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Foundation Year

Foundation Year Level Description

People live in places focuses on developing students’ understanding of place. Students explore the place they live in and belong to, and learn to observe and describe its features. Learning about their own place and building a connection with it contributes to their sense of identity and belonging and an understanding of why and how they should look after places. They start to explore...

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People live in places focuses on developing students’ understanding of place. Students explore the place they live in and belong to, and learn to observe and describe its features. Learning about their own place and building a connection with it contributes to their sense of identity and belonging and an understanding of why and how they should look after places. They start to explore their feelings about places by talking about their own special places, and what makes them special. The idea of location (a part of the concept of space) is introduced through drawing story-maps and creating models to show where places and features are located, and by learning about the globe as a representation of the Earth on which places can be located. The emphasis in Foundation is on the places in which students live, but they also start to investigate other places of similar size that are familiar to them or that they are curious about.

The content of this year level is organised into two strands: Geographical Knowledge and Understanding and Geographical Inquiry and Skills. These strands are interrelated and should be taught in an integrated manner, and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.

Key inquiry questions

A framework for developing students’ geographical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided through the inclusion of inquiry questions and specific inquiry skills, including the use of photographs and other representations of geographical data and the drawing of simple maps.

The key inquiry questions for Foundation Year are articulated below.

  • What are places like?
  • What makes a place special?
  • How can we look after the places we live in?

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Foundation Year Content Descriptions

Geographical Knowledge and Understanding

The representation of the location of places and their features on maps and a globe (ACHGK001)

The Countries/Places that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples belong to in the local area and why they are important to them (ACHGK003)

The reasons why some places are special to people, and how they can be looked after (ACHGK004)

Geographical Inquiry and Skills
Observing, questioning and planning
Interpreting, analysing and concluding
Communicating

Present information using everyday language to describe location and direction (ACHGS005)

Foundation Year Achievement Standard

By the end Foundation Year, students describe the features of familiar places and recognise why some places are special to people. They recognise that places can be represented on maps and a globe and why places are important to people.

Students observe the familiar features of places and represent these features and their location on pictorial maps and models. They share observations in a range of texts and use everyday language to describe direction and location. Students reflect on their learning to suggest ways they can care for a familiar place.

Foundation Year Work Sample Portfolios

 

Year 1

Year 1 Level Description

Places have distinctive features develops the concept of place through studies of what places are like and how their features have changed. Students learn that places can have natural, managed and constructed environmental features, and range from those that have largely natural features to those with largely managed or constructed features. This year continues to develop the idea ...

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Places have distinctive features develops the concept of place through studies of what places are like and how their features have changed. Students learn that places can have natural, managed and constructed environmental features, and range from those that have largely natural features to those with largely managed or constructed features. This year continues to develop the idea of active citizenship as students are prompted to further consider how places can be cared for. The concept of environment is introduced, as students study the daily and seasonal weather patterns and natural features of their place and of other places, including how seasonal change is perceived by different cultures. The study of what places are like continues with an investigation of some of the important activities located in them, while an examination of where these activities are located, and why, starts students thinking about the concept of space. The idea that people can organise space is introduced by investigating how space within a familiar place, for example, the school or a classroom, can be arranged differently for different purposes.

The content of this year level is organised into two strands: Geographical Knowledge and Understanding and Geographical Inquiry and Skills. These strands are interrelated and should be taught in an integrated manner, and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.

Key inquiry questions

A framework for developing students’ geographical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided through the inclusion of inquiry questions and specific inquiry skills, including the use and interpretation of maps, photographs and other representations of geographical data.

The key inquiry questions for Year 1 are articulated below.

  • What are the different features of places?
  • How can we care for places?
  • How can spaces within a place be rearranged to suit different purposes?

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Year 1 Content Descriptions

Geographical Knowledge and Understanding

The natural, managed and constructed features of places, their location, how they change and how they can be cared for (ACHGK005)

The weather and seasons of places and the ways in which different cultural groups, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, describe them (ACHGK006)

Geographical Inquiry and Skills
Observing, questioning and planning
Collecting, recording, evaluating and representing

Collect and record geographical data and information, for example, by observing, by interviewing, or from sources such as photographs, plans, satellite images, story books and films (ACHGS008)

Interpreting, analysing and concluding

Draw conclusions based on the interpretation of geographical information sorted into categories (ACHGS010)

Communicating

Present findings in a range of communication forms, for example, written, oral, digital and visual, and describe the direction and location of places, using terms such as north, south, opposite, near, far (ACHGS011)

Year 1 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 1, students identify and describe the natural, managed and constructed features of places at a local scale and recognise that people describe the features of places differently. They identify where features of places are located and recognise that spaces can be arranged for different purposes. Students identify changes in features and describe how to care for places.

Students respond to questions about familiar and unfamiliar places by collecting, recording and sorting information from sources provided. They represent the location of different places and their features on pictorial maps and present findings in a range of texts and use everyday language to describe direction and location. They reflect on their learning to suggest ways that places can be cared for.

Year 1 Work Sample Portfolios

 

Year 2

Year 2 Level Description

People are connected to many places further develops students’ understanding of place, as they learn that places may be defined differently by diverse groups of people. Students are introduced to the concept of scale as they learn about the hierarchy of scale by which places are defined - from smaller rural villages to larger cities. Students’ understanding of the concept of interconnection...

