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7–10 Geography

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Year 7

Year 7 Level Description

There are two units of study in the Year 7 curriculum for Geography: ‘Water in the world’ and ‘Place and liveability’.

‘Water in the world’ focuses on water as an example of a renewable environmental resource. This unit examines the many uses of water, the ways it is perceived and valued, its different forms as a resource, the ways it connects places as it...

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There are two units of study in the Year 7 curriculum for Geography: ‘Water in the world’ and ‘Place and liveability’.

‘Water in the world’ focuses on water as an example of a renewable environmental resource. This unit examines the many uses of water, the ways it is perceived and valued, its different forms as a resource, the ways it connects places as it moves through the environment, its varying availability in time and across space, and its scarcity. ‘Water in the world’ develops students’ understanding of the concept of environment, including the ideas that the environment is the product of a variety of processes, that it supports and enriches human and other life, that people value the environment in different ways and that the environment has its specific hazards. Water is investigated using studies drawn from Australia, countries of the Asia region, and countries from West Asia and/or North Africa.

‘Place and liveability’ focuses on the concept of place through an investigation of liveability. This unit examines factors that influence liveability and how it is perceived, the idea that places provide us with the services and facilities needed to support and enhance our lives, and that spaces are planned and managed by people. It develops students’ ability to evaluate the liveability of their own place and to investigate whether it can be improved through planning. The liveability of places is investigated using studies drawn from Australia and Europe.

The content of this year level is organised into two strands: geographical knowledge and understanding, and geographical inquiry and skills. These strands are interrelated and have been developed to be taught in an integrated manner, and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.

Key inquiry questions

A framework for developing students’ geographical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided through the inclusion of inquiry questions and specific inquiry skills, including the use and interpretation of maps, photographs and other representations of geographical data.

The key inquiry questions for Year 7 are:

  • How do people’s reliance on places and environments influence their perception of them?
  • What effect does the uneven distribution of resources and services have on the lives of people?
  • What approaches can be used to improve the availability of resources and access to services?

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Year 7 Content Descriptions

Geographical Knowledge and Understanding
Unit 1: Water in the world

The way that flows of water connects places as it moves through the environment and the way this affects places (ACHGK038)

The quantity and variability of Australia’s water resources compared with other continents (ACHGK039)

The nature of water scarcity and ways of overcoming it, including studies drawn from Australia and West Asia and/or North Africa (ACHGK040)

Economic, cultural, spiritual and aesthetic value of water for people, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples and peoples of the Asia region (ACHGK041)

View additional details about Critical and Creative Thinking View additional details about Intercultural Understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
Geographical Inquiry and Skills
Observing, questioning and planning

Develop geographically significant questions and plan an inquiry, using appropriate geographical methodologies and concepts (ACHGS047)

Collecting, recording, evaluating and representing

Represent data in a range of appropriate forms, for example climate graphs, compound column graphs, population pyramids, tables, field sketches and annotated diagrams, with and without the use of digital and spatial technologies (ACHGS049)

Represent spatial distribution of different types of geographical phenomena by constructing appropriate maps at different scales that conform to cartographic conventions, using spatial technologies as appropriate (ACHGS050)

Interpreting, analysing and concluding

Interpret geographical data and other information using qualitative and quantitative methods, and digital and spatial technologies as appropriate, to identify and propose explanations for spatial distributions, patterns and trends, and infer relationships (ACHGS051)

Communicating

Present findings, arguments and ideas in a range of communication forms selected to suit a particular audience and purpose; using geographical terminology and digital technologies as appropriate (ACHGS053)

Reflecting and responding

Reflect on their learning to propose individual and collective action in response to a contemporary geographical challenge, taking account of environmental, economic and social considerations, and predict the expected outcomes of their proposal (ACHGS054)

Year 7 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 7, students describe geographical processes that influence the characteristics of places and how the characteristics of places are perceived and valued differently. They explain interconnections between people and places and environments and describe how these interconnections change places and environments. They describe alternative strategies to a geographical challenge referring to environmental, economic and social factors.

