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ACARA Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority

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Foundation Year

Foundation Year Level Description

Personal and Family Histories

The Foundation curriculum provides a study of personal and family histories. Students learn about their own history and that of their family; this may include stories from different cultures...

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Key inquiry questions

  1. What is my history and how do I know?
  2. What stories do other people tell about the past?
  3. How can stories of the past be told and shared?

Foundation Year Content Descriptions

Historical Knowledge and Understanding

Personal and Family Histories
  1. Who the people in their family are, where they were born and raised and how they are related to each other (ACHHK001)
  2. The different structures of families and family groups today, and what they have in common (ACHHK002)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  3. How they, their family and friends commemorate past events that are important to them (ACHHK003)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  4. How the stories of families and the past can be communicated, for example through photographs, artefacts, books, oral histories, digital media, and museums (ACHHK004)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1

Historical Skills

Chronology, terms and concepts
  1. Sequence familiar objects and events (ACHHS015)
  2. Distinguish between the past, present and future (ACHHS016)
Historical questions and research
  1. Pose questions about the past using sources provided (ACHHS017)
Analysis and use of sources
  1. Explore a range of sources about the past (ACHHS018)
  2. Identify and compare features of objects from the past and present (ACHHS019)
Perspectives and interpretations
  1. Explore a point of view (ACHHS020)
Explanation and communication
  1. Develop a narrative about the past (ACHHS021)
  2. Use a range of communication forms (oral, graphic, written, role play) and digital technologies (ACHHS022)

Foundation Year Achievement Standard

By the end of the Foundation year, students identify similarities and differences between families. They recognise how important family events are commemorated.

Students sequence familiar events in order. They pose questions about their past. Students relate a story about their past using a range of texts.

Foundation Year Work Sample Portfolios

Year 1

Year 1 Level Description

Present and Past Family Life

The Year 1 curriculum provides a study of present and past family life within the context of the students’ own world. Students learn about similarities and differences in family life by comparing...

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Key inquiry questions

  1. How has family life changed or remained the same over time?
  2. How can we show that the present is different from or similar to the past?
  3. How do we describe the sequence of time?

Year 1 Content Descriptions

Historical Knowledge and Understanding

Present and Past Family Life
  1. Differences in family structures and roles today, and how these have changed or remained the same over time (ACHHK028)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
  2. How the present, past and future are signified by terms indicating time such as ‘a long time ago’, ‘then and now’, ‘now and then’, ‘old and new’, ‘tomorrow’, as well as by dates and changes that may have personal significance, such as birthdays, celebrations and seasons (ACHHK029)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  3. Differences and similarities between students' daily lives and life during their parents’ and grandparents’ childhoods, including family traditions, leisure time and communications. (ACHHK030)

Historical Skills

Chronology, terms and concepts
  1. Sequence familiar objects and events (ACHHS031)
  2. Distinguish between the past, present and future (ACHHS032)
Historical questions and research
  1. Pose questions about the past using sources provided (ACHHS033)
Analysis and use of sources
  1. Explore a range of sources about the past (ACHHS034)
  2. Identify and compare features of objects from the past and present (ACHHS035)
Perspectives and interpretations
  1. Explore a point of view (ACHHS036)
Explanation and communication
  1. Develop a narrative about the past. (ACHHS037)
  2. Use a range of communication forms (oral, graphic, written, role play) and digital technologies (ACHHS038)

Year 1 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 1, students explain how some aspects of daily life have changed over recent time while others have remained the same. They describe personal and family events that have significance.

Students sequence events in order, using everyday terms about the passing of time. They pose questions about the past and examine sources (physical and visual) to suggest answers to these questions. Students relate stories about life in the past, using a range of texts.

Year 1 Work Sample Portfolios

Year 2

Year 2 Level Description

The Past in the Present

The Year 2 curriculum provides a study of local history. Students explore, recognise and appreciate the history of their local area by examining remains of the past and considering why they...

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Key inquiry questions

  1. What aspects of the past can you see today? What do they tell us?
  2. What remains of the past are important to the local community? Why?
  3. How have changes in technology shaped our daily life?

Year 2 Content Descriptions

Historical Knowledge and Understanding

The Past in the Present
  1. The history of a significant person, building, site or part of the natural environment in the local community and what it reveals about the past (ACHHK044)
  2. The importance today of an historical site of cultural or spiritual significance; for example, a community building, a landmark, a war memorial (ACHHK045)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  3. The impact of changing technology on people’s lives (at home and in the ways they worked, travelled, communicated, and played in the past) (ACHHK046)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1

Historical Skills

Chronology, terms and concepts
  1. Sequence familiar objects and events (ACHHS047)
  2. Distinguish between the past, present and future (ACHHS048)
Historical questions and research
  1. Pose questions about the past using sources provided (ACHHS049)
Analysis and use of sources
  1. Explore a range of sources about the past. (ACHHS050)
  2. Identify and compare features of objects from the past and present (ACHHS051)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
Perspectives and interpretations
  1. Explore a point of view (ACHHS052)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
Explanation and communication
  1. Develop a narrative about the past (ACHHS053)
  2. Use a range of communication forms (oral, graphic, written, role play) and digital technologies (ACHHS054)

Year 2 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 2, students analyse aspects of daily life to identify how some have changed over recent time while others have remained the same. They describe a person, site or event of significance in the local community.

Students sequence events in order, using a range of terms related to time. They pose questions about the past and use sources provided (physical, visual, oral) to answer these questions. They compare objects from the past and present. Students develop a narrative about the past using a range of texts.

Year 2 Work Sample Portfolios

Year 3

Year 3 Level Description

Community and Remembrance

The Year 3 curriculum provides a study of identity and diversity in both a local and broader context. Moving from the heritage of their local area, students explore the historical features and...

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Key inquiry questions

  1. Who lived here first and how do we know?
  2. How has our community changed? What features have been lost and what features have been retained?
  3. What is the nature of the contribution made by different groups and individuals in the community?
  4. How and why do people choose to remember significant events of the past?