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People are connected to many places further develops students’ understanding of place, as they learn that places may be defined differently by diverse groups of people. Students are introduced to the concept of scale as they learn about the hierarchy of scale by which places are defined - from smaller rural villages to larger cities. Students’ understanding of the concept of interconnection is developed by investigating their links with places locally and globally and the connection Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples maintain with Country/Place.The concept of space is developed through an investigation of the influence of distance and accessibility on the frequency of visits to places.Students’ mental map of the world and their understanding of place are further developed through learning the major geographical divisions on Earth and where they are located in relation to Australia.

The inquiry process provides opportunities for students to identify various regions of the world and explore connections between themselves and other places.

The content of this year level is organised into two strands: Geographical Knowledge and Understanding and Geographical Inquiry and Skills. These strands are interrelated and should be taught in an integrated manner, and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.

Key inquiry questions

A framework for developing students’ geographical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided through the inclusion of inquiry questions and specific inquiry skills, including the use and interpretation of maps, photographs and other representations of geographical data.

The key inquiry questions for Year 2 are articulated below.

  • What is a place?
  • How are people connected to their place and other places?
  • What factors affect my connections to places?

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Year 2 Content Descriptions

Geographical Knowledge and Understanding

The location of the major geographical divisions of the world in relation to Australia (ACHGK009)

The definition of places as parts of the Earth’s surface that have been given meaning by people, and how places can be defined at a variety of scales (ACHGK010)

The ways in which Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples maintain special connections to particular Country/Place (ACHGK011)

The connections of people in Australia to other places in Australia, the countries of the Asia region, and across the world (ACHGK012)

Geographical Inquiry and Skills
Observing, questioning and planning
Collecting, recording, evaluating and representing

Collect and record geographical data and information, for example, by observing, by interviewing, or from sources such as, photographs, plans, satellite images, story books and films (ACHGS014)

Interpreting, analysing and concluding

Draw conclusions based on the interpretation of geographical information sorted into categories (ACHGS016)

Communicating

Present findings in a range of communication forms, for example, written, oral, digital and visual, and describe the direction and location of places, using terms such as north, south, opposite, near, far (ACHGS017)

Year 2 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 2, students identify the features that define places and recognise that places can be described at different scales. They describe how people in different places are connected to each other and identify factors that influence these connections. Students recognise that the world can be divided into major geographical divisions. They explain why places are important to people.

Students pose questions about familiar and unfamiliar places and collect information to answer these questions. They represent data and the location of places and their features in tables, plans and on labelled maps. They interpret geographical information to draw conclusions. Students present findings in a range of texts and use simple geographical terms to describe the direction and location of places. They suggest action in response to the findings of their inquiry.

Year 2 Work Sample Portfolios

 

Year 3

Year 3 Level Description

Places are both similar and different continues to develop students’ understanding of place by examining the similarities and differences between places within and outside Australia. The concept of place is developed through examining the major natural and human characteristics of Australia the Countries/Places of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, and Australia's neighbouring...

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Places are both similar and different continues to develop students’ understanding of place by examining the similarities and differences between places within and outside Australia. The concept of place is developed through examining the major natural and human characteristics of Australia the Countries/Places of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, and Australia's neighbouring countries. Students use the geographic concepts of environment and space to examine the similarities and differences between places in terms of the climate and the types of settlements. Students should be given the opportunity to imagine what it would be like to live in a different place to their own, and then think about their own and others’ feelings about places and the extent to which these are similar or different. They explore how feelings about places are the basis of actions to protect places and environments that are of special significance to them or other people. Students’ mental maps of the world and their understanding of place are further developed through learning about the representation of Australia and the location of Australia’s neighbouring countries, and comparing places both within and outside Australia. These comparisons should continue to be made at the scale of the local place.

The content of this year level is organised into two strands: Geographical Knowledge and Understanding and Geographical Inquiry and Skills. These strands are interrelated and should be taught in an integrated manner, and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.

Key inquiry questions

A framework for developing students’ geographical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided through the inclusion of inquiry questions and specific inquiry skills, including the use and interpretation of maps, photographs and other representations of geographical data.

The key inquiry questions for Year 3 are articulated below.

  • How and why are places similar and different?
  • What would it be like to live in a neighbouring country?
  • How do people’s feelings about places influence their views about the protection of places?

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Year 3 Content Descriptions

Geographical Knowledge and Understanding

The many Countries/Places of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples throughout Australia (ACHGK015)

The similarities and differences in individuals’ and groups’ feelings and perceptions about places, and how they influence views about the protection of these places (ACHGK018)

The similarities and differences between places in terms of their type of settlement, demographic characteristics and the lives of the people who live there (ACHGK019)

Geographical Inquiry and Skills
Observing, questioning and planning
Collecting, recording, evaluating and representing

Collect and record relevant geographical data and information, for example, by observing by interviewing, conducting surveys, measuring, or from sources such as maps, photographs, satellite images, the media and the internet (ACHGS020)

Represent the location of places and their features by constructing large-scale maps that conform to cartographic conventions including scale, legend, title and north point, and describe their location using simple grid references, compass direction and distance (ACHGS022)

Interpreting, analysing and concluding
Communicating

Present findings in a range of communication forms, for example, written, oral, digital, graphic, tabular, and visual, and use geographical terminology (ACHGS024)

Reflecting and responding

Reflect on their learning to propose individual action in response to a contemporary geographical challenge and identify the expected effects of the proposal (ACHGS025)

Year 3 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 3, students describe the characteristics of different places at the local scale and identify and describe similarities and differences between the characteristics of these places. They identify interconnections between people and places. They describe the location of selected countries and the distribution of features of places. Students recognise that people have different perceptions of places and how this influences views on the protection of places.