Students identify geographically significant questions to frame an inquiry. They evaluate a range of primary and secondary sources to locate useful information and data. They record and represent data and the location and distribution of geographical phenomena in a range of forms, including large-scale and small-scale maps that conform to cartographic conventions. They interpret and analyse geographical maps, data and other information to propose simple explanations for spatial distributions, patterns, trends and relationships, and draw conclusions. Students present findings and arguments using relevant geographical terminology and digital technologies in a range of communication forms. They propose action in response to a geographical challenge, taking account of environmental, economic and social factors, and describe the expected effects of their proposal.

 

Year 8

Year 8 Level Description

There are two units of study in the Year 8 curriculum for Geography: ‘Landforms and landscapes’ and ‘Changing nations’.

‘Landforms and landscapes’ focuses on investigating geomorphology through a study of landscapes and their landforms. This unit examines the processes that shape individual landforms, the values and meanings placed on landforms and landscapes...

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There are two units of study in the Year 8 curriculum for Geography: ‘Landforms and landscapes’ and ‘Changing nations’.

‘Landforms and landscapes’ focuses on investigating geomorphology through a study of landscapes and their landforms. This unit examines the processes that shape individual landforms, the values and meanings placed on landforms and landscapes by diverse cultures, hazards associated with landscapes, and management of landscapes. ‘Landforms and landscapes’ develops students’ understanding of the concept of environment and enables them to explore the significance of landscapes to people, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples. These distinctive aspects of landforms and landscapes are investigated using studies drawn from Australia and throughout the world.

‘Changing nations’ investigates the changing human geography of countries, as revealed by shifts in population distribution. The spatial distribution of population is a sensitive indicator of economic and social change, and has significant environmental, economic and social effects, both negative and positive. The unit explores the process of urbanisation and draws on a study of a country of the Asia region to show how urbanisation changes the economies and societies of low- and middle-income countries. It investigates the reasons for the high level of urban concentration in Australia, one of the distinctive features of Australia’s human geography, and compares Australia with the United States of America. The redistribution of population resulting from internal migration is examined through case studies of Australia and China, and is contrasted with the way international migration reinforces urban concentration in Australia. The unit then examines issues related to the management and future of Australia’s urban areas.

The content of this year level is organised into two strands: geographical knowledge and understanding, and geographical inquiry and skills. These strands are interrelated and have been developed to be taught in an integrated manner, and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.

Key inquiry questions

A framework for developing students’ geographical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided through the inclusion of inquiry questions and specific inquiry skills, including the use and interpretation of maps, photographs and other representations of geographical data.

The key inquiry questions for Year 8 are:

  • How do environmental and human processes affect the characteristics of places and environments?
  • How do the interconnections between places, people and environments affect the lives of people?
  • What are the consequences of changes to places and environments and how can these changes be managed?

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Year 8 Content Descriptions

Geographical Knowledge and Understanding
Unit 1: Landforms and landscapes

Different types of landscapes and their distinctive landform features (ACHGK048)

Spiritual, aesthetic and cultural value of landscapes and landforms for people, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (ACHGK049)

Geomorphic processes that produce landforms, including a case study of at least one landform (ACHGK050)

Unit 2: Changing nations

Causes and consequences of urbanisation, drawing on a study from Indonesia, or another country of the Asia region (ACHGK054)

Differences in urban concentration and urban settlement patterns between Australia and the United States of America, and their causes and consequences (ACHGK055)

Reasons for, and effects of, internal migration in both Australia and China (ACHGK056)

Reasons for, and effects of, international migration in Australia (ACHGK058)

Management and planning of Australia’s urban future (ACHGK059)

Geographical Inquiry and Skills
Observing, questioning and planning

Develop geographically significant questions and plan an inquiry using appropriate geographical methodologies and concepts (ACHGS055)

Collecting, recording, evaluating and representing

Represent data in a range of appropriate forms, for example, climate graphs, compound column graphs, population pyramids, tables, field sketches and annotated diagrams, with and without the use of digital and spatial technologies (ACHGS057)

Represent spatial distribution of different types of geographical phenomena by constructing appropriate maps at different scales that conform to cartographic conventions, using spatial technologies as appropriate (ACHGS058)

Interpreting, analysing and concluding

Interpret geographical data and other information using qualitative and quantitative methods, and digital and spatial technologies as appropriate, to identify and propose explanations for spatial distributions, patterns and trends, and infer relationships (ACHGS059)

Communicating

Present findings, arguments and ideas in a range of communication forms selected to suit a particular audience and purpose; using geographical terminology and digital technologies as appropriate (ACHGS061)

Reflecting and responding

Reflect on their learning to propose individual and collective action in response to a contemporary geographical challenge, taking account of environmental, economic and social considerations, and predict the expected outcomes of their proposal (ACHGS062)

Year 8 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 8, students explain geographical processes that influence the characteristics of places and explain how places are perceived and valued differently. They explain interconnections within environments and between people and places and explain how they change places and environments. They compare alternative strategies to a geographical challenge, taking into account environmental, economic and social factors.

