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ACARA Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority

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Foundation Year

Foundation Year Level Description

People live in places focuses on developing students’ understanding of place. Students explore the place they live in and belong to, and learn to observe and describe its features. Learning about their own place and building a connection with it contributes to their sense of identity and belonging and an understanding of why and how they should look after places. They start to explore...

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Key inquiry questions

A framework for developing students’ geographical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided through the inclusion of inquiry questions and specific inquiry skills, including the use of photographs and other representations of geographical data and the drawing of simple maps.

The key inquiry questions for Foundation Year are articulated below.

  • What are places like?
  • What makes a place special?
  • How can we look after the places we live in?

Foundation Year Content Descriptions

Geographical Knowledge and Understanding

  1. The representation of the location of places and their features on maps and a globe (ACHGK001)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
  2. The places people live in and belong to, their familiar features and why they are important to people (ACHGK002)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
  3. The Countries/Places that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples belong to in the local area and why they are important to them (ACHGK003)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
  4. The reasons why some places are special to people, and how they can be looked after (ACHGK004)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3

Geographical Inquiry and Skills

Observing, questioning and planning
  1. Make observations about familiar places and pose questions about them (ACHGS001)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
Collecting, recording, evaluating and representing
  1. Record geographical data and information collected by observation (ACHGS002)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
  2. Represent the location of features of a familiar place on pictorial maps and models (ACHGS003)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
Interpreting, analysing and concluding
  1. Draw conclusions based on discussions of observations (ACHGS004)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
Communicating
  1. Present information using everyday language to describe location and direction (ACHGS005)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
Reflecting and responding
  1. Reflect on their learning to suggest ways that they can look after a familiar place (ACHGS006)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3

Foundation Year Achievement Standard

By the end Foundation Year, students describe the features of familiar places and recognise why some places are special to people. They recognise that places can be represented on maps and a globe and why places are important to people.

Students observe the familiar features of places and represent these features and their location on pictorial maps and models. They share observations in a range of texts and use everyday language to describe direction and location. Students reflect on their learning to suggest ways they can care for a familiar place.

Foundation Year Work Sample Portfolios

Year 1

Year 1 Level Description

Places have distinctive features develops the concept of place through studies of what places are like and how their features have changed. Students learn that places can have natural, managed and constructed environmental features, and range from those that have largely natural features to those with largely managed or constructed features. This year continues to develop the idea ...

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Key inquiry questions

A framework for developing students’ geographical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided through the inclusion of inquiry questions and specific inquiry skills, including the use and interpretation of maps, photographs and other representations of geographical data.

The key inquiry questions for Year 1 are articulated below.

  • What are the different features of places?
  • How can we care for places?
  • How can spaces within a place be rearranged to suit different purposes?

Year 1 Content Descriptions

Geographical Knowledge and Understanding

  1. The natural, managed and constructed features of places, their location, how they change and how they can be cared for (ACHGK005)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  2. The weather and seasons of places and the ways in which different cultural groups, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, describe them (ACHGK006)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
  3. The ways the activities located in a place create its distinctive features (ACHGK007)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
  4. The ways that space within places, such as classroom or backyard, can be rearranged to suit different activities or purposes (ACHGK008)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5

Geographical Inquiry and Skills

Observing, questioning and planning
  1. Pose questions about familiar and unfamiliar places (ACHGS007)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
Collecting, recording, evaluating and representing
  1. Collect and record geographical data and information, for example, by observing, by interviewing, or from sources such as photographs, plans, satellite images, story books and films (ACHGS008)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
  2. Represent data and the location of places and their features by constructing tables, plans and labelled maps (ACHGS009)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
Interpreting, analysing and concluding
  1. Draw conclusions based on the interpretation of geographical information sorted into categories (ACHGS010)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
Communicating
  1. Present findings in a range of communication forms, for example, written, oral, digital and visual, and describe the direction and location of places, using terms such as north, south, opposite, near, far (ACHGS011)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
Reflecting and responding
  1. Reflect on their learning and suggest responses to their findings (ACHGS012)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3

Year 1 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 1, students identify and describe the natural, managed and constructed features of places at a local scale and recognise that people describe the features of places differently. They identify where features of places are located and recognise that spaces can be arranged for different purposes. Students identify changes in features and describe how to care for places.

Students respond to questions about familiar and unfamiliar places by collecting, recording and sorting information from sources provided. They represent the location of different places and their features on pictorial maps and present findings in a range of texts and use everyday language to describe direction and location. They reflect on their learning to suggest ways that places can be cared for.

Year 1 Work Sample Portfolios

Year 2

Year 2 Level Description

People are connected to many places further develops students’ understanding of place, as they learn that places may be defined differently by diverse groups of people. Students are introduced to the concept of scale as they learn about the hierarchy of scale by which places are defined - from smaller rural villages to larger cities. Students’ understanding of the concept of interconnecti...