Students pose simple geographical questions and collect information from different sources to answer these questions. They represent data in tables and simple graphs and the location of places and their characteristics on labelled maps that use the cartographic conventions of legend, title, and north point. They describe the location of places and their features using simple grid references and cardinal compass points.  Students interpret geographical data to describe distributions and draw conclusions. They present findings using simple geographical terminology in a range of texts. They suggest action in response to a geographical challenge.

Year 3 Work Sample Portfolios

 

Year 4

Year 4 Level Description

The Earth’s environment sustains all life focuses on developing students’ understanding of sustainability which is about the ongoing capacity of the environment to sustain human life and wellbeing. Students recognise that people have different views on how sustainability can be achieved. They learn that sustainability means more than the careful use of resources and the safe management...

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The Earth’s environment sustains all life focuses on developing students’ understanding of sustainability which is about the ongoing capacity of the environment to sustain human life and wellbeing. Students recognise that people have different views on how sustainability can be achieved. They learn that sustainability means more than the careful use of resources and the safe management of waste, and they develop their understanding of the concept by exploring some of the other functions of the environment that support their lives and the lives of other living things. They investigate the custodial responsibility of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples to their Country/Place and their past and present views on the sustainable use of resources. Students’ mental maps of the world and their understanding of place are further developed through learning the location of the major countries in South America and Africa and investigating their types of natural vegetation and native animals on those continents.

The inquiry process provides opportunities to consider the sustainable use of environments and resources and to apply this information to develop a plan for appropriate action that people could take to improve environmental quality.

The content of this year level is organised into two strands: Geographical Knowledge and Understanding and Geographical Inquiry and Skills. These strands are interrelated and should be taught in an integrated manner, and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.

Key inquiry questions

A framework for developing students’ geographical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided through the inclusion of inquiry questions and specific inquiry skills, including the use and interpretation of maps, photographs and other representations of geographical data.

The key inquiry questions for Year 4 are articulated below.

  • How does the environment support the lives of people and other living things?
  • How do different views about the environment influence approaches to sustainability?
  • How can people use places and environments more sustainably?

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Year 4 Content Descriptions

Geographical Knowledge and Understanding

The location of the major countries of Africa and South America in relation to Australia, and their main characteristics, including the types of natural vegetation and native animals in at least two countries from both continents (ACHGK020)

The importance of environments to animals and people, and different views on how they can be protected (ACHGK022)

The custodial responsibility Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples have for Country/Place, and how this influences their past and present views about the use of resources (ACHGK023)

The sustainable management of waste from production and consumption (ACHGK025)

Geographical Inquiry and Skills
Observing, questioning and planning
Collecting, recording, evaluating and representing

Collect and record relevant geographical data and information, for example, by observing, by interviewing, conducting surveys and measuring, or from sources such as maps, photographs, satellite images, the media and the internet (ACHGS027)

Represent the location of places and their features by constructing large-scale maps that conform to cartographic conventions including scale, legend, title and north point, and describe their location using simple grid references, compass direction and distance (ACHGS029)

Interpreting, analysing and concluding
Communicating

Present findings in a range of communication forms, for example, written, oral, digital, graphic, tabular and visual, and use geographical terminology (ACHGS031)

Reflecting and responding

Reflect on their learning to propose individual action in response to a contemporary geographical challenge and identify the expected effects of the proposal (ACHGS032)

Year 4 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 4, students describe and compare the characteristics of places in different locations at the national scale. They identify and describe the interconnections between people and the environment.  They describe the location of selected countries in relative terms and identify simple patterns in the distribution of features of places. Students recognise the importance of the environment and identify different views on how to respond to a geographical challenge. 

Students develop geographical questions to investigate and collect and record information and data from different sources to answer these questions. They represent data and the location of places and their characteristics in simple graphic forms, including large-scale maps that use the cartographic conventions of scale, legend, title and north point. They describe the location of places and their features using simple grid references, compass direction and distance .Students interpret data to identify spatial distributions and simple patterns and draw conclusions. They present findings using geographical terminology in a range of texts. They propose individual action in response to a local geographical challenge and identify the expected effects of their proposed action.

Year 4 Work Sample Portfolios

 

Year 5

Year 5 Level Description

Factors that shape the human and environmental characteristics of places continues to develop students’ understanding of place by focusing on the factors that shape the characteristics of places. In exploring the interconnections between people and environments, students examine how climate and landforms influence the human characteristics of places, and how human actions influence the...

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Factors that shape the human and environmental characteristics of places continues to develop students’ understanding of place by focusing on the factors that shape the characteristics of places. In exploring the interconnections between people and environments, students examine how climate and landforms influence the human characteristics of places, and how human actions influence the environmental characteristics of places. They also examine how human decisions and actions influence the way spaces within places are organised and managed. They learn that some climates produce hazards such as bushfires and floods that threaten the safety of places and gain an understanding of the application of the principles of prevention, mitigation and preparedness as ways of reducing the effects of these hazards. Students’ mental map of the world and their understanding of place is further developed through learning about the location of the major countries of Europe and North America and examining the effects of people on the environmental characteristics of places in these countries.

The inquiry process provides opportunities to collect information from a variety of sources, for example, weather maps, satellite images and media reports on bushfires, and to use this information to propose action on a local environmental or planning issue that is significant to the community.

The content of this year level is organised into two strands: Geographical Knowledge and Understanding and Geographical Inquiry and Skills. These strands are interrelated and should be taught in an integrated manner, and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.