Students identify geographically significant questions from observations to frame an inquiry. They evaluate a range of primary and secondary sources to locate useful and reliable information and data. They select, record and represent data and the location and distribution of geographical phenomena in a range of appropriate digital and non-digital forms, including maps at different scales that conform to cartographic conventions. They analyse geographical maps, data and other information to propose explanations for spatial distributions, patterns, trends and relationships, and draw reasoned conclusions. Students present findings, arguments and ideas using relevant geographical terminology and digital technologies in a range of appropriate communication forms. They propose action in response to a geographical challenge, taking account of environmental, economic and social factors, and predict the outcomes of their proposal.

 

Year 9

Year 9 Level Description

There are two units of study in the Year 9 curriculum for Geography: ‘Biomes and food security’ and ‘Geographies of interconnections’.

‘Biomes and food security’ focuses on investigating the role of the biotic environment and its role in food and fibre production. This unit examines the biomes of the world, their alteration and significance as a source of...

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There are two units of study in the Year 9 curriculum for Geography: ‘Biomes and food security’ and ‘Geographies of interconnections’.

‘Biomes and food security’ focuses on investigating the role of the biotic environment and its role in food and fibre production. This unit examines the biomes of the world, their alteration and significance as a source of food and fibre, and the environmental challenges of and constraints on expanding food production in the future. These distinctive aspects of biomes, food production and food security are investigated using studies drawn from Australia and across the world.

‘Geographies of interconnections’ focuses on investigating how people, through their choices and actions, are connected to places throughout the world in a wide variety of ways, and how these connections help to make and change places and their environments. This unit examines the interconnections between people and places through the products people buy and the effects of their production on the places that make them. Students examine the ways that transport and information and communication technologies have made it possible for an increasing range of services to be provided internationally, and for people in isolated rural areas to connect to information, services and people in other places. These distinctive aspects of interconnection are investigated using studies drawn from Australia and across the world.

The content of this year level is organised into two strands: geographical knowledge and understanding, and geographical inquiry and skills. These strands are interrelated and have been developed to be taught in an integrated manner, and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.

Key inquiry questions

A framework for developing students’ geographical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided through the inclusion of inquiry questions and specific inquiry skills, including the use and interpretation of maps, photographs and other representations of geographical data.

The key inquiry questions for Year 9 are:

  • What are the causes and consequences of change in places and environments and how can this change be managed?
  • What are the future implications of changes to places and environments?
  • Why are interconnections and interdependencies important for the future of places and environments?

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Year 9 Content Descriptions

Geographical Knowledge and Understanding
Unit 1: Biomes and food security

Distribution and characteristics of biomes as regions with distinctive climates, soils, vegetation and productivity (ACHGK060)

Human alteration of biomes to produce food, industrial materials and fibres, and the use of systems thinking to analyse the environmental effects of these alterations (ACHGK061)

Environmental, economic and technological factors that influence crop yields in Australia and across the world (ACHGK062)

Challenges to food production, including land and water degradation, shortage of fresh water, competing land uses, and climate change, for Australia and other areas of the world (ACHGK063)

The capacity of the world’s environments to sustainably feed the projected future global population (ACHGK064)

Unit 2: Geographies of interconnections

The way transportation and information and communication technologies are used to connect people to services, information and people in other places (ACHGK066)

The ways that places and people are interconnected with other places through trade in goods and services, at all scales (ACHGK067)

The effects of the production and consumption of goods on places and environments throughout the world and including a country from North-East Asia (ACHGK068)

The effects of people’s travel, recreational, cultural or leisure choices on places, and the implications for the future of these places (ACHGK069)

