Reclamation: where language revival, by necessity, relies primarily on historical documentation of the language in the absence of active community knowledge of it. Examples of reclamation languages include Kaurna from Adelaide, Narungga from the Yorke Peninsula, Dharuk or Eora (Iyora) from Sydney, Yuwibara from central Queensland, Wemba-Wemba and Woiwurrung from Victoria, and Awabakal from the Newcastle area in New South Wales.

A number of factors and variables will need to be considered when planning for a language revival curriculum or program, and further information on these is presented in the context statement for this pathway and in the section Using the Framework.

At this level, students bring to their learning a range of language learning strategies. They are increasingly aware of the world beyond their own, and are engaging with the broader issues of youth and society, land and environment, education and identity, while establishing a balance between increasing personal independence and social responsibilities. They are considering their future pathways and choices, including how the language they are learning could be part of these.

Language learning and use

Learners interact using the language whenever possible in classroom routines and communicative tasks with peers, the teaching team, Elders and community members. They give presentations and participate in conversations, with some preparation and support, such as the use of cue cards. They acquire skills in accessing and analysing historical documents and recordings.

Learners extend the range and quality of their writing through drawing on increased vocabulary and grammar knowledge, to the extent that this is possible in the revived language; and by drafting and editing their own work and that of their peers. They use models to create a range of texts, including descriptions, recounts and reflections.

Students learn about the techniques used to build language, such as analysing historical sources, interviewing/recording existing speakers, and they discuss the contemporary orthographic and grammatical choices of the community.

Students act as contemporary documenters of the language, for example, by listening and transcribing spoken texts, and preserving language resources developed at school for future access and use.

Contexts of interaction

Learning occurs largely through interaction with peers and the teaching team, while additional enrichment and authentication of the learning experience is provided through access to Elders and other speakers living in the same community. Interacting with Country/Place to explore the environment and learn about Country/Place with Elders and other community members is essential to their continued learning. Students may also have access to community centres, such as interpretative museums or art and language centres. They may have opportunities to work with local Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in language-related projects, contributing to the development and maintenance of local language records and resources through structured and research-based projects.

Texts and resources

Country/Place and the community are the most important resources for learning and are the origin of most of the texts learners work with.

Learners engage with and help to shape a range of spoken, visual, written and digital texts that use as much language as possible. These include historical documents, photographs, maps, songs, raps, performance, stories, local environmental and social programs, painting and visual design, as well as teacher-generated materials such as games and items from the community and local environment. Some texts will incorporate English or another community language in a complementary role, filling in for items or expressions that have not yet been reconstituted in the language; other texts will be bilingual, with no mixing of languages.

Level of support

Learners are increasingly aware of and responsible for their own learning. They continue to access support resources such as word lists, modelled texts, dictionaries, grammars, and they seek teacher feedback to support their receptive and productive language use.

They require explicit instruction in the grammatical system of the language, which includes comparison with English and other known languages and opportunities to discuss, practise and apply their knowledge. They keep records of their learning, for example, through journals, folios or a blogs. They use these resources to reflect on their language learning and intercultural experiences.

The role of languages

The language is used whenever and to the extent possible in the revived language for classroom interaction, language learning tasks and experiences. Maximal use of the language increases learners’ language proficiency and enhances language revival.

English and other known languages provide a basis for linguistic and cultural comparison and for a developing metalinguistic understanding of intercultural learning that supports the ability for consider different perspectives and ways of being meditated by language.

For revival languages that are at the ‘beginning’ end of the revival spectrum, English or another community language might be used in a complementary fashion, for example, to fill in for missing words or expressions. Alternatively, language owners and the community in general may decide to side-step these gaps altogether, thus avoiding the need to use other languages.

Hide full description ›

Years 7 to 10 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Engage with peers, the teaching team and visiting Elders/community members to exchange information about interests, experiences, plans and aspirations
[Key concepts: experience, aspiration; Key processes: recounting, exchanging, connecting]
(ACLFWC174)

Literacy Personal and Social Capability Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures

Engage in activities that involve collaboration, planning, organising, promoting and taking action
[Key concepts: event, experience; Key processes: planning, organising, negotiating]
(ACLFWC175)

Literacy Critical and Creative Thinking Personal and Social Capability Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures Sustainability

Interact in class activities that involve making suggestions, seeking clarification, praising or complimenting one another
[Key concepts: opinion, clarification, interaction; Key processes: requesting, negotiating, expressing, comparing, deciding, explaining]
(ACLFWC176)

Literacy Critical and Creative Thinking Personal and Social Capability Intercultural Understanding
Informing

Investigate and summarise factual information obtained from a range of sources on a variety of topics and issues related to the Country/Place
[Key concepts: Indigenous knowledge, social and environmental issues, lifestyles - past and present community initiatives and projects; ; Key processes: summarising, synthesising, referencing]
(ACLFWC177)