Year 3 Content Descriptions

Historical Knowledge and Understanding

Community and Remembrance
  1. The importance of Country and Place to Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander peoples who belong to a local area. (This is intended to be a local area study with a focus on one Language group; however, if information or sources are not readily available, another representative area may be studied) (ACHHK060)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
  2. ONE important example of change and ONE important example of continuity over time in the local community, region or state/territory; for example, in relation to the areas of transport, work, education, natural and built environments, entertainment, daily life (ACHHK061)
  3. The role that people of diverse backgrounds have played in the development and character of the local community (ACHHK062)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  4. Days and weeks celebrated or commemorated in Australia (including Australia Day, ANZAC Day, Harmony Week, National Reconciliation Week, NAIDOC week and National Sorry Day) and the importance of symbols and emblems. (ACHHK063)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
  5. Celebrations and commemorations in other places around the world; for example, Bastille Day in France, Independence Day in the USA, including those that are observed in Australia such as Chinese New Year, Christmas Day, Diwali, Easter, Hanukkah, the Moon Festival and Ramadan (ACHHK064)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2

Historical Skills

Chronology, terms and concepts
  1. Sequence historical people and events (ACHHS065)
  2. Use historical terms (ACHHS066)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
Historical questions and research
  1. Pose a range of questions about the past (ACHHS067)
  2. Identify sources (ACHHS215)
Analysis and use of sources
  1. Locate relevant information from sources provided (ACHHS068)
Perspectives and interpretations
  1. Identify different points of view (ACHHS069)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
Explanation and communication
  1. Develop texts, particularly narratives (ACHHS070)
  2. Use a range of communication forms (oral, graphic, written) and digital technologies (ACHHS071)

Year 3 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 3, students explain how communities changed in the past. They describe the experiences of an individual or group. They identify events and aspects of the past that have significance in the present.

Students sequence events and people (their lifetime) in chronological order, with reference to key dates. They pose questions about the past and locate information from sources (written, physical, visual, oral) to answer these questions. Students develop texts, including narratives, using terms denoting time.

Year 3 Work Sample Portfolios

Year 4

Year 4 Level Description

First Contacts

The Year 4 curriculum introduces world history and the movement of peoples. Beginning with the history of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, students examine European exploration and...

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Key inquiry questions

  1. Why did the great journeys of exploration occur?
  2. What was life like for Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Peoples before the arrival of the Europeans?
  3. Why did the Europeans settle in Australia?
  4. What was the nature and consequence of contact between Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Peoples and early traders, explorers and settlers?

Year 4 Content Descriptions

Historical Knowledge and Understanding

First Contacts
  1. The diversity and longevity of Australia’s first peoples and the ways Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander peoples are connected to Country and Place (land, sea, waterways and skies) and the implications for their daily lives. (ACHHK077)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
  2. The journey(s) of AT LEAST ONE world navigator, explorer or trader up to the late eighteenth century, including their contacts with other societies and any impacts. (ACHHK078)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  3. Stories of the First Fleet, including reasons for the journey, who travelled to Australia, and their experiences following arrival. (ACHHK079)
  4. The nature of contact between Aboriginal people and/or Torres Strait Islanders and others, for example, the Macassans and the Europeans, and the effects of these interactions on, for example families and the environment (ACHHK080)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3

Historical Skills

Chronology, terms and concepts
  1. Sequence historical people and events (ACHHS081)
  2. Use historical terms (ACHHS082)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
Historical questions and research
  1. Pose a range of questions about the past (ACHHS083)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
  2. Identify sources (ACHHS216)
Analysis and use of sources
  1. Locate relevant information from sources provided (ACHHS084)
Perspectives and interpretations
  1. Identify different points of view (ACHHS085)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
Explanation and communication
  1. Develop texts, particularly narratives (ACHHS086)
  2. Use a range of communication forms (oral, graphic, written) and digital technologies (ACHHS087)

Year 4 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 4, students explain how and why life changed in the past, and identify aspects of the past that remained the same. They describe the experiences of an individual or group over time. They recognise the significance of events in bringing about change.

Students sequence events and people (their lifetime) in chronological order to identify key dates. They pose a range of questions about the past. They identify sources (written, physical, visual, oral), and locate information to answer these questions. They recognise different points of view. Students develop and present texts, including narratives, using historical terms.

Year 4 Work Sample Portfolios

Year 5

Year 5 Level Description

The Australian Colonies

The Year 5 curriculum provides a study of colonial Australia in the 1800s. Students look at the founding of British colonies and the development of a colony. They learn about what life was like...

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Key inquiry questions

  1. What do we know about the lives of people in Australia’s colonial past and how do we know?
  2. How did an Australian colony develop over time and why?
  3. How did colonial settlement change the environment?
  4. What were the significant events and who were the significant people that shaped Australian colonies?

Year 5 Content Descriptions

Historical Knowledge and Understanding

The Australian Colonies
  1. Reasons (economic, political and social) for the establishment of British colonies in Australia after 1800. (ACHHK093)
  2. The nature of convict or colonial presence, including the factors that influenced patterns of development, aspects of the daily life of the inhabitants (including Aboriginal Peoples and Torres Strait Islander Peoples) and how the environment changed. (ACHHK094)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  3. The impact of a significant development or event on a colony; for example, frontier conflict, the gold rushes, the Eureka Stockade, internal exploration, the advent of rail, the expansion of farming, drought. (ACHHK095)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  4. The reasons people migrated to Australia from Europe and Asia, and the experiences and contributions of a particular migrant group within a colony. (ACHHK096)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  5. The role that a significant individual or group played in shaping a colony; for example, explorers, farmers, entrepreneurs, artists, writers, humanitarians, religious and political leaders, and Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander peoples. (ACHHK097)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1

Historical Skills

Chronology, terms and concepts
  1. Sequence historical people and events (ACHHS098)
  2. Use historical terms and concepts (ACHHS099)
Historical questions and research
  1. Identify questions to inform an historical inquiry (ACHHS100)
  2. Identify and locate a range of relevant sources (ACHHS101)
Analysis and use of sources
  1. Locate information related to inquiry questions in a range of sources (ACHHS102)
  2. Compare information from a range of sources (ACHHS103)
Perspectives and interpretations
  1. Identify points of view in the past and present (ACHHS104)
Explanation and communication
  1. Develop texts, particularly narratives and descriptions, which incorporate source materials (ACHHS105)
  2. Use a range of communication forms (oral, graphic, written) and digital technologies (ACHHS106)

Year 5 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 5, students identify the causes and effects of change on particular communities, and describe aspects of the past that remained the same. They describe the different experiences of people in the past. They describe the significance of people and events in bringing about change.