Geographical Inquiry and Skills
Observing, questioning and planning

Develop geographically significant questions and plan an inquiry that identifies and applies appropriate geographical methodologies and concepts (ACHGS063)

Collecting, recording, evaluating and representing

Evaluate sources for their reliability, bias and usefulness and select, collect, record and organise relevant geographical data and information, using ethical protocols, from a range of appropriate primary and secondary sources (ACHGS064)

Interpreting, analysing and concluding

Interpret and analyse multi-variable data and other geographical information using qualitative and quantitative methods, and digital and spatial technologies as appropriate, to make generalisations and inferences, propose explanations for patterns, trends, relationships and anomalies, and predict outcomes (ACHGS067)

Apply geographical concepts to synthesise information from various sources and draw conclusions based on the analysis of data and information, taking into account alternative points of view (ACHGS068)

Communicating

Present findings, arguments and explanations in a range of appropriate communication forms, selected for their effectiveness and to suit audience and purpose; using relevant geographical terminology, and digital technologies as appropriate (ACHGS070)

Reflecting and responding

Reflect on and evaluate findings of an inquiry to propose individual and collective action in response to a contemporary geographical challenge, taking account of environmental, economic, political and social considerations; and explain the predicted outcomes and consequences of their proposal (ACHGS071)

Year 9 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 9, students explain how geographical processes change the characteristics of places. They analyse interconnections between people, places and environments and explain how these interconnections influence people, and change places and environments. They predict changes in the characteristics of places over time and identify the possible implications of change for the future. Students analyse alternative strategies to a geographical challenge using environmental, social and economic criteria.

Students use initial research to identify geographically significant questions to frame an inquiry. They evaluate a range of primary and secondary sources to select and collect relevant and reliable geographical information and data. They record and represent multi-variable data in a range of appropriate digital and non-digital forms, including a range of maps that comply with cartographic conventions. They use a range of methods and digital technologies to interpret and analyse maps, data and other information to propose explanations for patterns, trends, relationships and anomalies across time and space, and to predict outcomes. Students synthesise data and information to draw reasoned conclusions. They present findings, arguments and explanations using relevant geographical terminology and digital representations in a range of appropriate communication forms. Students propose action in response to a geographical challenge, taking account of environmental, economic and social factors, and predict the outcomes and consequences of their proposal.

 

Year 10

Year 10 Level Description

There are two units of study in the Year 10 curriculum for Geography: ‘Environmental change and management’ and ‘Geographies of human wellbeing’.

‘Environmental change and management’ focuses on investigating environmental geography through an in-depth study of a specific environment. The unit begins with an overview of the environmental functions that support...

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There are two units of study in the Year 10 curriculum for Geography: ‘Environmental change and management’ and ‘Geographies of human wellbeing’.

‘Environmental change and management’ focuses on investigating environmental geography through an in-depth study of a specific environment. The unit begins with an overview of the environmental functions that support all life, the major challenges to their sustainability, and the environmental world views – including those of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples – that influence how people perceive and respond to these challenges. Students investigate a specific type of environment and environmental change in Australia and one other country. They apply human–environment systems thinking to understand the causes and consequences of the change and geographical concepts and methods to evaluate and select strategies to manage the change. 

Geographies of human wellbeing’ focuses on investigating global, national and local differences in human wellbeing between places. This unit examines the different concepts and measures of human wellbeing, and the causes of global differences in these measures between countries. Students explore spatial differences in wellbeing within and between countries, and evaluate the differences from a variety of perspectives. They explore programs designed to reduce the gap between differences in wellbeing. These distinctive aspects of human wellbeing are investigated using studies drawn from Australia, India and across the world as appropriate.

The content of this year level is organised into two strands: geographical knowledge and understanding, and geographical inquiry and skills. These strands are interrelated and have been developed to be taught in an integrated manner, and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.

Key inquiry questions

A framework for developing students’ geographical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided through the inclusion of inquiry questions and specific inquiry skills, including the use and interpretation of maps, photographs and other representations of geographical data.

The key inquiry questions for Year 10 are:

  • How can the spatial variation between places and changes in environments be explained?
  • What management options exist for sustaining human and natural systems into the future?
  • How do world views influence decisions on how to manage environmental and social change?