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Key inquiry questions

A framework for developing students’ geographical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided through the inclusion of inquiry questions and specific inquiry skills, including the use and interpretation of maps, photographs and other representations of geographical data.

The key inquiry questions for Year 2 are articulated below.

  • What is a place?
  • How are people connected to their place and other places?
  • What factors affect my connections to places?

Year 2 Content Descriptions

Geographical Knowledge and Understanding

  1. The location of the major geographical divisions of the world in relation to Australia (ACHGK009)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  2. The definition of places as parts of the Earth’s surface that have been given meaning by people, and how places can be defined at a variety of scales (ACHGK010)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
  3. The ways in which Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples maintain special connections to particular Country/Place (ACHGK011)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
  4. The connections of people in Australia to other places in Australia, the countries of the Asia region, and across the world (ACHGK012)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  5. The influence of purpose, distance and accessibility on the frequency with which people visit places (ACHGK013)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4

Geographical Inquiry and Skills

Observing, questioning and planning
  1. Pose geographical questions about familiar and unfamiliar places (ACHGS013)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
Collecting, recording, evaluating and representing
  1. Collect and record geographical data and information, for example, by observing, by interviewing, or from sources such as, photographs, plans, satellite images, story books and films (ACHGS014)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
  2. Represent data and the location of places and their features by constructing tables, plans and labelled maps (ACHGS015)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
Interpreting, analysing and concluding
  1. Draw conclusions based on the interpretation of geographical information sorted into categories (ACHGS016)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
Communicating
  1. Present findings in a range of communication forms, for example, written, oral, digital and visual, and describe the direction and location of places, using terms such as north, south, opposite, near, far (ACHGS017)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
Reflecting and responding
  1. Reflect on their learning and suggest responses to their findings (ACHGS018)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5

Year 2 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 2, students identify the features that define places and recognise that places can be described at different scales. They describe how people in different places are connected to each other and identify factors that influence these connections. Students recognise that the world can be divided into major geographical divisions. They explain why places are important to people.

Students pose questions about familiar and unfamiliar places and collect information to answer these questions. They represent data and the location of places and their features in tables, plans and on labelled maps. They interpret geographical information to draw conclusions. Students present findings in a range of texts and use simple geographical terms to describe the direction and location of places. They suggest action in response to the findings of their inquiry.

Year 2 Work Sample Portfolios

Year 3

Year 3 Level Description

Places are both similar and different continues to develop students’ understanding of place by examining the similarities and differences between places within and outside Australia. The concept of place is developed through examining the major natural and human characteristics of Australia the Countries/Places of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, and Australia's neighbouring...

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Key inquiry questions

A framework for developing students’ geographical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided through the inclusion of inquiry questions and specific inquiry skills, including the use and interpretation of maps, photographs and other representations of geographical data.

The key inquiry questions for Year 3 are articulated below.

  • How and why are places similar and different?
  • What would it be like to live in a neighbouring country?
  • How do people’s feelings about places influence their views about the protection of places?

Year 3 Content Descriptions

Geographical Knowledge and Understanding

  1. The representation of Australia as states and territories, and Australia’s major natural and human features (ACHGK014)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
  2. The many Countries/Places of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples throughout Australia (ACHGK015)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
  3. The location of Australia’s neighbouring countries and their diverse characteristics (ACHGK016)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  4. The main climate types of the world and the similarities and differences between the climates of different places (ACHGK017)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
  5. The similarities and differences in individuals’ and groups’ feelings and perceptions about places, and how they influence views about the protection of these places (ACHGK018)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  6. The similarities and differences between places in terms of their type of settlement, demographic characteristics and the lives of the people who live there (ACHGK019)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2

Geographical Inquiry and Skills

Observing, questioning and planning
  1. Develop geographical questions to investigate (ACHGS019)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
Collecting, recording, evaluating and representing
  1. Collect and record relevant geographical data and information, for example, by observing by interviewing, conducting surveys, measuring, or from sources such as maps, photographs, satellite images, the media and the internet (ACHGS020)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  2. Represent data by constructing tables and graphs (ACHGS021)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
  3. Represent the location of places and their features by constructing large-scale maps that conform to cartographic conventions including scale, legend, title and north point, and describe their location using simple grid references, compass direction and distance (ACHGS022)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
Interpreting, analysing and concluding
  1. Interpret geographical data to identify distributions and patterns and draw conclusions (ACHGS023)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
Communicating
  1. Present findings in a range of communication forms, for example, written, oral, digital, graphic, tabular, and visual, and use geographical terminology (ACHGS024)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
Reflecting and responding
  1. Reflect on their learning to propose individual action in response to a contemporary geographical challenge and identify the expected effects of the proposal (ACHGS025)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3

Year 3 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 3, students describe the characteristics of different places at the local scale and identify and describe similarities and differences between the characteristics of these places. They identify interconnections between people and places. They describe the location of selected countries and the distribution of features of places. Students recognise that people have different perceptions of places and how this influences views on the protection of places.