Students sequence events and people (their lifetime) in chronological order, using timelines. When researching, students develop questions to frame an historical inquiry. They identify a range of sources and locate and record information related to this inquiry. They examine sources to identify points of view. Students develop, organise and present their texts, particularly narratives and descriptions, using historical terms and concepts.

Year 5 Work Sample Portfolios

Year 6

Year 6 Level Description

Australia as a nation

The Year 6 curriculum moves from colonial Australia to the development of Australia as a nation, particularly after 1900. Students explore the factors that led to Federation and experiences of democracy...

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Key inquiry questions

  1. Why and how did Australia become a nation?
  2. How did Australian society change throughout the twentieth century?
  3. Who were the people who came to Australia? Why did they come?
  4. What contribution have significant individuals and groups made to the development of Australian society?

Year 6 Content Descriptions

Historical Knowledge and Understanding

Australia as a Nation
  1. Key figures and events that led to Australia’s Federation, including British and American influences on Australia’s system of law and government. (ACHHK113)
  2. Experiences of Australian democracy and citizenship, including the status and rights of Aboriginal people and/or Torres Strait Islanders, migrants, women, and children. (ACHHK114)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
  3. Stories of groups of people who migrated to Australia (including from ONE Asian country) and the reasons they migrated, such as World War II and Australian migration programs since the war. (ACHHK115)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  4. The contribution of individuals and groups, including Aboriginal people and/or Torres Strait Islanders and migrants, to the development of Australian society, for example in areas such as the economy, education, science, the arts, sport. (ACHHK116)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2

Historical Skills

Chronology, terms and concepts
  1. Sequence historical people and events. (ACHHS117)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  2. Use historical terms and concepts (ACHHS118)
Historical questions and research
  1. Identify questions to inform an historical inquiry (ACHHS119)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
  2. Identify and locate a range of relevant sources (ACHHS120)
Analysis and use of sources
  1. Locate information related to inquiry questions in a range of sources. (ACHHS121)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
  2. Compare information from a range of sources. (ACHHS122)
Perspectives and interpretations
  1. Identify points of view in the past and present (ACHHS123)
Explanation and communication
  1. Develop texts, particularly narratives and descriptions, which incorporate source materials (ACHHS124)
  2. Use a range of communication forms (oral, graphic, written) and digital technologies (ACHHS125)

Year 6 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 6, students identify change and continuity and describe the causes and effects of change on society. They compare the different experiences of people in the past. They explain the significance of an individual and group.

Students sequence events and people (their lifetime) in chronological order, and represent time by creating timelines. When researching, students develop questions to frame an historical inquiry. They identify a range of sources and locate and compare information to answer inquiry questions. They examine sources to identify and describe points of view. Students develop texts, particularly narratives and descriptions. In developing these texts and organising and presenting their information, they use historical terms and concepts and incorporate relevant sources.

Year 6 Work Sample Portfolios

Year 7

Year 7 Level Description

The Ancient World

The Year 7 curriculum provides a study of history from the time of the earliest human communities to the end of the ancient period, approximately 60 000 BC (BCE) – c.650 AD (CE). It was a...

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Key inquiry questions

  1. How do we know about the ancient past?
  2. Why and where did the earliest societies develop?
  3. What emerged as the defining characteristics of ancient societies?
  4. What have been the legacies of ancient societies?

Year 7 Content Descriptions

Historical Knowledge and Understanding

Overview of the Ancient World

The following content is to be taught as part of an overview for the historical period. It is not intended to be taught in depth. An overview will constitute approximately 10% of the total teaching time for the year. Overview content identifies important features of the period, approximately 60 000 BC (BCE) – c.650 AD (CE), as part of an expansive chronology that helps students understand broad patterns of historical change. As such, the overview provides the broader context for the teaching of depth study content and can be built into various parts of a teaching and learning program. This means that overview content can be used to give students an introduction to the historical period; to make the links to and between the depth studies; and to consolidate understanding through a review of the period.

Overview content for the ancient world (Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia, Greece, Rome, India, China and the Maya) includes the following:

  1. the theory that people moved out of Africa around 60 000 BC (BCE) and migrated to other parts of the world, including Australia. (ACOKFH001)
  2. the evidence for the emergence and establishment of ancient societies (including art, iconography, writing tools and pottery) (ACOKFH002)
  3. key features of ancient societies (farming, trade, social classes, religion, rule of law) (ACOKFH003)
Depth studies
There are three depth studies for this historical period. For each depth study, there are up to three electives that focus on a particular society, event, movement or development. It is expected that ONE elective will be studied in detail. A depth study elective will constitute approximately 30% of the total teaching time for the year. The content in each depth study elective is designed to allow detailed study of specific aspects of this historical period. As part of a teaching and learning program, depth study content can be integrated with the overview content and/or with other depth study electives.
1 Investigating the ancient past
Students build on and consolidate their understanding of historical inquiry from previous years in depth, using a range of sources for the study of the ancient past.
  1. Investigating the ancient past
    1. How historians and archaeologists investigate history, including excavation and archival research (ACDSEH001)
    2. The range of sources that can be used in an historical investigation, including archaeological and written sources (ACDSEH029)
    3. The methods and sources used to investigate at least ONE historical controversy or mystery that has challenged historians or archaeologists, such as in the analysis of unidentified human remains (ACDSEH030)
    4. The nature of the sources for ancient Australia and what they reveal about Australia’s past in the ancient period, such as the use of resources (ACDSEH031)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    5. The importance of conserving the remains of the ancient past, including the heritage of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples. (ACDSEH148)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
2 The Mediterranean world
Students investigate ONE of these Mediterranean societies in depth: Egypt or Greece or Rome.
  1. Egypt
    1. The physical features of ancient Egypt (such as the River Nile) and how they influenced the civilisation that developed there (ACDSEH002)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
    2. Roles of key groups in ancient Egyptian society (such as the nobility, bureaucracy, women, slaves), including the influence of law and religion (ACDSEH032)
    3. The significant beliefs, values and practices of the ancient Egyptians, with a particular emphasis on ONE of the following areas: everyday life, warfare, or death and funerary customs (ACDSEH033)
    4. Contacts and conflicts within and/or with other societies, resulting in developments such as the conquest of other lands, the expansion of trade, and peace treaties (ACDSEH034)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    5. The role of a significant individual in ancient Egyptian history such as Hatshepsut or Rameses II (ACDSEH129)
  2. Greece
    1. The physical features of ancient Greece (such as its mountainous landscape) and how they influenced the civilisation that developed there (ACDSEH003)
    2. Roles of key groups in Athenian and/or Spartan society (such as citizens, women, slaves), including the influence of law and religion (ACDSEH035)
    3. The significant beliefs, values and practices of the ancient Greeks, with a particular emphasis on ONE of the following areas: everyday life, warfare, or death and funerary customs (ACDSEH036)
    4. Contacts and conflicts within and/or with other societies, resulting in developments such as the expansion of trade, colonisation and war (such as the Peloponnesian and Persian wars) (ACDSEH037)
    5. The role of a significant individual in ancient Greek history such as Leonidas or Pericles (ACDSEH130)
  3. Rome
    1. The physical features of ancient Rome (such as the River Tiber) and how they influenced the civilisation that developed there. (ACDSEH004)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
    2. Roles of key groups in ancient Roman society (such as patricians, plebeians, women, slaves), including the influence of law and religion. (ACDSEH038)
    3. The significant beliefs, values and practices of the ancient Romans, with a particular emphasis on ONE of the following areas: everyday life, warfare, or death and funerary customs. (ACDSEH039)
    4. Contacts and conflicts within and/or with other societies, resulting in developments such as the expansion of trade, the rise of the Roman empire (including its material remains), and the spread of religious beliefs (ACDSEH040)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    5. The role of a significant individual in ancient Rome’s history such as Julius Caesar or Augustus (ACDSEH131)
3 The Asian world
Students investigate ONE of these Asian societies in depth: China or India
  1. India
    1. The physical features of India (such as fertile river plains) and how they influenced the civilisation that developed there (ACDSEH006)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    2. Roles of key groups in Indian society in this period (such as kings, emperors, priests, merchants, peasants), including the influence of law and religion. (ACDSEH044)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    3. The significant beliefs, values and practices of Indian society, with a particular emphasis on ONE of the following areas: everyday life, warfare, or death and funerary customs (ACDSEH045)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    4. Contacts and conflicts within and/or with other societies, resulting in developments such as the expansion of trade, the rise of the Mauryan Empire (including its material remains), and the spread of philosophies and beliefs (ACDSEH046)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    5. The role of a significant individual in Indian history such as Chandragupta Maurya or Ashoka (ACDSEH133)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  2. China
    1. The physical features of China (such as the Yellow River) and how they influenced the civilisation that developed there (ACDSEH005)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    2. Roles of key groups in Chinese society in this period (such as kings, emperors, scholars, craftsmen, women), including the influence of law and religion. (ACDSEH041)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    3. The significant beliefs, values and practices of Chinese society, with a particular emphasis on ONE of the following areas: everyday life, warfare, or death and funerary customs (ACDSEH042)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
    4. Contacts and conflicts within and/or with other societies, resulting in developments such as the expansion of trade, the rise of Imperial China (including its material remains), and the spread of philosophies and beliefs (ACDSEH043)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    5. The role of a significant individual in ancient Chinese history such as Confucius or Qin Shi Huang (ACDSEH132)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2

Historical Skills

Chronology, terms and concepts
  1. Sequence historical events, developments and periods (ACHHS205)
  2. Use historical terms and concepts (ACHHS206)
Historical questions and research
  1. Identify a range of questions about the past to inform a historical inquiry (ACHHS207)
  2. Identify and locate relevant sources, using ICT and other methods (ACHHS208)
Analysis and use of sources
  1. Identify the origin and purpose of primary and secondary sources (ACHHS209)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
  2. Locate, compare, select and use information from a range of sources as evidence (ACHHS210)
  3. Draw conclusions about the usefulness of sources (ACHHS211)
Perspectives and interpretations
  1. Identify and describe points of view, attitudes and values in primary and secondary sources (ACHHS212)
Explanation and communication
  1. Develop texts, particularly descriptions and explanations that use evidence from a range of sources that are acknowledged (ACHHS213)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  2. Use a range of communication forms (oral, graphic, written) and digital technologies (ACHHS214)

Year 7 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 7, students suggest reasons for change and continuity over time. They describe the effects of change on societies, individuals and groups. They describe events and developments from the perspective of different people who lived at the time. Students explain the role of groups and the significance of particular individuals in society. They identify past events and developments that have been interpreted in different ways.

Students sequence events and developments within a chronological framework, using dating conventions to represent and measure time. When researching, students develop questions to frame an historical inquiry. They identify and select a range of sources and locate, compare and use information to answer inquiry questions. They examine sources to explain points of view. When interpreting sources, they identify their origin and purpose. Students develop texts, particularly descriptions and explanations. In developing these texts and organising and presenting their findings, they use historical terms and concepts, incorporate relevant sources, and acknowledge their sources of information.

Year 7 Work Sample Portfolios

Year 8

Year 8 Level Description

The Ancient to the Modern World

The Year 8 curriculum provides study of history from the end of the ancient period to the beginning of the modern period, c.650 AD (CE) – 1750. This was when major civilisations around the...

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Key inquiry questions

  1. How did societies change from the end of the ancient period to the beginning of the modern age?
  2. What key beliefs and values emerged and how did they influence societies?
  3. What were the causes and effects of contact between societies in this period?
  4. Which significant people, groups and ideas from this period have influenced the world today?

Year 8 Content Descriptions

Historical Knowledge and Understanding

Overview of the ancient to modern world

The following content is taught as part of an overview for the historical period. It is not intended to be taught in depth. An overview will constitute approximately 10% of the total teaching time for the year. Overview content identifies important features of the period, c.650 AD (CE) – 1750, as part of an expansive chronology that helps students understand broad patterns of historical change. As such, the overview provides the broader context for the teaching of depth study content and can be built into various parts of a teaching and learning program. This means that overview content can be used to give students an introduction to the historical period; to make the links to and between the depth studies; and to consolidate understanding through a review of the period.