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Year 10 Content Descriptions

Geographical Knowledge and Understanding
Unit 1: Environmental change and management

The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples’ approaches to custodial responsibility and environmental management in different regions of Australia (ACHGK072)

Select ONE of the following types of environment as the context for study: land (e.g. forests, deserts, grasslands, farmland), inland water, coast, marine or urban. A comparative study of examples selected from Australia and at least one other country should be included

The application of systems thinking to understanding the causes and likely consequences of the environmental change being investigated  (ACHGK073)

The application of geographical concepts and methods to the management of the environmental change being investigated (ACHGK074)

The application of environmental economic and social criteria in evaluating management responses to the change (ACHGK075)

Unit 2: Geographies of human wellbeing

The role of international and national government and non-government organisations' initiatives in improving human wellbeing in Australia and other countries (ACHGK081)

Geographical Inquiry and Skills
Observing, questioning and planning

Develop geographically significant questions and plan an inquiry that identifies and applies appropriate geographical methodologies and concepts (ACHGS072)

Collecting, recording, evaluating and representing

Evaluate sources for their reliability, bias and usefulness and select, collect, record and organise relevant geographical data and information, using ethical protocols, from a range of appropriate primary and secondary sources (ACHGS073)

Interpreting, analysing and concluding

Interpret and analyse multi-variable data and other geographical information using qualitative and quantitative methods, and digital and spatial technologies as appropriate, to make generalisations and inferences, propose explanations for patterns, trends, relationships and anomalies, and predict outcomes (ACHGS076)

Apply geographical concepts to synthesise information from various sources and draw conclusions based on the analysis of data and information, taking into account alternative points of view (ACHGS077)

Communicating

Present findings, arguments and explanations in a range of appropriate communication forms, selected for their effectiveness and to suit audience and purpose; using relevant geographical terminology, and digital technologies as appropriate (ACHGS079)

Reflecting and responding

Reflect on and evaluate findings of an inquiry to propose individual and collective action in response to a contemporary geographical challenge, taking account of environmental, economic, political and social considerations; and explain the predicted outcomes and consequences of their proposal (ACHGS080)

Year 10 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 10, students explain how interactions between geographical processes at different scales change the characteristics of places. Students identify, analyse and explain significant interconnections between people, places and environments and explain changes that result from these interconnections and their consequences. They predict changes in the characteristics of places and environments over time, across space and at different scales and explain the predicted consequences of change. They evaluate alternative views on a geographical challenge and alternative strategies to address this challenge using environmental, economic, political and social criteria and draw a reasoned conclusion.

Students use initial research to develop and modify geographically significant questions to frame an inquiry. They critically evaluate a range of primary and secondary sources to select and collect relevant, reliable and unbiased geographical information and data. Students record and represent multi-variable data in of the most appropriate digital and non-digital forms, including a range of graphs and maps that use suitable scales and comply with cartographic conventions. They...

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By the end of Year 10, students explain how interactions between geographical processes at different scales change the characteristics of places. Students identify, analyse and explain significant interconnections between people, places and environments and explain changes that result from these interconnections and their consequences. They predict changes in the characteristics of places and environments over time, across space and at different scales and explain the predicted consequences of change. They evaluate alternative views on a geographical challenge and alternative strategies to address this challenge using environmental, economic, political and social criteria and draw a reasoned conclusion.

Students use initial research to develop and modify geographically significant questions to frame an inquiry. They critically evaluate a range of primary and secondary sources to select and collect relevant, reliable and unbiased geographical information and data. Students record and represent multi-variable data in of the most appropriate digital and non-digital forms, including a range of graphs and maps that use suitable scales and comply with cartographic conventions. They use a range of methods and digital technologies to interpret and analyse maps, data and other information to make generalisations and inferences, propose explanations for significant patterns, trends, relationships and anomalies across time and space and at different scales, and predict outcomes. They analyse and synthesise data and other information to draw reasoned conclusions, taking into account alternative perspectives. Students present findings, arguments and explanations using relevant geographical terminology and graphic representations and digital technologies in a range of selected and appropriate communication forms. They evaluate their findings and propose action in response to a contemporary geographical challenge, taking account of environmental, economic, political and social considerations. They explain the predicted outcomes and consequences of their proposal.

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