Key inquiry questions

A framework for developing students’ geographical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided through the inclusion of inquiry questions and specific inquiry skills, including the use and interpretation of maps, photographs and other representations of geographical data.

The key inquiry questions for Year 5 are articulated below.

  • How do people and environments influence one another?
  • How do people influence the human characteristics of places and the management of spaces within them?
  • How can the impact of bushfires or floods on people and places be reduced?

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Year 5 Content Descriptions

Geographical Knowledge and Understanding

The location of the major countries of Europe and North America in relation to Australia and the influence of people on the environmental characteristics of places in at least two countries from both continents (ACHGK026)

The influence of people, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, on the environmental characteristics of Australian places (ACHGK027)

Geographical Inquiry and Skills
Observing, questioning and planning

Develop geographical questions to investigate and plan an inquiry (ACHGS033)

Collecting, recording, evaluating and representing

Collect and record relevant geographical data and information, using ethical protocols, from primary and secondary sources, for example, people, maps, plans, photographs, satellite images, statistical sources and reports (ACHGS034)

Represent the location and features of places and different types of geographical information by constructing large-scale and small-scale maps that conform to cartographic conventions, including border, source, scale, legend, title and north point, using spatial technologies as appropriate (ACHGS036)

Interpreting, analysing and concluding
Communicating

Present findings and ideas in a range of communication forms, for example, written, oral, graphic, tabular, visual and maps; using geographical terminology and digital technologies as appropriate (ACHGS038)

Reflecting and responding

Reflect on their learning to propose individual and collective action in response to a contemporary geographical challenge and describe the expected effects of their proposal on different groups of people (ACHGS039)

Year 5 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 5, students explain the characteristics of places in different locations at the national scale. They describe the interconnections between people, places and environments and identify the effect of these interconnections on the characteristics of places and environments. They describe the location of selected countries in relative terms and identify spatial distributions and simple patterns in the features of places and environments. They identify alternative views on how to respond to a geographical challenge and propose a response.

Students develop geographical questions to investigate and collect and record information from a range of sources to answer these questions. They represent data and the location of places and their characteristics in graphic forms, including large-scale and small-scale maps that use the cartographic conventions of border, scale, legend, title, and north point. Students interpret geographical data to identify spatial distributions, simple patterns and trends, infer relationships and draw conclusions. They present findings using geographical terminology in a range of communication forms. They propose action in response to a geographical challenge and identify the expected effects of their proposed action.

Year 5 Work Sample Portfolios

 

Year 6

Year 6 Level Description

A diverse and connected world takes a global view of geography and focuses particularly on the concepts of place and interconnections. Students learn about the diversity of peoples and cultures around the world, the indigenous peoples of other countries, the diversity of countries across the world and within the Asia region. They reflect on cultural differences and similarities, and on...

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A diverse and connected world takes a global view of geography and focuses particularly on the concepts of place and interconnections. Students learn about the diversity of peoples and cultures around the world, the indigenous peoples of other countries, the diversity of countries across the world and within the Asia region. They reflect on cultural differences and similarities, and on the meaning and significance of intercultural understanding. The focus of study becomes global, as students examine Australia’s connections with other countries and events in places throughout the world, and think about their own and other people’s knowledge of other countries and places. Students’ mental maps of the world and their understanding of place are further developed through learning the locations of the major countries in the Asia region, and investigating the geographical diversity and variety of connections between people and places.

The inquiry process provides opportunities to gather and represent data, which should be used to inform decisions when planning and implementing action on significant global issues.

The content of this year level is organised into two strands: Geographical Knowledge and Understanding and Geographical Inquiry and Skills. These strands are interrelated and should be taught in an integrated manner, and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.

Key inquiry questions

A framework for developing students’ geographical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided through the inclusion of inquiry questions and specific inquiry skills, including the use and interpretation of maps, photographs and other representations of geographical data.

The key inquiry questions for Year 6 are articulated below.

  • How do places, people and cultures differ across the world?
  • What are Australia’s global connections between people and places?
  • How do people’s connections to places affect their perception of them?

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Year 6 Content Descriptions

Geographical Knowledge and Understanding

The location of the major countries of the Asia region in relation to Australia and the geographical diversity within the region (ACHGK031)

Differences in the economic, demographic and social characteristics between countries across the world (ACHGK032)

The world’s cultural diversity, including that of its indigenous peoples (ACHGK033)

The various connections Australia has with other countries and how these connections change people and places (ACHGK035)

The effects that people’s connections with, and proximity to, places throughout the world have on shaping their awareness and opinion of those places (ACHGK036)

Geographical Inquiry and Skills
Observing, questioning and planning
Collecting, recording, evaluating and representing

Collect and record relevant geographical data and information, using ethical protocols, from primary and secondary sources, for example, people, maps, plans, photographs, satellite images, statistical sources and reports (ACHGS041)

Represent the location and features of places and different types of geographical information by constructing large-scale and small-scale maps that conform to cartographic conventions including border, source, scale, legend, title and north point, using spatial technologies as appropriate (ACHGS043)

Interpreting, analysing and concluding

Interpret geographical data and other information using digital and spatial technologies as appropriate, and identify spatial distributions, patterns and trends, and infer relationships to draw conclusions (ACHGS044)

Communicating

Present findings and ideas in a range of communication forms, for example, written, oral, graphic, tabular, visual and maps, using geographical terminology and digital technologies as appropriate (ACHGS045)

Reflecting and responding

Reflect on their learning to propose individual and collective action in response to a contemporary geographical challenge and describe the expected effects of their proposal on different groups of people (ACHGS046)

Year 6 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 6, students explain the characteristics of diverse places in different locations at different scales from local to global. They describe the interconnections between people and places, identify factors that influence these interconnections and describe how they change places and affect people. They describe the location of selected countries in absolute and relative terms and identify and compare spatial distributions and patterns among phenomena. They identify and describe alternative views on how to respond to a geographical challenge and propose a response.