Overview content for the ancient to modern world (Byzantine, Celtic, Anglo-Saxon, Viking, Ottoman, Khmer, Mongols, Yuan and Ming dynasties, Aztec, Inca) includes the following:

  1. the transformation of the Roman world and the spread of Christianity and Islam (ACOKFH008)
  2. key features of the medieval world (feudalism, trade routes, voyages of discovery, contact and conflict) (ACOKFH009)
  3. the emergence of ideas about the world and the place of people in it by the end of the period (such as the Renaissance, the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment). (ACOKFH010)
Depth studies
There are three depth studies for this historical period. For each depth study, there are up to four electives that focus on a particular society, event, movement or development. It is expected that ONE elective will be studied in detail. A depth study will constitute approximately 30% of the total teaching time for the year. The content in each depth study elective is designed to allow detailed study of specific aspects of this historical period. As part of a teaching and learning program, depth study content can be integrated with the overview content and/or with other depth study electives.
1 The Western and Islamic World
Students investigate ONE of these societies/empires from the Western or Islamic world in depth: the Vikings or Medieval Europe or the Ottoman Empire or Renaissance Italy.
  1. The Ottoman Empire (c.1299 – c.1683)
    1. The way of life in the Ottoman Empire (social, cultural, economic and political features) and the roles and relationships of different groups in society (ACDSEH009)
    2. Significant developments and/or cultural achievements that reflect the power and influence of the Ottoman Empire, such as the fall of Constantinople in 1453 AD (CE), art and architecture. (ACDSEH053)
    3. Relationships with subject peoples, including the policy of religious tolerance (ACDSEH054)
    4. The role of significant individuals such as Selim I or Suleiman the Magnificent in maintaining the strength and influence of the Ottoman Empire (ACDSEH055)
  2. Renaissance Italy (c.1400 – c.1600)
    1. The way of life in Renaissance Italy (social, cultural, economic and political features) and the roles and relationships of different groups in society (ACDSEH010)
    2. Significant developments and/or cultural achievements that reflect the concentration of wealth and power in the city-states, such as art and learning (ACDSEH056)
    3. Relationships between rulers and ruled in ONE Italian city-state such as Florence or Naples (ACDSEH057)
    4. The role and achievements of significant individuals such as Lucrezia Borgia, Galileo, Leonardo da Vinci, Niccolo Machiavelli (ACDSEH058)
    5. The spread of Renaissance culture to the rest of Europe, and its legacy (ACDSEH059)
  3. The Vikings (c.790 – c.1066)
    1. The way of life in Viking society (social, cultural, economic and political features) and the roles and relationships of different groups in society (ACDSEH007)
    2. Significant developments and/or cultural achievements that led to Viking expansion, including weapons and shipbuilding, and the extent of their trade (ACDSEH047)
    3. Viking conquests and relationships with subject peoples, including the perspectives of monks, changes in the way of life of the English, and the Norman invasion (ACDSEH048)
    4. The role of a significant individual in the expansion of Viking settlement and influence, such as Erik the Red or Leif Ericson (ACDSEH049)
  4. Medieval Europe (c.590 – c.1500)
    1. The way of life in Medieval Europe (social, cultural, economic and political features) and the roles and relationships of different groups in society (ACDSEH008)
    2. Significant developments and/or cultural achievements, such as changing relations between Islam and the West (including the Crusades), architecture, medieval manuscripts and music (ACDSEH050)
    3. Continuity and change in society in ONE of the following areas: crime and punishment; military and defence systems; towns, cities and commerce (ACDSEH051)
    4. The dominance of the Catholic Church and the role of significant individuals such as Charlemagne (ACDSEH052)
2 The Asia-Pacific World
Students investigate ONE of these Asia-Pacific societies in depth: the Angkor/Khmer Empire or Shogunate Japan or the Polynesian expansion across the Pacific. N.B. Where appropriate, this depth study may include some reference beyond the end of the period c.1750.
  1. Angkor/Khmer Empire (c.802 – c.1431)
    1. The way of life in the Khmer Empire, including, social, cultural, economic and political features (including the role of the king ). (ACDSEH011)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    2. The reasons for Angkor’s rise to prominence, including wealth from trade and agriculture (ACDSEH060)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    3. The cultural achievements of the Khmer civilisation, including its system of water management and the building of the temples of Angkor (ACDSEH061)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    4. Theories of the decline of Angkor, such as the overuse of water resources, neglect of public works as a result of ongoing war, and the effects of climate change (ACDSEH062)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  2. Japan under the Shoguns’ (c.794 – 1867)
    1. The way of life in shogunate Japan, including social, cultural, economic and political features (including the feudal system and the increasing power of the shogun) (ACDSEH012)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    2. The role of the Tokugawa Shogunate in reimposing a feudal system (based on daimyo and samurai) and the increasing control of the Shogun over foreign trade. (ACDSEH063)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    3. The use of environmental resources in Shogunate Japan and the forestry and land use policies of the Tokugawa Shogunate (ACDSEH064)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
    4. Theories about the decline of the Shogunate, including modernisation and westernisation, through the adoption of Western arms and technology (ACDSEH065)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  3. The Polynesian expansion across the Pacific (c.700 – 1756)
    1. Theories about the origin and spread of Polynesian settlers throughout the Pacific (ACDSEH013)
    2. The way of life in ONE Polynesian society, including social, cultural, economic and political features, such as the role of the ariki in Maori and in Rapa Nui society (Easter Island) (ACDSEH066)
    3. The cultural achievements of ONE Polynesian society, such as the Ta moko and hangi in Maori society OR the moai constructed on Easter Island (ACDSEH067)
    4. The way Polynesian societies used environmental resources (sustainably and unsustainably), including the extinction of the moa in New Zealand, the use of religious/supernatural threats to conserve resources, and the exploitation of Easter Island’s palm trees (ACDSEH068)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
3 Expanding contacts
Students investigate ONE of the following historical developments in depth to explore the interaction of societies in this period: the Mongol expansion or the Black Death in Africa, Asia and Europe or the Spanish conquest of the Aztecs and Incas.
  1. Mongol Expansion (c.1206 – c.1368)
    1. The nomadic lifestyle of the Mongols and the rise of Temujin (Genghis Khan) (ACDSEH014)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    2. The organisation of the Mongol army under Genghis Khan and the treatment of conquered peoples, such as the codification of laws and exemption of teachers, lawyers and artists from taxes (ACDSEH077)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    3. The extent of the Mongol expansion as one of the largest land empires in history, including life in China before, during and after the Mongol conquest (ACDSEH078)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    4. The consequences of the Mongol expansion, including contributions to European knowledge and trade routes (ACDSEH079)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  2. The Black Death in Asia, Europe and Africa (14th century plague)
    1. Living conditions and religious beliefs in the 14th century, including life expectancy, medical knowledge and beliefs about the power of God (ACDSEH015)
    2. The role of expanding trade between Europe and Asia in the Black Death, including the origin and spread of the disease (ACDSEH069)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    3. The causes and symptoms of the Black Death and the responses of different groups in society to the spread of the disease, such as the flagellants and monasteries (ACDSEH070)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    4. The effects of the Black Death on Asian, European and African populations, and conflicting theories about the impact of the plague (ACDSEH071)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    5. Other immediate and long-term effects of the Black Death, including labour shortages, peasant uprisings, the weakening of feudal structures, and increased social mobility (ACDSEH072)
  3. The Spanish Conquest of the Americas (c.1492 – c.1572)
    1. Pre-Columbian life in the Americas, including social organisation, city life and beliefs. (ACDSEH016)
    2. When, how and why the Spanish arrived in the Americas, and where they went, including the various societies and geographical features they encountered (ACDSEH073)
    3. The nature of the interaction between the Spanish and the indigenous populations, with a particular focus on either the Aztecs OR Incas (ACDSEH074)
    4. The impact of the conquest on the Aztecs OR Incas as well as on the wider world, such as the introduction of new diseases, horses and gunpowder in the Americas, and new foods and increased wealth in Europe (ACDSEH075)
    5. The longer-term effects of colonisation, including slavery, population changes and lack of control over resources (ACDSEH076)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3