Students pose simple geographical questions and collect information from different sources to answer these questions. They represent data in tables and simple graphs and the location of places and their characteristics on labelled maps that use the cartographic conventions of legend, title, and north point. They describe the location of places and their features using simple grid references and cardinal compass points.  Students interpret geographical data to describe distributions and draw conclusions. They present findings using simple geographical terminology in a range of texts. They suggest action in response to a geographical challenge.

Year 3 Work Sample Portfolios

Year 4

Year 4 Level Description

The Earth’s environment sustains all life focuses on developing students’ understanding of sustainability which is about the ongoing capacity of the environment to sustain human life and wellbeing. Students recognise that people have different views on how sustainability can be achieved. They learn that sustainability means more than the careful use of resources and the safe management...

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Key inquiry questions

A framework for developing students’ geographical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided through the inclusion of inquiry questions and specific inquiry skills, including the use and interpretation of maps, photographs and other representations of geographical data.

The key inquiry questions for Year 4 are articulated below.

  • How does the environment support the lives of people and other living things?
  • How do different views about the environment influence approaches to sustainability?
  • How can people use places and environments more sustainably?

Year 4 Content Descriptions

Geographical Knowledge and Understanding

  1. The location of the major countries of Africa and South America in relation to Australia, and their main characteristics, including the types of natural vegetation and native animals in at least two countries from both continents (ACHGK020)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  2. The types of natural vegetation and the significance of vegetation to the environment and to people (ACHGK021)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  3. The importance of environments to animals and people, and different views on how they can be protected (ACHGK022)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  4. The custodial responsibility Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples have for Country/Place, and how this influences their past and present views about the use of resources (ACHGK023)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  5. The natural resources provided by the environment, and different views on how they could be used sustainably (ACHGK024)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  6. The sustainable management of waste from production and consumption (ACHGK025)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3

Geographical Inquiry and Skills

Observing, questioning and planning
  1. Develop geographical questions to investigate (ACHGS026)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
Collecting, recording, evaluating and representing
  1. Collect and record relevant geographical data and information, for example, by observing, by interviewing, conducting surveys and measuring, or from sources such as maps, photographs, satellite images, the media and the internet (ACHGS027)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
  2. Represent data by constructing tables and graphs (ACHGS028)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
  3. Represent the location of places and their features by constructing large-scale maps that conform to cartographic conventions including scale, legend, title and north point, and describe their location using simple grid references, compass direction and distance (ACHGS029)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
Interpreting, analysing and concluding
  1. Interpret geographical data to identify distributions and patterns and draw conclusions (ACHGS030)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
Communicating
  1. Present findings in a range of communication forms, for example, written, oral, digital, graphic, tabular and visual, and use geographical terminology (ACHGS031)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
Reflecting and responding
  1. Reflect on their learning to propose individual action in response to a contemporary geographical challenge and identify the expected effects of the proposal (ACHGS032)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3

Year 4 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 4, students describe and compare the characteristics of places in different locations at the national scale. They identify and describe the interconnections between people and the environment.  They describe the location of selected countries in relative terms and identify simple patterns in the distribution of features of places. Students recognise the importance of the environment and identify different views on how to respond to a geographical challenge. 

Students develop geographical questions to investigate and collect and record information and data from different sources to answer these questions. They represent data and the location of places and their characteristics in simple graphic forms, including large-scale maps that use the cartographic conventions of scale, legend, title and north point. They describe the location of places and their features using simple grid references, compass direction and distance .Students interpret data to identify spatial distributions and simple patterns and draw conclusions. They present findings using geographical terminology in a range of texts. They propose individual action in response to a local geographical challenge and identify the expected effects of their proposed action.

Year 4 Work Sample Portfolios

Year 5

Year 5 Level Description

Factors that shape the human and environmental characteristics of places continues to develop students’ understanding of place by focusing on the factors that shape the characteristics of places. In exploring the interconnections between people and environments, students examine how climate and landforms influence the human characteristics of places, and how human actions influence the...

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Key inquiry questions

A framework for developing students’ geographical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided through the inclusion of inquiry questions and specific inquiry skills, including the use and interpretation of maps, photographs and other representations of geographical data.

The key inquiry questions for Year 5 are articulated below.

  • How do people and environments influence one another?
  • How do people influence the human characteristics of places and the management of spaces within them?
  • How can the impact of bushfires or floods on people and places be reduced?