Students develop geographical questions to frame an inquiry. They locate relevant information from a range of sources to answer inquiry questions. They represent data and the location of places and their characteristics in different graphic forms, including large-scale and small-scale maps that use cartographic conventions of border, source, scale, legend, title and north point. Students interpret data and other information to identify and compare spatial distributions, patterns and trends, infer relationships and draw conclusions. They present findings and ideas using geographical terminology and graphic representations in a range of communication forms. They propose action in response to a geographical challenge and describe the expected effects of their proposal.

Year 6 Work Sample Portfolios

 

Year 7

Year 7 Level Description

There are two units of study in the Year 7 curriculum for Geography: Water in the world and Place and liveability.

Water in the world focuses on water as an example of a renewable environmental resource. This unit examines the many uses of water, the ways it is perceived and valued, its different forms as a resource, the ways it connects places as it moves through the environment, its varying...

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There are two units of study in the Year 7 curriculum for Geography: Water in the world and Place and liveability.

Water in the world focuses on water as an example of a renewable environmental resource. This unit examines the many uses of water, the ways it is perceived and valued, its different forms as a resource, the ways it connects places as it moves through the environment, its varying availability in time and across space, and its scarcity. Water in the world develops students’ understanding of the concept of environment, including the ideas that the environment is the product of a variety of processes, that it supports and enriches human and other life, that people value the environment in different ways and that the environment has its specific hazards. Water is investigated using studies drawn from Australia, countries of the Asia region, and countries from West Asia and/or North Africa.

Place and liveability focuses on the concept of place through an investigation of liveability. This unit examines factors that influence liveability and how it is perceived, the idea that places provide us with the services and facilities needed to support and enhance our lives, and that spaces are planned and managed by people. It develops students’ ability to evaluate the liveability of their own place and to investigate whether it can be improved through planning. The liveability of places is investigated using studies drawn from Australia and Europe.

The content of this year level is organised into two strands: Geographical Knowledge and Understanding and Geographical Inquiry and Skills. These strands are interrelated and should be taught in an integrated manner, and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.

Key inquiry questions

A framework for developing students’ geographical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided through the inclusion of inquiry questions and specific inquiry skills, including the use and interpretation of maps, photographs and other representations of geographical data.

The key inquiry questions for Year 7 are articulated below.

  • How do people’s reliance on places and environments influence their perception of them?
  • What effect does the uneven distribution of resources and services have on the lives of people?
  • What approaches can be used to improve the availability of resources and access to services?

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Year 7 Content Descriptions

Geographical Knowledge and Understanding
Unit 1: Water in the world

The nature of water scarcity and ways of overcoming it, including studies drawn from Australia and West Asia and/or North Africa (ACHGK040)

The economic, cultural, spiritual and aesthetic value of water for people, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples and peoples of the Asia region (ACHGK041)

The causes, impacts and responses to an atmospheric or hydrological hazard (ACHGK042)

Unit 2: Place and liveability

The factors that influence the decisions people make about where to live and their perceptions of the liveability of places (ACHGK043)

The influence of accessibility to services and facilities on the liveability of places (ACHGK044)

Geographical Inquiry and Skills
Observing, questioning and planning

Develop geographically significant questions and plan an inquiry, using appropriate geographical methodologies and concepts (ACHGS047)

Collecting, recording, evaluating and representing

Collect, select and record relevant geographical data and information, using ethical protocols, from appropriate primary and secondary sources (ACHGS048)

Evaluate sources for their reliability and usefulness and represent data in a range of appropriate forms, for example, climate graphs, compound column graphs, population pyramids, tables, field sketches and annotated diagrams, with and without the use of digital and spatial technologies (ACHGS049)

Interpreting, analysing and concluding

Analyse geographical data and other information using qualitative and quantitative methods, and digital and spatial technologies as appropriate, to identify and propose explanations for spatial distributions, patterns and trends and infer relationships (ACHGS051)

Communicating

Present findings, arguments and ideas in a range of communication forms selected to suit a particular audience and purpose; using geographical terminology and digital technologies as appropriate (ACHGS053)

Reflecting and responding

Reflect on their learning to propose individual and collective action in response to a contemporary geographical challenge, taking account of environmental, economic and social considerations, and predict the expected outcomes of their proposal (ACHGS054)

Year 7 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 7, students describe geographical processes that influence the characteristics of places and how places are perceived and valued differently.  They explain interconnections between people, places and environments and describe how they change places and environments. They propose simple explanations for spatial distributions and patterns among phenomena. They describe alternative strategies to a geographical challenge and propose a response, taking into account environmental, economic and social factors.

Students identify geographically significant questions to frame an inquiry. They locate relevant information from primary and secondary sources to answer inquiry questions. They represent data and the location and distribution of geographical phenomena in a range of graphic forms, including large-scale and small-scale maps that conform to cartographic conventions. They analyse geographical data and other information to propose simple explanations for spatial patterns, trends and relationships and draw conclusions. Students present findings and arguments using relevant geographical terminology and graphic representations in a range of communication forms. They propose action in response to a geographical challenge taking account of environmental, economic and social considerations and describe the expected effects of their proposal.