Historical Skills

Chronology, terms and concepts
  1. Sequence historical events, developments and periods (ACHHS148)
  2. Use historical terms and concepts (ACHHS149)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
Historical questions and research
  1. Identify a range of questions about the past to inform a historical inquiry (ACHHS150)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  2. Identify and locate relevant sources, using ICT and other methods (ACHHS151)
Analysis and use of sources
  1. Identify the origin and purpose of primary and secondary sources (ACHHS152)
  2. Locate, compare, select and use information from a range of sources as evidence (ACHHS153)
  3. Draw conclusions about the usefulness of sources (ACHHS154)
Perspectives and interpretations
  1. Identify and describe points of view, attitudes and values in primary and secondary sources (ACHHS155)
Explanation and communication
  1. Develop texts, particularly descriptions and explanations that use evidence from a range of sources that are acknowledged (ACHHS156)
  2. Use a range of communication forms (oral, graphic, written) and digital technologies (ACHHS157)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2

Year 8 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 8, students recognise and explain patterns of change and continuity over time. They explain the causes and effects of events and developments. They identify the motives and actions of people at the time. Students explain the significance of individuals and groups and how they were influenced by the beliefs and values of their society. They describe different interpretations of the past.

Students sequence events and developments within a chronological framework with reference to periods of time. When researching, students develop questions to frame an historical inquiry. They analyse, select and organise information from primary and secondary sources and use it as evidence to answer inquiry questions. Students identify and explain different points of view in sources. When interpreting sources, they identify their origin and purpose, and distinguish between fact and opinion. Students develop texts, particularly descriptions and explanations, incorporating analysis. In developing these texts, and organising and presenting their findings, they use historical terms and concepts, evidence identified in sources, and acknowledge their sources of information.

Year 8 Work Sample Portfolios

Year 9

Year 9 Level Description

The Making of the Modern World

The Year 9 curriculum provides a study of the history of the making of the modern world from 1750 to 1918. It was a period of industrialisation and rapid change in the ways people lived, worked...

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Key inquiry questions

  1. What were the changing features of the movements of people from 1750 to 1918?
  2. How did new ideas and technological developments contribute to change in this period?
  3. What was the origin, development, significance and long-term impact of imperialism in this period?
  4. What was the significance of World War I?

Year 9 Content Descriptions

Historical Knowledge and Understanding

Overview of the making of the Modern world

The following content is taught as part of an overview for the historical period. It is not intended to be taught in depth. An overview will constitute approximately 10% of the total teaching time for the year. Overview content identifies important features of the period (1750 – 1918) as part of an expansive chronology that helps students understand broad patterns of historical change. As such, the overview provides the broader context for the teaching of depth study content and can be built into various parts of a teaching and learning program. This means that overview content can be used to give students an introduction to the historical period; to make the links to and between the depth studies, and to consolidate understanding through a review of the period.

Overview content for the making of the modern world includes the following:

  1. the nature and significance of the Industrial Revolution and how it affected living and working conditions, including within Australia (ACOKFH016)
  2. the nature and extent of the movement of peoples in the period (slaves, convicts and settlers) (ACOKFH015)
  3. the extent of European imperial expansion and different responses, including in the Asian region (ACOKFH017)
  4. the emergence and nature of significant economic, social and political ideas in the period, including nationalism (ACOKFH019)
Depth studies
There are three depth studies for this historical period. For each depth study, there are up to three electives that focus on a particular society, event, movement or development. It is expected that ONE elective will be studied in detail. A depth study will constitute approximately 30% of the total teaching time for the year. The content in each depth study elective is designed to allow detailed study of specific aspects of this historical period. As part of a teaching and learning program, depth study content can be integrated with overview content and/or with other depth study electives.
1 Making a Better World?
Students investigate how life changed in the period in depth through the study of ONE of these major developments: the Industrial Revolution or Movement of peoples or Progressive ideas and movements. The study includes the causes and effects of the development, and the Australian experience.
  1. The Industrial Revolution (1750 – 1914)
    1. The technological innovations that led to the Industrial Revolution, and other conditions that influenced the industrialisation of Britain (the agricultural revolution, access to raw materials, wealthy middle class, cheap labour, transport system, and expanding empire) and of Australia (ACDSEH017)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    2. The population movements and changing settlement patterns during this period (ACDSEH080)
    3. The experiences of men, women and children during the Industrial Revolution, and their changing way of life (ACDSEH081)
    4. The short and long-term impacts of the Industrial Revolution, including global changes in landscapes, transport and communication (ACDSEH082)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  2. Progressive ideas and movements (1750 – 1918)
    1. The emergence and nature of key ideas in the period, with a particular focus on ONE of the following: capitalism, socialism, egalitarianism, nationalism, imperialism, Darwinism, Chartism (ACDSEH019)
    2. The reasons why ONE key idea emerged and/or developed a following, such as the influence of the Industrial Revolution on socialism (ACDSEH086)
    3. The role of an individual or group in the promotion of ONE of these key ideas, and the responses to it from, for example, workers, entrepreneurs, land owners, religious groups (ACDSEH087)
    4. The short and long-term impacts of ONE of these ideas on Australia and the world (ACDSEH088)
  3. Movement of peoples (1750 – 1901)
    1. The influence of the Industrial Revolution on the movement of peoples throughout the world, including the transatlantic slave trade and convict transportation (ACDSEH018)
    2. The experiences of slaves, convicts and free settlers upon departure, their journey abroad, and their reactions on arrival, including the Australian experience (ACDSEH083)
    3. Changes in the way of life of a group(s) of people who moved to Australia in this period, such as free settlers on the frontier in Australia (ACDSEH084)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    4. The short and long-term impacts of the movement of peoples during this period (ACDSEH085)
2 Australia and Asia
Students investigate the history of Australia OR an Asian society in the period 1750 – 1918 in depth.
  1. Asia and the world
    1. The key features (social, cultural, economic, political) of ONE Asian society (such as China, Japan, India, Dutch East Indies, India) at the start of the period (ACDSEH093)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    2. Change and continuity in the Asian society during this period, including any effects of contact (intended and unintended) with European power(s) (ACDSEH094)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    3. The position of the Asian society in relation to other nations in the world around the turn of the twentieth century (that is 1900), including the influence of key ideas such as nationalism (ACDSEH142)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    4. The significance of ONE key event that involved the Asian society and European power(s), including different perspectives of the event at the time (ACDSEH141)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  2. Making a nation
    1. The extension of settlement, including the effects of contact (intended and unintended) between European settlers in Australia and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples (ACDSEH020)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    2. The experiences of non-Europeans in Australia prior to the 1900s (such as the Japanese, Chinese, South Sea Islanders, Afghans) (ACDSEH089)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    3. Living and working conditions in Australia around the turn of the twentieth century (that is 1900) (ACDSEH090)
    4. Key events and ideas in the development of Australian self-government and democracy, including women's voting rights (ACDSEH091)
    5. Legislation 1901-1914, including the Harvester Judgment, pensions, and the Immigration Restriction Act (ACDSEH092)
3 World War I
Students investigate key aspects of World War I and the Australian experience of the war, including the nature and significance of the war in world and Australian history.
  1. World War I (1914-1918)
    1. An overview of the causes of World War I and the reasons why men enlisted to fight in the war (ACDSEH021)
    2. The places where Australians fought and the nature of warfare during World War I, including the Gallipoli campaign (ACDSEH095)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    3. The impact of World War I, with a particular emphasis on Australia (such as the use of propaganda to influence the civilian population, the changing role of women, the conscription debate) (ACDSEH096)
    4. The commemoration of World War I, including debates about the nature and significance of the Anzac legend (ACDSEH097)

Historical Skills

Chronology, terms and concepts
  1. Use chronological sequencing to demonstrate the relationship between events and developments in different periods and places (ACHHS164)
  2. Use historical terms and concepts (ACHHS165)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
Historical questions and research
  1. Identify and select different kinds of questions about the past to inform historical inquiry (ACHHS166)
  2. Evaluate and enhance these questions (ACHHS167)
  3. Identify and locate relevant sources, using ICT and other methods (ACHHS168)
Analysis and use of sources
  1. Identify the origin, purpose and context of primary and secondary sources (ACHHS169)
  2. Process and synthesise information from a range of sources for use as evidence in an historical argument (ACHHS170)
  3. Evaluate the reliability and usefulness of primary and secondary sources (ACHHS171)
Perspectives and interpretations
  1. Identify and analyse the perspectives of people from the past (ACHHS172)
  2. Identify and analyse different historical interpretations (including their own) (ACHHS173)
Explanation and communication
  1. Develop texts, particularly descriptions and discussions that use evidence from a range of sources that are referenced (ACHHS174)
  2. Select and use a range of communication forms (oral, graphic, written) and digital technologies (ACHHS175)

Year 9 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 9, students refer to key events and the actions of individuals and groups to explain patterns of change and continuity over time. They analyse the causes and effects of events and developments and make judgments about their importance. They explain the motives and actions of people at the time. Students explain the significance of these events and developments over the short and long term. They explain different interpretations of the past.

Students sequence events and developments within a chronological framework, with reference to periods of time and their duration. When researching, students develop different kinds of questions to frame an historical inquiry. They interpret, process, analyse and organise information from a range of primary and secondary sources and...

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Year 9 Work Sample Portfolios

Year 10

Year 10 Level Description

The Modern World and Australia

The Year 10 curriculum provides a study of the history of the modern world and Australia from 1918 to the present, with an emphasis on Australia in its global context. The twentieth century...

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Key inquiry questions

  1. How did the nature of global conflict change during the twentieth century?
  2. What were the consequences of World War II? How did these consequences shape the modern world?
  3. How was Australian society affected by other significant global events and changes in this period?

Year 10 Content Descriptions

Historical Knowledge and Understanding

Overview of the Modern World and Australia

The following content is taught as part of an overview for the historical period. It is not intended to be taught in depth. An overview will constitute approximately 10% of the total teaching time for the year. Overview content identifies important features of the period (1918 to the present) as part of an expansive chronology that helps students understand broad patterns of historical change. As such, the overview provides the broader context for the teaching of depth study content and can be built into various parts of a teaching and learning program. This means that overview content can be used to give students an introduction to the historical period; to make the links to and between the depth studies, and to consolidate understanding through a review of the period.