Year 5 Content Descriptions

Geographical Knowledge and Understanding

  1. The location of the major countries of Europe and North America in relation to Australia and the influence of people on the environmental characteristics of places in at least two countries from both continents (ACHGK026)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
  2. The influence of people, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, on the environmental characteristics of Australian places (ACHGK027)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  3. The influence of the environment on the human characteristics of a place (ACHGK028)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  4. The influence people have on the human characteristics of places and the management of spaces within them (ACHGK029)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  5. The impact of bushfires or floods on environments and communities, and how people can respond (ACHGK030)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3

Geographical Inquiry and Skills

Observing, questioning and planning
  1. Develop geographical questions to investigate and plan an inquiry (ACHGS033)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
Collecting, recording, evaluating and representing
  1. Collect and record relevant geographical data and information, using ethical protocols, from primary and secondary sources, for example, people, maps, plans, photographs, satellite images, statistical sources and reports (ACHGS034)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  2. Evaluate sources for their usefulness and represent data in different forms, for example, maps, plans, graphs, tables, sketches and diagrams (ACHGS035)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
  3. Represent the location and features of places and different types of geographical information by constructing large-scale and small-scale maps that conform to cartographic conventions, including border, source, scale, legend, title and north point, using spatial technologies as appropriate (ACHGS036)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
Interpreting, analysing and concluding
  1. Interpret geographical data and other information, using digital and spatial technologies as appropriate, and identify spatial distributions, patterns and trends, and infer relationships to draw conclusions (ACHGS037)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
Communicating
  1. Present findings and ideas in a range of communication forms, for example, written, oral, graphic, tabular, visual and maps; using geographical terminology and digital technologies as appropriate (ACHGS038)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
Reflecting and responding
  1. Reflect on their learning to propose individual and collective action in response to a contemporary geographical challenge and describe the expected effects of their proposal on different groups of people (ACHGS039)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3

Year 5 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 5, students explain the characteristics of places in different locations at the national scale. They describe the interconnections between people, places and environments and identify the effect of these interconnections on the characteristics of places and environments. They describe the location of selected countries in relative terms and identify spatial distributions and simple patterns in the features of places and environments. They identify alternative views on how to respond to a geographical challenge and propose a response.

Students develop geographical questions to investigate and collect and record information from a range of sources to answer these questions. They represent data and the location of places and their characteristics in graphic forms, including large-scale and small-scale maps that use the cartographic conventions of border, scale, legend, title, and north point. Students interpret geographical data to identify spatial distributions, simple patterns and trends, infer relationships and draw conclusions. They present findings using geographical terminology in a range of communication forms. They propose action in response to a geographical challenge and identify the expected effects of their proposed action.

Year 5 Work Sample Portfolios

Year 6

Year 6 Level Description

A diverse and connected world takes a global view of geography and focuses particularly on the concepts of place and interconnections. Students learn about the diversity of peoples and cultures around the world, the indigenous peoples of other countries, the diversity of countries across the world and within the Asia region. They reflect on cultural differences and similarities, and on...

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Key inquiry questions

A framework for developing students’ geographical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided through the inclusion of inquiry questions and specific inquiry skills, including the use and interpretation of maps, photographs and other representations of geographical data.

The key inquiry questions for Year 6 are articulated below.

  • How do places, people and cultures differ across the world?
  • What are Australia’s global connections between people and places?
  • How do people’s connections to places affect their perception of them?

Year 6 Content Descriptions

Geographical Knowledge and Understanding

  1. The location of the major countries of the Asia region in relation to Australia and the geographical diversity within the region (ACHGK031)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  2. Differences in the economic, demographic and social characteristics between countries across the world (ACHGK032)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  3. The world’s cultural diversity, including that of its indigenous peoples (ACHGK033)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  4. Significant events that connect people and places throughout the world (ACHGK034)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  5. The various connections Australia has with other countries and how these connections change people and places (ACHGK035)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  6. The effects that people’s connections with, and proximity to, places throughout the world have on shaping their awareness and opinion of those places (ACHGK036)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6

Geographical Inquiry and Skills

Observing, questioning and planning
  1. Develop geographical questions to investigate and plan an inquiry (ACHGS040)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
Collecting, recording, evaluating and representing
  1. Collect and record relevant geographical data and information, using ethical protocols, from primary and secondary sources, for example, people, maps, plans, photographs, satellite images, statistical sources and reports (ACHGS041)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  2. Evaluate sources for their usefulness and represent data in different forms, for example, maps, plans, graphs, tables, sketches and diagrams (ACHGS042)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
  3. Represent the location and features of places and different types of geographical information by constructing large-scale and small-scale maps that conform to cartographic conventions including border, source, scale, legend, title and north point, using spatial technologies as appropriate (ACHGS043)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
Interpreting, analysing and concluding
  1. Interpret geographical data and other information using digital and spatial technologies as appropriate, and identify spatial distributions, patterns and trends, and infer relationships to draw conclusions (ACHGS044)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
Communicating
  1. Present findings and ideas in a range of communication forms, for example, written, oral, graphic, tabular, visual and maps, using geographical terminology and digital technologies as appropriate (ACHGS045)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
Reflecting and responding
  1. Reflect on their learning to propose individual and collective action in response to a contemporary geographical challenge and describe the expected effects of their proposal on different groups of people (ACHGS046)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3

Year 6 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 6, students explain the characteristics of diverse places in different locations at different scales from local to global. They describe the interconnections between people and places, identify factors that influence these interconnections and describe how they change places and affect people. They describe the location of selected countries in absolute and relative terms and identify and compare spatial distributions and patterns among phenomena. They identify and describe alternative views on how to respond to a geographical challenge and propose a response.

