Understand that English is one of many languages spoken in Australia and that different languages may be spoken by family, classmates and community (ACELA1426)
Understand that language can be used to explore ways of expressing needs, likes and dislikes (ACELA1429)
Recognise the letters of the alphabet and know there are lower and upper case letters (ACELA1440)
Recognise that texts are created by authors who tell stories and share experiences that may be similar or different to students’ own experiences (ACELT1575)
Share feelings and thoughts about the events and characters in texts (ACELT1783)
Replicate the rhythms and sound patterns in stories, rhymes, songs and poems from a range of cultures (ACELT1579)
Retell familiar literary texts through performance, use of illustrations and images (ACELT1580)
Identify some familiar texts and the contexts in which they are used (ACELY1645)
Deliver short oral presentations to peers (ACELY1647)
Construct texts using software including word processing programs (ACELY1654)
By the end of the Foundation year, students use predicting and questioning strategies to make meaning from texts. They recall one or two events from texts with familiar topics. They understand that there are different types of texts and that these can have similar characteristics. They identify connections between texts and their personal experience.
They read short, predictable texts with familiar vocabulary and supportive images, drawing on their developing knowledge of concepts about print and sound and letters. They identify the letters of the English alphabet and use the sounds represented by most letters. They listen to and use appropriate language features to respond to others in a familiar environment. They listen for rhyme, letter patterns and sounds in words.
Students understand that their texts can reflect their own experiences. They identify and describe likes and dislikes about familiar texts, objects, characters and events.
In informal group and whole class settings, students communicate clearly. They retell events and experiences with peers and known adults. They identify and use rhyme, letter patterns and sounds in words. When writing, students use familiar words and phrases and images to convey ideas. Their writing shows evidence of sound and letter knowledge, beginning writing behaviours and experimentation with capital letters and full stops. They correctly form known upper- and lower-case letters.
Understand that people use different systems of communication to cater to different needs and purposes and that many people may use sign systems to communicate with others (ACELA1443)
Explore different ways of expressing emotions, including verbal, visual, body language and facial expressions (ACELA1787)
Recognise and know how to use morphemes in word families for example ‘play’ in ‘played’ and ‘playing’ (ACELA1455)
Understand the variability of sound-letter matches (ACELA1459)
Recreate texts imaginatively using drawing, writing, performance and digital forms of communication (ACELT1586)
Respond to texts drawn from a range of cultures and experiences (ACELY1655)
Construct texts that incorporate supporting images using software including word processing programs (ACELY1664)
By the end of Year 1, students understand the different purposes of texts. They make connections to personal experience when explaining characters and main events in short texts. They identify the language features, images and vocabulary used to describe characters and events.
Students read aloud, with developing fluency and intonation, short texts with some unfamiliar vocabulary, simple and compound sentences and supportive images. When reading, they use knowledge of sounds and letters, high frequency words, sentence boundary punctuation and directionality to make meaning. They recall key ideas and recognise literal and implied meaning in texts. They listen to others when taking part in conversations, using appropriate language features. They listen for and reproduce letter patterns and letter clusters.
Students understand how characters in texts are developed and give reasons for personal preferences. They create texts that show understanding of the connection between writing, speech and images.
They create short texts for a small range of purposes. They interact in pair, group and class discussions, taking turns when responding. They make short presentations of a few connected sentences on familiar and learned topics. When writing, students provide details about ideas or events. They accurately spell words with regular spelling patterns and use capital letters and full stops. They correctly form all upper- and lower-case letters.
Identify language that can be used for appreciating texts and the qualities of people and things (ACELA1462)
Recognise common prefixes and suffixes and how they change a word’s meaning (ACELA1472)
Recognise most sound–letter matches including silent letters, vowel/consonant digraphs and many less common sound–letter combinations (ACELA1474)
Discuss how depictions of characters in print, sound and images reflect the contexts in which they were created (ACELT1587)
Identify aspects of different types of literary texts that entertain, and give reasons for personal preferences (ACELT1590)
Identify, reproduce and experiment with rhythmic, sound and word patterns in poems, chants, rhymes and songs (ACELT1592)
Discuss different texts on a similar topic, identifying similarities and differences between the texts (ACELY1665)
Rehearse and deliver short presentations on familiar and new topics (ACELY1667)
Construct texts featuring print, visual and audio elements using software, including word processing programs (ACELY1674)
They read texts that contain varied sentence structures, some unfamiliar vocabulary, a significant number of high frequency sight words and images that provide additional information. They monitor meaning and self-correct using context, prior knowledge, punctuation, language and phonic knowledge. They identify literal and implied meaning, main ideas and supporting detail. Students make connections between texts by comparing content. They listen for particular purposes. They listen for and manipulate sound combinations and rhythmic sound patterns.
When discussing their ideas and experiences, students use everyday language features and topic-specific vocabulary. They explain their preferences for aspects of texts using other texts as comparisons. They create texts that show how images support the meaning of the text.
Students create texts, drawing on their own experiences, their imagination and information they have learned. They use a variety of strategies to engage in group and class discussions and make presentations. They accurately spell familiar words and attempt to spell less familiar words and use punctuation accurately. They legibly write unjoined upper- and lower-case letters.