Overview content for the Modern World and Australia includes the following:

  1. the inter-war years between World War I and World War II, including the Treaty of Versailles, the Roaring Twenties and the Great Depression (ACOKFH018)
  2. continuing efforts post-World War II to achieve lasting peace and security in the world, including Australia’s involvement in UN peacekeeping (ACOKFH021)
  3. the major movements for rights and freedom in the world and the achievement of independence by former colonies (ACOKFH022)
  4. the nature of the Cold War and Australia’s involvement in Cold War and post-Cold War conflicts (Korea, Vietnam, The Gulf Wars, Afghanistan), including the rising influence of Asian nations since the end of the Cold War (ACOKFH023)
  5. developments in technology, public health, longevity and standard of living during the twentieth century, and concern for the environment and sustainability (ACOKFH024)
Depth studies
There are three depth studies for this historical period. For each depth study, there are up to three electives that focus on a particular society, event, movement or development. It is expected that ONE elective will be studied in detail. A depth study will constitute approximately 30% of the total teaching time for the year. The content in each depth study elective is designed to allow detailed study of specific aspects of this historical period. As part of a teaching and learning program, depth study content can be integrated with overview content and/or integrated with other depth study electives.
1 World War II
Students investigate wartime experiences through a study of World War II in depth. This includes a study of the causes, events, outcome and broader impact of the conflict as an episode in world history, and the nature of Australia’s involvement.
  1. World War II (1939-45)
    1. An overview of the causes and course of World War II (ACDSEH024)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    2. An examination of significant events of World War II, including the Holocaust and use of the atomic bomb (ACDSEH107)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    3. The experiences of Australians during World War II (such as Prisoners of War (POWs), the Battle of Britain, Kokoda, the Fall of Singapore) (ACDSEH108)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    4. The impact of World War II, with a particular emphasis on the Australian home front, including the changing roles of women and use of wartime government controls (conscription, manpower controls, rationing and censorship) (ACDSEH109)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    5. The significance of World War II to Australia’s international relationships in the twentieth century, with particular reference to the United Nations, Britain, the USA and Asia (ACDSEH110)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
2 Rights and freedoms
Students investigate struggles for human rights in depth. This will include how rights and freedoms have been ignored, demanded or achieved in Australia and in the broader world context.
  1. Rights and freedoms (1945 – the present)
    1. The origins and significance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, including Australia’s involvement in the development of the declaration (ACDSEH023)
    2. Background to the struggle of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples for rights and freedoms before 1965, including the 1938 Day of Mourning and the Stolen Generations (ACDSEH104)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    3. The US civil rights movement and its influence on Australia (ACDSEH105)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    4. The significance of the following for the civil rights of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: 1962 right to vote federally; 1967 Referendum; Reconciliation; Mabo decision; Bringing Them Home Report (the Stolen Generations), the Apology (ACDSEH106)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    5. Methods used by civil rights activists to achieve change for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, and the role of ONE individual or group in the struggle (ACDSEH134)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    6. The continuing nature of efforts to secure civil rights and freedoms in Australia and throughout the world, such as the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (2007) (ACDSEH143)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
3 The globalising world
Students investigate one major global influence that has shaped Australian society in depth, including the development of the global influence during the twentieth century. Students study ONE of these electives: Popular culture or The environment movement or Migration experiences.
  1. Popular culture (1945 – present)
    1. The nature of popular culture in Australia at the end of World War II, including music, film and sport (ACDSEH027)
    2. Developments in popular culture in post-war Australia and their impact on society, including the introduction of television and rock ’n’ roll (ACDSEH121)
    3. The changing nature of the music, film and television industry in Australia during the post-war period, including the influence of overseas developments (such as Hollywood, Bollywood and the animation film industry in China and Japan) (ACDSEH122)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    4. Australia’s contribution to international popular culture (music, film, television, sport). (ACDSEH123)
    5. Continuity and change in beliefs and values that have influenced the Australian way of life (ACDSEH149)
  2. Migration experiences (1945 – present)
    1. The waves of post-World War II migration to Australia, including the influence of significant world events (ACDSEH144)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    2. The impact of changing government policies on Australia’s migration patterns, including abolition of the White Australia Policy, ‘Populate or Perish’ (ACDSEH145)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    3. The impact of at least ONE world event or development and its significance for Australia, such as the Vietnam War and Indochinese refugees (ACDSEH146)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    4. The contribution of migration to Australia’s changing identity as a nation and to its international relationships (ACDSEH147)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  3. The environment movement (1960s – present)
    1. The background to environmental awareness, including the nineteenth century National Parks movement in America and Australia (ACDSEH028)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
    2. The intensification of environmental effects in the twentieth century as a result of population increase, urbanisation, increasing industrial production and trade (ACDSEH125)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
    3. The growth and influence of the environment movement within Australia and overseas, and developments in ideas about the environment (notion of ‘Gaia’, ‘limits to growth’, concept of ‘sustainability’, concept of ‘rights of nature’) (ACDSEH126)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
    4. Significant events and campaigns that contributed to popular awareness of environmental issues, such as the campaign to prevent the damming of Australia’s Gordon River, the nuclear accident at Chernobyl and the Jabiluka mine controversy in 1998 (ACDSEH127)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
    5. Responses of governments, including the Australian government, and international organisations to environmental threats since the 1960s (including deforestation and climate change). (ACDSEH128)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3

Historical Skills

Chronology, terms and concepts
  1. Use chronological sequencing to demonstrate the relationship between events and developments in different periods and places (ACHHS182)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
  2. Use historical terms and concepts (ACHHS183)
Historical questions and research
  1. Identify and select different kinds of questions about the past to inform historical inquiry (ACHHS184)
  2. Evaluate and enhance these questions (ACHHS185)
  3. Identify and locate relevant sources, using ICT and other methods (ACHHS186)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
Analysis and use of sources
  1. Identify the origin, purpose and context of primary and secondary sources (ACHHS187)
  2. Process and synthesise information from a range of sources for use as evidence in an historical argument (ACHHS188)
  3. Evaluate the reliability and usefulness of primary and secondary sources (ACHHS189)
Perspectives and interpretations
  1. Identify and analyse the perspectives of people from the past (ACHHS190)
  2. Identify and analyse different historical interpretations (including their own) (ACHHS191)
Explanation and communication
  1. Develop texts, particularly descriptions and discussions that use evidence from a range of sources that are referenced (ACHHS192)
  2. Select and use a range of communication forms (oral, graphic, written) and digital technologies (ACHHS193)

Year 10 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 10, students refer to key events, the actions of individuals and groups, and beliefs and values to explain patterns of change and continuity over time. They analyse the causes and effects of events and developments and explain their relative importance. They explain the context for people’s actions in the past. Students explain the significance of events and developments from a range of perspectives. They explain different interpretations of the past and recognise the evidence used to support these interpretations.

Students sequence events and developments within a chronological framework, and identify relationships between events across different places and periods of time. When researching, students develop, evaluate and modify questions to frame an historical inquiry. They

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Year 10 Work Sample Portfolios