Students develop geographical questions to frame an inquiry. They locate relevant information from a range of sources to answer inquiry questions. They represent data and the location of places and their characteristics in different graphic forms, including large-scale and small-scale maps that use cartographic conventions of border, source, scale, legend, title and north point. Students interpret data and other information to identify and compare spatial distributions, patterns and trends, infer relationships and draw conclusions. They present findings and ideas using geographical terminology and graphic representations in a range of communication forms. They propose action in response to a geographical challenge and describe the expected effects of their proposal.

Year 6 Work Sample Portfolios

Year 7

Year 7 Level Description

There are two units of study in the Year 7 curriculum for Geography: Water in the world and Place and liveability.

Water in the world focuses on water as an example of a renewable environmental resource. This unit examines the many uses of water, the ways it is perceived and valued, its different forms as a resource, the ways it connects places as it moves through the environment, its varying...

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Key inquiry questions

A framework for developing students’ geographical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided through the inclusion of inquiry questions and specific inquiry skills, including the use and interpretation of maps, photographs and other representations of geographical data.

The key inquiry questions for Year 7 are articulated below.

  • How do people’s reliance on places and environments influence their perception of them?
  • What effect does the uneven distribution of resources and services have on the lives of people?
  • What approaches can be used to improve the availability of resources and access to services?

Year 7 Content Descriptions

Geographical Knowledge and Understanding

Unit 1: Water in the world
  1. The classification of environmental resources and the forms that water takes as a resource (ACHGK037)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
  2. The ways that flows of water connect places as it moves through the environment and the way this affects places (ACHGK038)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
  3. The quantity and variability of Australia’s water resources compared with those in other continents (ACHGK039)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
  4. The nature of water scarcity and ways of overcoming it, including studies drawn from Australia and West Asia and/or North Africa (ACHGK040)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  5. The economic, cultural, spiritual and aesthetic value of water for people, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples and peoples of the Asia region (ACHGK041)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  6. The causes, impacts and responses to an atmospheric or hydrological hazard (ACHGK042)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
Unit 2: Place and liveability
  1. The factors that influence the decisions people make about where to live and their perceptions of the liveability of places (ACHGK043)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
  2. The influence of accessibility to services and facilities on the liveability of places (ACHGK044)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  3. The influence of environmental quality on the liveability of places (ACHGK045)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  4. The influence of social connectedness, community identity and perceptions of crime and safety on the liveability of places (ACHGK046)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
  5. The strategies used to enhance the liveability of places, especially for young people, including examples from Australia and Europe (ACHGK047)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3

Geographical Inquiry and Skills

Observing, questioning and planning
  1. Develop geographically significant questions and plan an inquiry, using appropriate geographical methodologies and concepts (ACHGS047)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
Collecting, recording, evaluating and representing
  1. Collect, select and record relevant geographical data and information, using ethical protocols, from appropriate primary and secondary sources (ACHGS048)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
  2. Evaluate sources for their reliability and usefulness and represent data in a range of appropriate forms, for example, climate graphs, compound column graphs, population pyramids, tables, field sketches and annotated diagrams, with and without the use of digital and spatial technologies (ACHGS049)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
  3. Represent the spatial distribution of different types of geographical phenomena by constructing appropriate maps at different scales that conform to cartographic conventions, using spatial technologies as appropriate (ACHGS050)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
Interpreting, analysing and concluding
  1. Analyse geographical data and other information using qualitative and quantitative methods, and digital and spatial technologies as appropriate, to identify and propose explanations for spatial distributions, patterns and trends and infer relationships (ACHGS051)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  2. Apply geographical concepts to draw conclusions based on the analysis of the data and information collected (ACHGS052)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
Communicating
  1. Present findings, arguments and ideas in a range of communication forms selected to suit a particular audience and purpose; using geographical terminology and digital technologies as appropriate (ACHGS053)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
Reflecting and responding
  1. Reflect on their learning to propose individual and collective action in response to a contemporary geographical challenge, taking account of environmental, economic and social considerations, and predict the expected outcomes of their proposal (ACHGS054)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3

Year 7 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 7, students describe geographical processes that influence the characteristics of places and how places are perceived and valued differently.  They explain interconnections between people, places and environments and describe how they change places and environments. They propose simple explanations for spatial distributions and patterns among phenomena. They describe alternative strategies to a geographical challenge and propose a response, taking into account environmental, economic and social factors.