Year 7 Work Sample Portfolios

 

Year 8

Year 8 Level Description

There are two units of study in the Year 8 curriculum for Geography: Landforms and landscapes and Changing nations.

Landforms and landscapes focuses on investigating geomorphology through a study of landscapes and their landforms. This unit examines the processes that shape individual landforms, the values and meanings placed on landforms and landscapes by diverse cultures, hazards associated...

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There are two units of study in the Year 8 curriculum for Geography: Landforms and landscapes and Changing nations.

Landforms and landscapes focuses on investigating geomorphology through a study of landscapes and their landforms. This unit examines the processes that shape individual landforms, the values and meanings placed on landforms and landscapes by diverse cultures, hazards associated with landscapes, and management of landscapes. Landforms and landscapes develops students’ understanding of the concept of environment and enables them to explore the significance of landscapes to people, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples. These distinctive aspects of landforms and landscapes are investigated using studies drawn from Australia and throughout the world.

Changing nations investigates the changing human geography of countries, as revealed by shifts in population distribution. The spatial distribution of population is a sensitive indicator of economic and social change, and has significant environmental, economic and social effects, both negative and positive. The unit explores the process of urbanisation and draws on a study of a country of the Asia region to show how urbanisation changes the economies and societies of low and middle-income countries. countries. It investigates the reasons for the high level of urban concentration in Australia, one of the distinctive features of Australia’s human geography, and compares Australia with the United States of America. The redistribution of population resulting from internal migration is examined through case studies of Australia and China, and is contrasted with the way international migration reinforces urban concentration in Australia. The unit then examines issues related to the management and future of Australia’s urban areas.

The content of this year level is organised into two strands: Geographical Knowledge and Understanding and Geographical Inquiry and Skills. These strands are interrelated and should be taught in an integrated manner, and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.

Key inquiry questions

A framework for developing students’ geographical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided through the inclusion of inquiry questions and specific inquiry skills, including the use and interpretation of maps, photographs and other representations of geographical data.

The key inquiry questions for Year 8 are articulated below.

  • How do environmental and human processes affect the characteristics of places and environments?
  • How do the interconnections between places, people and environments affect the lives of people?
  • What are the consequences of changes to places and environments and how can these changes be managed?

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Year 8 Content Descriptions

Geographical Knowledge and Understanding
Unit 1: Landforms and landscapes

The aesthetic, cultural and spiritual value of landscapes and landforms for people, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (ACHGK049)

The ways of protecting significant landscapes (ACHGK052)

The causes, impacts and responses to a geomorphological hazard (ACHGK053)

Unit 2: Changing nations

The causes and consequences of urbanisation, drawing on a study from Indonesia, or another country of the Asia region (ACHGK054)

The reasons for and effects of internal migration in Australia (ACHGK056)

The reasons for and effects of internal migration in China (ACHGK057)

The reasons for and effects of international migration in Australia (ACHGK058)

Geographical Inquiry and Skills
Observing, questioning and planning

Develop geographically significant questions and plan an inquiry using appropriate geographical methodologies and concepts (ACHGS055)

Collecting, recording, evaluating and representing

Collect, select and record relevant geographical data and information, using ethical protocols, from appropriate primary and secondary sources (ACHGS056)

Evaluate sources for their reliability and usefulness and represent data in a range of appropriate forms, for example, climate graphs, compound column graphs, population pyramids, tables, field sketches and annotated diagrams, with and without the use of digital and spatial technologies (ACHGS057)

Interpreting, analysing and concluding

Analyse geographical data and other information using qualitative and quantitative methods, and digital and spatial technologies as appropriate, to identify and propose explanations for spatial distributions, patterns and trends and infer relationships (ACHGS059)

Communicating

Present findings, arguments and ideas in a range of communication forms selected to suit a particular audience and purpose, using geographical terminology and digital technologies as appropriate (ACHGS061)

Reflecting and responding

Reflect on their learning to propose individual and collective action in response to a contemporary geographical challenge, taking account of environmental, economic and social considerations, and predict the expected outcomes of their proposal (ACHGS062)

Year 8 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 8, students explain geographical processes that influence the characteristics of places and explain how places are perceived and valued differently.  They explain interconnections within environments and between people and places and explain how they change places and environments. They propose explanations for spatial distributions and patterns among phenomena and identify associations between distribution patterns. They compare alternative strategies to a geographical challenge and propose a response, taking into account environmental, economic and social factors.

Students identify geographically significant questions from observations to frame an inquiry. They locate relevant information from a range of primary and secondary sources to answer inquiry questions.  They represent data and the location and distribution of geographical phenomena in a range of appropriate graphic forms, including maps at different scales that conform to cartographic conventions.  They analyse geographical data and other information to propose explanations for spatial patterns, trends and relationships and draw reasoned conclusions. Students present findings, arguments and ideas using relevant geographical terminology and graphic representations in a range of appropriate communication forms. They propose action in response to a geographical challenge taking account of environmental, economic and social considerations and predict the outcomes of their proposal.

Year 8 Work Sample Portfolios

 

Year 9

Year 9 Level Description

There are two units of study in the Year 9 curriculum for Geography: Biomes and food security and Geographies of interconnections.

Biomes and food security focuses on investigating the role of the biotic environment and its role in food and fibre production. This unit examines the biomes of the world, their alteration and significance as a source of food and fibre, and the environmental challenges...

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There are two units of study in the Year 9 curriculum for Geography: Biomes and food security and Geographies of interconnections.