Literacy Critical and Creative Thinking Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures

Convey information about Country/Place events, experiences or topics of shared interest, using different modes of presentation
[Key concepts: audience, Country/Place, community life; Key processes: describing, explaining, creating, annotating]
(ACLFWC178)

Literacy Critical and Creative Thinking Personal and Social Capability Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
Creating

Interpret and respond to texts by sharing personal reactions, comparing themes, describing and explaining aspects of artistic expression and how these relate to land, sky, sea, water, people, plants, animals and social and ecological relationships
[Key concepts: representation, imagination; Key processes: interpreting, explaining, describing, discussing; Key text types: songs, dances, stories, paintings and visual design, video clips, films]
(ACLFWC179)

Literacy Critical and Creative Thinking Personal and Social Capability Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures

Create a range of spoken, written and multimodal texts to entertain others, involving real or imagined contexts and characters
[Key concepts: imagination, journey; Key processes: creating, collaborating, performing, composing; Key text types : raps, songs, performances, stories, cartoons, advertisements, digital texts, video clips, skits, paintings, visual designs]
(ACLFWC180)

Literacy Critical and Creative Thinking Personal and Social Capability Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
Translating

Translate and interpret texts from the language to English and vice versa, comparing their versions and considering how to explain elements that involve cultural knowledge or understanding
[Key concepts: equivalence, representation, meaning, interpretation, idiom; Key processes: comparing, explaining, interpreting]
(ACLFWC181)

Literacy Critical and Creative Thinking Personal and Social Capability Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures

Create bilingual texts for the wider community collaboration with others
[Key concepts: interpretation, expression, bilingualism; Key processes: designing, explaining, classifying, glossing, annotating, composing]
(ACLFWC182)

Literacy Critical and Creative Thinking Personal and Social Capability Intercultural Understanding
Identity

Consider and discuss their own and each other’s ways of communicating and expressing identity, reflecting on how the language links the local, regional and national identity of its speakers with the land
[Key concepts: identity, perspective, biography; Key processes: sharing, comparing, considering, reflecting, analysing]
(ACLFWC183)

Literacy Critical and Creative Thinking Personal and Social Capability Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
Reflecting

Participate in intercultural interactions and consider own reactions when engaging with Elders and community members and resources
[Key concepts: intercultural experience, perspective, insight, self-reflection, ways of knowing and being, reconciliation, discrimination; Key processes: comparing, analysing, explaining, reflecting, choosing]
(ACLFWC184)

Literacy Personal and Social Capability Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
Understanding
Systems of language

Understand and explain the sound patterns in spoken language and use developing phonemic awareness to represent these patterns in written form
[Key concepts: metalanguage, patterns, phonetic articulation, syllable; Key processes: reading, investigating, comparing]
(ACLFWU185)

Literacy Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures

Expand vocabulary and understand and use a range of vocabulary sets and grammatical structures that are available in the language
[Key concepts: system, grammatical case, transitivity; Key processes: explaining, discussing]
(ACLFWU186)

Literacy Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures

Discuss the purpose and roles of various spoken, written and visual texts in the language
[Key concepts: text, relationship, intention; Key processes: analysing, investigating, linking and sequencing]
(ACLFWU187)

Literacy Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures

Investigate how the kinship system functions to integrate personal and community histories and relationships
[Key concepts: interconnectedness, human relationships, ownership, rights and responsibilities; Key processes: describing, explaining, investigating, exploring]
(ACLFWU188)

Critical and Creative Thinking Personal and Social Capability Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
Language variation and change

Discuss variations in language use that reflect different social and cultural contexts, purposes and relationships
[Key concepts: respect, silence, kinship; Key processes: examining, explaining, analysing]
(ACLFWU189)

Literacy Critical and Creative Thinking Personal and Social Capability Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures

Describe and reflect on how languages change over time and influence one another
[Key concepts: contact, change; Key processes: exploring, observing, reflecting]
(ACLFWU190)

Literacy Critical and Creative Thinking Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
Language awareness

Investigate and compare the ecology of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages to Indigenous languages in other countries, and consider issues such as language policy, language rights, language loss, advocacy, reform and multilingualism
[Key concepts: environment, boundaries, policy, revival; Key processes: researching, investigating, exploring, considering]
(ACLFWU191)

Critical and Creative Thinking Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures

Understand and apply cultural norms, skills and protocols associated with learning, using and researching Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages
[Key concepts: ownership, custodianship, ethical behaviour, intellectual property; Key processes: acknowledging, investigating, applying]
(ACLFWU192)

Critical and Creative Thinking Personal and Social Capability Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
Role of language and culture

Reflect on how ways of using language are shaped by communities’ ways of thinking, behaving and viewing the world, and the role of language in passing on knowledge
[Key concepts: Indigenous knowledge, value transmission; Key processes: reflecting, exploring, analysing, comparing]
(ACLFWU193)