Students identify geographically significant questions to frame an inquiry. They locate relevant information from primary and secondary sources to answer inquiry questions. They represent data and the location and distribution of geographical phenomena in a range of graphic forms, including large-scale and small-scale maps that conform to cartographic conventions. They analyse geographical data and other information to propose simple explanations for spatial patterns, trends and relationships and draw conclusions. Students present findings and arguments using relevant geographical terminology and graphic representations in a range of communication forms. They propose action in response to a geographical challenge taking account of environmental, economic and social considerations and describe the expected effects of their proposal.

Year 7 Work Sample Portfolios

Year 8

Year 8 Level Description

There are two units of study in the Year 8 curriculum for Geography: Landforms and landscapes and Changing nations.

Landforms and landscapes focuses on investigating geomorphology through a study of landscapes and their landforms. This unit examines the processes that shape individual landforms, the values and meanings placed on landforms and landscapes by diverse cultures, hazards associated...

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Key inquiry questions

A framework for developing students’ geographical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided through the inclusion of inquiry questions and specific inquiry skills, including the use and interpretation of maps, photographs and other representations of geographical data.

The key inquiry questions for Year 8 are articulated below.

  • How do environmental and human processes affect the characteristics of places and environments?
  • How do the interconnections between places, people and environments affect the lives of people?
  • What are the consequences of changes to places and environments and how can these changes be managed?

Year 8 Content Descriptions

Geographical Knowledge and Understanding

Unit 1: Landforms and landscapes
  1. The different types of landscapes and their distinctive landform features (ACHGK048)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
  2. The aesthetic, cultural and spiritual value of landscapes and landforms for people, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (ACHGK049)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
  3. The geomorphic processes that produce landforms, including a case study of at least one landform (ACHGK050)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
  4. The human causes and effects of landscape degradation (ACHGK051)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  5. The ways of protecting significant landscapes (ACHGK052)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  6. The causes, impacts and responses to a geomorphological hazard (ACHGK053)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
Unit 2: Changing nations
  1. The causes and consequences of urbanisation, drawing on a study from Indonesia, or another country of the Asia region (ACHGK054)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  2. The differences in urban concentration and urban settlement patterns between Australia and the United States of America, and their causes and consequences (ACHGK055)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
  3. The reasons for and effects of internal migration in Australia (ACHGK056)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
  4. The reasons for and effects of internal migration in China (ACHGK057)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  5. The reasons for and effects of international migration in Australia (ACHGK058)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  6. The management and planning of Australia’s urban future (ACHGK059)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3

Geographical Inquiry and Skills

Observing, questioning and planning
  1. Develop geographically significant questions and plan an inquiry using appropriate geographical methodologies and concepts (ACHGS055)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
Collecting, recording, evaluating and representing
  1. Collect, select and record relevant geographical data and information, using ethical protocols, from appropriate primary and secondary sources (ACHGS056)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
  2. Evaluate sources for their reliability and usefulness and represent data in a range of appropriate forms, for example, climate graphs, compound column graphs, population pyramids, tables, field sketches and annotated diagrams, with and without the use of digital and spatial technologies (ACHGS057)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  3. Represent the spatial distribution of different types of geographical phenomena by constructing appropriate maps at different scales that conform to cartographic conventions, using spatial technologies as appropriate (ACHGS058)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
Interpreting, analysing and concluding
  1. Analyse geographical data and other information using qualitative and quantitative methods, and digital and spatial technologies as appropriate, to identify and propose explanations for spatial distributions, patterns and trends and infer relationships (ACHGS059)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
  2. Apply geographical concepts to draw conclusions based on the analysis of the data and information collected (ACHGS060)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
Communicating
  1. Present findings, arguments and ideas in a range of communication forms selected to suit a particular audience and purpose, using geographical terminology and digital technologies as appropriate (ACHGS061)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
Reflecting and responding
  1. Reflect on their learning to propose individual and collective action in response to a contemporary geographical challenge, taking account of environmental, economic and social considerations, and predict the expected outcomes of their proposal (ACHGS062)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3

Year 8 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 8, students explain geographical processes that influence the characteristics of places and explain how places are perceived and valued differently.  They explain interconnections within environments and between people and places and explain how they change places and environments. They propose explanations for spatial distributions and patterns among phenomena and identify associations between distribution patterns. They compare alternative strategies to a geographical challenge and propose a response, taking into account environmental, economic and social factors.

Students identify geographically significant questions from observations to frame an inquiry. They locate relevant information from a range of primary and secondary sources to answer inquiry questions.  They represent data and the location and distribution of geographical phenomena in a range of appropriate graphic forms, including maps at different scales that conform to cartographic conventions.  They analyse geographical data and other information to propose explanations for spatial patterns, trends and relationships and draw reasoned conclusions. Students present findings, arguments and ideas using relevant geographical terminology and graphic representations in a range of appropriate communication forms. They propose action in response to a geographical challenge taking account of environmental, economic and social considerations and predict the outcomes of their proposal.