Biomes and food security focuses on investigating the role of the biotic environment and its role in food and fibre production. This unit examines the biomes of the world, their alteration and significance as a source of food and fibre, and the environmental challenges and constraints on expanding food production in the future. These distinctive aspects of biomes, food production and food security are investigated using studies drawn from Australia and across the world.

Geographies of interconnections focuses on investigating how people, through their choices and actions, are connected to places throughout the world in a wide variety of ways, and how these connections help to make and change places and their environments. This unit examines the interconnections between people and places through the products people buy and the effects of their production on the places that make them. Students examine the ways that transport and information and communication technologies have made it possible for an increasing range of services to be provided internationally, and for people in isolated rural areas to connect to information, services and people in other places. These distinctive aspects of interconnection are investigated using studies drawn from Australia and across the world.

The content of this year level is organised into two strands: Geographical Knowledge and Understanding and Geographical Inquiry and Skills. These strands are interrelated and should be taught in an integrated manner, and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.

Key inquiry questions

A framework for developing students’ geographical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided through the inclusion of inquiry questions and specific inquiry skills, including the use and interpretation of maps, photographs and other representations of geographical data.

The key inquiry questions for Year 9 are articulated below.

  • What are the causes and consequences of change in places and environments and how can this change be managed?
  • What are the future implications of changes to places and environments?
  • Why are interconnections and interdependencies important for the future of places and environments?

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Year 9 Content Descriptions

Geographical Knowledge and Understanding
Unit 1: Biomes and food security

The distribution and characteristics of biomes as regions with distinctive climates, soils, vegetation and productivity (ACHGK060)

The human alteration of biomes to produce food, industrial materials and fibres, and the environmental effects of these alterations (ACHGK061)

The capacity of the world’s environments to sustainably feed the projected future population to achieve food security for Australia and the world (ACHGK064)

Unit 2: Geographies of interconnections

The way transportation and information and communication technologies are used to connect people to services, information and people in other places (ACHGK066)

The ways that places and people are interconnected with other places through trade in goods and services, at all scales (ACHGK067)

The effects of the production and consumption of goods on places and environments throughout the world and including a country from North-East Asia (ACHGK068)

The effects of people’s travel, recreational, cultural or leisure choices on places, and the implications for the future of these places (ACHGK069)

Geographical Inquiry and Skills
Observing, questioning and planning

Develop geographically significant questions and plan an inquiry that identifies and applies appropriate geographical methodologies and concepts (ACHGS063)

Collecting, recording, evaluating and representing

Collect, select, record and organise relevant geographical data and information, using ethical protocols, from a range of appropriate primary and secondary sources (ACHGS064)

Evaluate sources for their reliability, bias and usefulness, and represent multi-variable data in a range of appropriate forms, for example, scatter plots, tables, field sketches and annotated diagrams, with and without the use of digital and spatial technologies (ACHGS065)

Interpreting, analysing and concluding

Evaluate multi-variable data and other geographical information using qualitative and quantitative methods, and digital and spatial technologies as appropriate, to make generalisations and inferences, propose explanations for patterns, trends, relationships and anomalies, and predict outcomes (ACHGS067)

Apply geographical concepts to synthesise information from various sources and draw conclusions based on the analysis of data and information, taking into account alternative points of view (ACHGS068)

Communicating

Present findings, arguments and explanations in a range of appropriate communication forms, selected for their effectiveness and to suit audience and purpose; using relevant geographical terminology, and digital technologies as appropriate (ACHGS070)

Reflecting and responding

Reflect on and evaluate the findings of the inquiry to propose individual and collective action in response to a contemporary geographical challenge, taking account of environmental, economic and social considerations; and explain the predicted outcomes and consequences of their proposal (ACHGS071)

Year 9 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 9, students explain how geographical processes change the characteristics of places. They predict changes in the characteristics of places over time and identify the possible implications of change for the future. They analyse interconnections between people, places and environments and explain how these interconnections influence people, and change places and environments.  Students propose explanations for distributions and patterns over time and across space and describe associations between distribution patterns. They analyse alternative strategies to a geographical challenge using environmental, social and economic criteria and propose and justify a response.

Students use initial research to identify geographically significant questions to frame an inquiry. They collect and evaluate a range of primary and secondary sources and select relevant geographical data and information to answer inquiry questions. They represent multi-variable data in a range of appropriate graphic forms, including special purpose maps that comply with cartographic conventions. They analyse data to propose explanations for patterns, trends, relationships and anomalies and to predict outcomes. Students synthesise data and information to draw reasoned conclusions. They present findings and explanations using relevant geographical terminology and graphic representations in a range of appropriate communication forms. Students propose action in response to a geographical challenge taking account of environmental, economic and social considerations and predict the outcomes and consequences of their proposal.

Year 9 Work Sample Portfolios

 

Year 10

Year 10 Level Description

There are two units of study in the Year 10 curriculum for Geography: Environmental change and management and Geographies of human wellbeing.

Environmental change and management focuses on investigating environmental geography through an in-depth study of a specific environment. The unit begins with an overview of the environmental functions that support all life, the major challenges to their...

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There are two units of study in the Year 10 curriculum for Geography: Environmental change and management and Geographies of human wellbeing.

Environmental change and management focuses on investigating environmental geography through an in-depth study of a specific environment. The unit begins with an overview of the environmental functions that support all life, the major challenges to their sustainability, and the environmental worldviews - including those of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples - that influence how people perceive and respond to these challenges. Students investigate a specific type of environment and environmental change in Australia and one other country. They apply human-environment systems thinking to understand the causes and consequences of the change and geographical concepts and methods to evaluate and select strategies to manage the change. 