Critical and Creative Thinking Personal and Social Capability Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
Role of language building

Explore language building processes and protocols in communities
[Key concepts: language revival, protocols, lexical and grammatical resources, advocacy; Key processes: identifying, investigating, discussing]
(ACLFWU194)

Critical and Creative Thinking Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures

Investigate and explain techniques used to build language, considering challenges involved and understanding their role as contemporary documenters of language
[Key concepts: language revival, language building, authenticity, linguistic techniques; Key processes: identifying, analysing, discussing]
(ACLFWU195)

Literacy Critical and Creative Thinking Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures

Years 7 to 10 Achievement Standard

The achievement standards for the Framework for Aboriginal Languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages LR pathway are generalised in order to cater for the wide range of languages which may be learnt as an LR within the school context. They will need to be adapted for use for specific Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages. They will be shaped by the current progress of language revival for a particular language and the amount of vocabulary and variety of language structures available for teaching and learning.

By the end of Year 10, students use the language to initiate, sustain and extend interactions, and to exchange information about interests, experiences and aspirations. They use spontaneous language wherever possible to participate in activities that involve taking action, collaborating, planning, organising and negotiating. They use culturally appropriate norms and skills, and respect protocols when engaging with and learning from visiting Elders and community members. When interacting in the classroom, they make suggestions, seek clarification, praise or compliment each another. Students use language where possible to locate, analyse and summarise

Read full description ›

The achievement standards for the Framework for Aboriginal Languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages LR pathway are generalised in order to cater for the wide range of languages which may be learnt as an LR within the school context. They will need to be adapted for use for specific Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages. They will be shaped by the current progress of language revival for a particular language and the amount of vocabulary and variety of language structures available for teaching and learning.

By the end of Year 10, students use the language to initiate, sustain and extend interactions, and to exchange information about interests, experiences and aspirations. They use spontaneous language wherever possible to participate in activities that involve taking action, collaborating, planning, organising and negotiating. They use culturally appropriate norms and skills, and respect protocols when engaging with and learning from visiting Elders and community members. When interacting in the classroom, they make suggestions, seek clarification, praise or compliment each another. Students use language where possible to locate, analyse and summarise factual information from a range of sources such as historical documents, Elders and community members. They demonstrate their understanding of Country/Place, for example, by explaining the origin, meaning and significance of local place names and features, or by presenting texts and stories about the Country/Place and associated social and cultural events, using language as much as possible and different modes of presentation. Students view, listen to, and share personal responses to a range of texts, such as songs, stories, films and other modes of artistic expression, and demonstrate understanding by identifying and explaining main ideas, key themes and sequences of events. They explain how artistic expression relates to land, water, sea, sky, people, animals, plants and social and ecological relationships. They use expressive language, gestures, and supporting materials to create a range of spoken, written and multimodal texts, for example, art work to convey messages using symbols and techniques appropriate to Country/Place, or narrations of real or imagined journeys involving a variety of characters, places and events. Students apply culturally appropriate and ethical behaviour and lexical and grammatical resources to interpret and translate texts to and from the language; and they explain culture-specific concepts, practices and expressions that do not easily translate. They co-create bilingual texts to inform the wider community about aspects of the language and culture. They reflect on how their own biography shapes their sense of identity and ways of communicating, and discuss the role that language and culture play in the identity and well-being of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. They explain how particular policies and practices have impacted on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples’ sense of identity, for example, through language loss and separation from Country/Place, family and community.

Students explain and use the sound system of the language, and a range of available vocabulary sets and grammatical structures when speaking and writing. They use metalanguage to explain sound and writing systems and grammatical structures in the language. They analyse the purpose and role of a range of spoken, written and visual texts, for example, declaring identity, acknowledging ancestors and traditional belief systems, and passing on knowledge and information. Students explain the importance of the kinship system in regulating relationships and behaviour in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. They explain how and why language use is adjusted to suit different social and cultural contexts, purposes and relationships, for example, expressions used with respected kin. They explain how languages change over time and influence one another, for example, by describing the history and impact of contact languages, including creoles, pidgins and Aboriginal Englishes. Students make comparisons between the ecologies of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages and indigenous languages in other countries, in areas such as language policy and rights, language loss, advocacy and reform, and language revival. They identify the role of language in passing on knowledge, and explain how communities’ ways of thinking, behaving and shaping worldviews influence how language is used. They investigate language revival efforts in their own community and neighbouring regions, and identify resources and processes that are available to build language, for example, lexical and grammatical resources. Students explain protocols for filling language gaps and extending semantic domains, including those required for borrowing from other languages, creating words by analogy and drawing from within existing resources of the language. They explain various techniques that can be used to build language, such as analysing historical sources or interviewing existing speakers, and identify associated challenges. Students reflect on their role as contemporary documenters of language, and recognise the importance of intergenerational collaboration in reviving and maintaining languages.

Hide full description ›

Back to top