Year 8 Work Sample Portfolios

Year 9

Year 9 Level Description

There are two units of study in the Year 9 curriculum for Geography: Biomes and food security and Geographies of interconnections.

Biomes and food security focuses on investigating the role of the biotic environment and its role in food and fibre production. This unit examines the biomes of the world, their alteration and significance as a source of food and fibre, and...

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Key inquiry questions

A framework for developing students’ geographical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided through the inclusion of inquiry questions and specific inquiry skills, including the use and interpretation of maps, photographs and other representations of geographical data.

The key inquiry questions for Year 9 are articulated below.

  • What are the causes and consequences of change in places and environments and how can this change be managed?
  • What are the future implications of changes to places and environments?
  • Why are interconnections and interdependencies important for the future of places and environments?

Year 9 Content Descriptions

Geographical Knowledge and Understanding

Unit 1: Biomes and food security
  1. The distribution and characteristics of biomes as regions with distinctive climates, soils, vegetation and productivity (ACHGK060)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  2. The human alteration of biomes to produce food, industrial materials and fibres, and the environmental effects of these alterations (ACHGK061)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
  3. The environmental, economic and technological factors that influence crop yields in Australia and across the world (ACHGK062)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
  4. The challenges to food production, including land and water degradation, shortage of fresh water, competing land uses, and climate change, for Australia and other areas of the world (ACHGK063)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  5. The capacity of the world’s environments to sustainably feed the projected future population to achieve food security for Australia and the world (ACHGK064)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
Unit 2: Geographies of interconnections
  1. The perceptions people have of place, and how this influences their connections to different places (ACHGK065)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
  2. The way transportation and information and communication technologies are used to connect people to services, information and people in other places (ACHGK066)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  3. The ways that places and people are interconnected with other places through trade in goods and services, at all scales (ACHGK067)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
  4. The effects of the production and consumption of goods on places and environments throughout the world and including a country from North-East Asia (ACHGK068)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  5. The effects of people’s travel, recreational, cultural or leisure choices on places, and the implications for the future of these places (ACHGK069)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3

Geographical Inquiry and Skills

Observing, questioning and planning
  1. Develop geographically significant questions and plan an inquiry that identifies and applies appropriate geographical methodologies and concepts (ACHGS063)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
Collecting, recording, evaluating and representing
  1. Collect, select, record and organise relevant geographical data and information, using ethical protocols, from a range of appropriate primary and secondary sources (ACHGS064)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
  2. Evaluate sources for their reliability, bias and usefulness, and represent multi-variable data in a range of appropriate forms, for example, scatter plots, tables, field sketches and annotated diagrams, with and without the use of digital and spatial technologies (ACHGS065)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  3. Represent the spatial distribution of geographical phenomena by constructing special purpose maps that conform to cartographic conventions, using spatial technologies as appropriate (ACHGS066)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
Interpreting, analysing and concluding
  1. Evaluate multi-variable data and other geographical information using qualitative and quantitative methods, and digital and spatial technologies as appropriate, to make generalisations and inferences, propose explanations for patterns, trends, relationships and anomalies, and predict outcomes (ACHGS067)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  2. Apply geographical concepts to synthesise information from various sources and draw conclusions based on the analysis of data and information, taking into account alternative points of view (ACHGS068)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
  3. Identify how geographical information systems (GIS) might be used to analyse geographical data and make predictions (ACHGS069)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
Communicating
  1. Present findings, arguments and explanations in a range of appropriate communication forms, selected for their effectiveness and to suit audience and purpose; using relevant geographical terminology, and digital technologies as appropriate (ACHGS070)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
Reflecting and responding
  1. Reflect on and evaluate the findings of the inquiry to propose individual and collective action in response to a contemporary geographical challenge, taking account of environmental, economic and social considerations; and explain the predicted outcomes and consequences of their proposal (ACHGS071)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3

Year 9 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 9, students explain how geographical processes change the characteristics of places. They predict changes in the characteristics of places over time and identify the possible implications of change for the future. They analyse interconnections between people, places and environments and explain how these interconnections influence people, and change places and environments.  Students propose explanations for distributions and patterns over time and across space and describe associations between distribution patterns. They analyse alternative strategies to a geographical challenge using environmental, social and economic criteria and propose and justify a response.

Students use initial research to identify geographically significant questions to frame an inquiry. They collect and evaluate a range of primary and secondary sources and select relevant geographical data and information to answer inquiry questions. They represent multi-variable data in a range of appropriate graphic forms, including special purpose maps that comply with cartographic conventions. They analyse data to propose explanations for patterns, trends, relationships and anomalies and to predict outcomes. Students synthesise data and information to draw reasoned conclusions. They present findings and explanations using relevant geographical terminology and graphic representations in a range of appropriate communication forms. Students propose action in response to a geographical challenge taking account of environmental, economic and social considerations and predict the outcomes and consequences of their proposal.