Geographies of human wellbeing focuses on investigating global, national and local differences in human wellbeing between places. This unit examines the different concepts and measures of human wellbeing, and the causes of global differences in these measures between countries. Students explore spatial differences in wellbeing within and between countries, and evaluate the differences from a variety of perspectives. They explore programs designed to reduce the gap between differences in wellbeing. These distinctive aspects of human wellbeing are investigated using studies drawn from Australia, India and across the world as appropriate.

The content of this year level is organised into two strands: Geographical Knowledge and Understanding and Geographical Inquiry and Skills. These strands are interrelated and should be taught in an integrated manner, and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.

Key inquiry questions

A framework for developing students’ geographical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided through the inclusion of inquiry questions and specific inquiry skills, including the use and interpretation of maps, photographs and other representations of geographical data.

The key inquiry questions for Year 10 are articulated below.

  • How can the spatial variation between places and changes in environments be explained?
  • What management options exist for sustaining human and natural systems into the future?
  • How do worldviews influence decisions on how to manage environmental and social change?

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Year 10 Content Descriptions

Geographical Knowledge and Understanding
Unit 1: Environmental change and management

The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples’ approaches to custodial responsibility and environmental management in different regions of Australia (ACHGK072)

Select ONE of the following types of environment as the context for study: land, inland water, coast, marine or urban. A comparative study of examples selected from Australia and at least one other country should be included.

The application of human-environment systems thinking to understanding the causes and likely consequences of the environmental change being investigated (ACHGK073)

View additional details about Literacy View additional details about Critical and creative thinking Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures Sustainability

The application of geographical concepts and methods to the management of the environmental change being investigated (ACHGK074)

The application of environmental economic and social criteria in evaluating management responses to the change (ACHGK075)

Unit 2: Geographies of human wellbeing

The different ways of measuring and mapping human wellbeing and development, and how these can be applied to measure differences between places (ACHGK076)

The role of international and national government and non-government organisations’ initiatives in improving human wellbeing in Australia and other countries (ACHGK081)

Geographical Inquiry and Skills
Observing, questioning and planning

Develop geographically significant questions and plan an inquiry that identifies and applies appropriate geographical methodologies and concepts (ACHGS072)

Collecting, recording, evaluating and representing

Collect, select, record and organise relevant data and geographical information, using ethical protocols, from a range of appropriate primary and secondary sources (ACHGS073)

Evaluate sources for their reliability, bias and usefulness and represent multi-variable data in a range of appropriate forms, for example, scatter plots, tables, field sketches and annotated diagrams with and without the use of digital and spatial technologies (ACHGS074)

Interpreting, analysing and concluding

Evaluate multi-variable data and other geographical information using qualitative and quantitative methods and digital and spatial technologies as appropriate to make generalisations and inferences, propose explanations for patterns, trends, relationships and anomalies, and predict outcomes (ACHGS076)

Apply geographical concepts to synthesise information from various sources and draw conclusions based on the analysis of data and information, taking into account alternative points of view (ACHGS077)

Communicating

Present findings, arguments and explanations in a range of appropriate communication forms selected for their effectiveness and to suit audience and purpose, using relevant geographical terminology and digital technologies as appropriate (ACHGS079)

Reflecting and responding

Reflect on and evaluate the findings of the inquiry to propose individual and collective action in response to a contemporary geographical challenge, taking account of environmental, economic and social considerations; and explain the predicted outcomes and consequences of their proposal (ACHGS080)

Year 10 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 10, students explain how the interaction between geographical processes at different scales change the characteristics of places. They predict changes in the characteristics of places and environments over time, across space and at different scales and explain the predicted consequences of change. Students identify, analyse and explain significant interconnections between people, places and environments and explain changes that result from these interconnections and their consequences.  They propose explanations for distributions, patterns and spatial variations over time, across space and at different scales, and identify and describe significant associations between distribution patterns. They evaluate alternative views on a geographical challenge and alternative strategies to address this challenge using environmental, social and economic criteria and propose and justify a response.

Students use initial research to develop and modify geographically significant questions to frame an inquiry. They collect and critically evaluate a range of primary and secondary sources and select relevant geographical data and information to answer inquiry questions....

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By the end of Year 10, students explain how the interaction between geographical processes at different scales change the characteristics of places. They predict changes in the characteristics of places and environments over time, across space and at different scales and explain the predicted consequences of change. Students identify, analyse and explain significant interconnections between people, places and environments and explain changes that result from these interconnections and their consequences.  They propose explanations for distributions, patterns and spatial variations over time, across space and at different scales, and identify and describe significant associations between distribution patterns. They evaluate alternative views on a geographical challenge and alternative strategies to address this challenge using environmental, social and economic criteria and propose and justify a response.

Students use initial research to develop and modify geographically significant questions to frame an inquiry. They collect and critically evaluate a range of primary and secondary sources and select relevant geographical data and information to answer inquiry questions. Students accurately represent multi-variable data in a range of appropriate graphic forms, including special purpose maps that use a suitable scale and comply with cartographic conventions. They evaluate data to make generalisations and inferences, propose explanations for significant patterns, trends, relationships and anomalies, and predict outcomes. They synthesise data and information to draw reasoned conclusions, taking into account alternative points of view. Students present findings, arguments and explanations using relevant geographical terminology and graphic representations in a range of appropriate communication forms. They evaluate their findings and propose action in response to a contemporary geographical challenge taking account of environmental, economic and social considerations. They explain the predicted outcomes and consequences of their proposal.

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Year 10 Work Sample Portfolios

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