Year 9 Work Sample Portfolios

Year 10

Year 10 Level Description

There are two units of study in the Year 10 curriculum for Geography: Environmental change and management and Geographies of human wellbeing.

Environmental change and management focuses on investigating environmental geography through an in-depth study of a specific environment. The unit begins with an overview of the environmental functions that support all life, the major challenges to their sustainabilit...

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Key inquiry questions

A framework for developing students’ geographical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided through the inclusion of inquiry questions and specific inquiry skills, including the use and interpretation of maps, photographs and other representations of geographical data.

The key inquiry questions for Year 10 are articulated below.

  • How can the spatial variation between places and changes in environments be explained?
  • What management options exist for sustaining human and natural systems into the future?
  • How do worldviews influence decisions on how to manage environmental and social change?

Year 10 Content Descriptions

Geographical Knowledge and Understanding

Unit 1: Environmental change and management
  1. The human-induced environmental changes that challenge sustainability (ACHGK070)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  2. The environmental worldviews of people and their implications for environmental management (ACHGK071)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  3. The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples’ approaches to custodial responsibility and environmental management in different regions of Australia (ACHGK072)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  4. Select ONE of the following types of environment as the context for study: land, inland water, coast, marine or urban. A comparative study of examples selected from Australia and at least one other country should be included.

  5. The application of human-environment systems thinking to understanding the causes and likely consequences of the environmental change being investigated (ACHGK073)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  6. The application of geographical concepts and methods to the management of the environmental change being investigated (ACHGK074)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  7. The application of environmental economic and social criteria in evaluating management responses to the change (ACHGK075)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
Unit 2: Geographies of human wellbeing
  1. The different ways of measuring and mapping human wellbeing and development, and how these can be applied to measure differences between places (ACHGK076)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
  2. The reasons for spatial variations between countries in selected indicators of human wellbeing (ACHGK077)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  3. The issues affecting the development of places and their impact on human wellbeing, drawing on a study from a developing country or region in Africa, South America or the Pacific Islands (ACHGK078)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  4. The reasons for and consequences of spatial variations in human wellbeing on a regional scale within India or another country of the Asia region (ACHGK079)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  5. The reasons for and consequences of spatial variations in human wellbeing in Australia at the local scale (ACHGK080)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
  6. The role of international and national government and non-government organisations’ initiatives in improving human wellbeing in Australia and other countries (ACHGK081)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2

Geographical Inquiry and Skills

Observing, questioning and planning
  1. Develop geographically significant questions and plan an inquiry that identifies and applies appropriate geographical methodologies and concepts (ACHGS072)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
Collecting, recording, evaluating and representing
  1. Collect, select, record and organise relevant data and geographical information, using ethical protocols, from a range of appropriate primary and secondary sources (ACHGS073)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
  2. Evaluate sources for their reliability, bias and usefulness and represent multi-variable data in a range of appropriate forms, for example, scatter plots, tables, field sketches and annotated diagrams with and without the use of digital and spatial technologies (ACHGS074)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
  3. Represent the spatial distribution of geographical phenomena by constructing special purpose maps that conform to cartographic conventions, using spatial technologies as appropriate (ACHGS075)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
Interpreting, analysing and concluding
  1. Evaluate multi-variable data and other geographical information using qualitative and quantitative methods and digital and spatial technologies as appropriate to make generalisations and inferences, propose explanations for patterns, trends, relationships and anomalies, and predict outcomes (ACHGS076)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
  2. Apply geographical concepts to synthesise information from various sources and draw conclusions based on the analysis of data and information, taking into account alternative points of view (ACHGS077)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
  3. Identify how geographical information systems (GIS) might be used to analyse geographical data and make predictions (ACHGS078)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
Communicating
  1. Present findings, arguments and explanations in a range of appropriate communication forms selected for their effectiveness and to suit audience and purpose, using relevant geographical terminology and digital technologies as appropriate (ACHGS079)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
Reflecting and responding
  1. Reflect on and evaluate the findings of the inquiry to propose individual and collective action in response to a contemporary geographical challenge, taking account of environmental, economic and social considerations; and explain the predicted outcomes and consequences of their proposal (ACHGS080)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3

Year 10 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 10, students explain how the interaction between geographical processes at different scales change the characteristics of places. They predict changes in the characteristics of places and environments over time, across space and at different scales and explain the predicted consequences of change. Students identify, analyse and explain significant interconnections between people, places and environments and explain changes that result from these interconnections and their consequences.  They propose explanations for distributions, patterns and spatial variations over time, across space and at different scales, and identify and describe significant associations between distribution patterns. They evaluate alternative views on a geographical challenge and alternative strategies to address this challenge using environmental, social and economic criteria and propose and justify a response.

Students use initial research to develop and modify geographically significant questions to frame an inquiry. They collect and critically evaluate a range of primary and secondary sources and select relevant geographical data and information to answer inquiry questions....

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Year 10 Work Sample Portfolios