Understand that languages have different written and visual communication systems, different oral traditions and different ways of constructing meaning (ACELA1475)
Identify the features of online texts that enhance navigation (ACELA1790)
Recognise high-frequency sight words (ACELA1486)
Discuss texts in which characters, events and settings are portrayed in different ways, and speculate on the authors’ reasons (ACELT1594)
Develop criteria for establishing personal preferences for literature (ACELT1598)
Discuss the nature and effects of some language devices used to enhance meaning and shape the reader’s reaction, including rhythm and onomatopoeia in poetry and prose (ACELT1600)
Plan and deliver short presentations, providing some key details in logical sequence (ACELY1677)
Use software including word processing programs with growing speed and efficiency to construct and edit texts featuring visual, print and audio elements (ACELY1685)
By the end of Year 3, students understand how content can be organised using different text structures depending on the purpose of the text. They understand how language features, images and vocabulary choices are used for different effects.
They read texts that contain varied sentence structures, a range of punctuation conventions, and images that provide additional information. They identify literal and implied meaning connecting ideas in different parts of a text. They select information, ideas and events in texts that relate to their own lives and to other texts. They listen to others’ views and respond appropriately.
Students understand how language features are used to link and sequence ideas. They understand how language can be used to express feelings and opinions on topics. Their texts include writing and images to express and develop in some detail experiences, events, information, ideas and characters.
Students create a range of texts for familiar and unfamiliar audiences. They contribute actively to class and group discussions, asking questions, providing useful feedback and making presentations. They demonstrate understanding of grammar and choose vocabulary and punctuation appropriate to the purpose and context of their writing. They use knowledge of sounds and high frequency words to spell words accurately, checking their work for meaning. They write using joined letters that are accurately formed and consistent in size.
Understand differences between the language of opinion and feeling and the language of factual reporting or recording (ACELA1489)
Make connections between the ways different authors may represent similar storylines, ideas and relationships (ACELT1602)
Understand, interpret and experiment with a range of devices and deliberate word play in poetry and other literary texts, for example nonsense words, spoonerisms, neologisms and puns (ACELT1606)
Plan, rehearse and deliver presentations incorporating learned content and taking into account the particular purposes and audiences (ACELY1689)
By the end of Year 4, students understand that texts have different text structures depending on purpose and audience. They explain how language features, images and vocabulary are used to engage the interest of audiences.
They describe literal and implied meaning connecting ideas in different texts. They express preferences for particular texts, and respond to others’ viewpoints. They listen for key points in discussions.
Students use language features to create coherence and add detail to their texts. They understand how to express an opinion based on information in a text. They create texts that show understanding of how images and detail can be used to extend key ideas.
Students create structured texts to explain ideas for different audiences. They make presentations and contribute actively to class and group discussions, varying language according to context. They demonstrate understanding of grammar, select vocabulary from a range of resources and use accurate spelling and punctuation, editing their work to improve meaning.
Understand that the pronunciation, spelling and meanings of words have histories and change over time (ACELA1500)
Investigate how the organisation of texts into chapters, headings, subheadings, home pages and sub pages for online texts and according to chronology or topic can be used to predict content and assist navigation (ACELA1797)
Recognise uncommon plurals, for example ‘foci’ (ACELA1514)
Identify aspects of literary texts that convey details or information about particular social, cultural and historical contexts (ACELT1608)
Plan, rehearse and deliver presentations for defined audiences and purposes incorporating accurate and sequenced content and multimodal elements (ACELY1700)
By the end of Year 5, students explain how text structures assist in understanding the text. They understand how language features, images and vocabulary influence interpretations of characters, settings and events.
They analyse and explain literal and implied information from a variety of texts. They describe how events, characters and settings in texts are depicted and explain their own responses to them. They listen and ask questions to clarify content.
Students create a variety of sequenced texts for different purposes and audiences. They make presentations and contribute actively to class and group discussions, taking into account other perspectives. When writing, they demonstrate understanding of grammar, select specific vocabulary and use accurate spelling and punctuation, editing their work to provide structure and meaning.
Understand the uses of objective and subjective language and bias (ACELA1517)
Understand the uses of commas to separate clauses (ACELA1521)
Understand how to use banks of known words, word origins, base words, suffixes and prefixes, morphemes, spelling patterns and generalisations to learn and spell new words, for example technical words and words adopted from other languages (ACELA1526)
Make connections between students’ own experiences and those of characters and events represented in texts drawn from different historical, social and cultural contexts (ACELT1613)
Analyse strategies authors use to influence readers (ACELY1801)
By the end of Year 6, students understand how the use of text structures can achieve particular effects. They analyse and explain how language features, images and vocabulary are used by different authors to represent ideas, characters and events.
Students compare and analyse information in different texts, explaining literal and implied meaning. They select and use evidence from a text to explain their response to it. They listen to discussions, clarifying content and challenging others’ ideas.
Students understand how language features and language patterns can be used for emphasis. They show how specific details can be used to support a point of view. They explain how their choices of language features and images are used.
Students create detailed texts elaborating on key ideas for a range of purposes and audiences. They make presentations and contribute actively to class and group discussions, using a variety of strategies for effect. They demonstrate understanding of grammar, make considered choices from an expanding vocabulary, use accurate spelling and punctuation for clarity and make and explain editorial choices.
Understand the way language evolves to reflect a changing world, particularly in response to the use of new technology for presenting texts and communicating (ACELA1528)
Understand how to use spelling rules and word origins, for example Greek and Latin roots, base words, suffixes, prefixes, spelling patterns and generalisations to learn new words and how to spell them (ACELA1539)
Identify and explore ideas and viewpoints about events, issues and characters represented in texts drawn from different historical, social and cultural contexts (ACELT1619)
By the end of Year 7, students understand how text structures can influence the complexity of a text and are dependent on audience, purpose and context. They demonstrate understanding of how the choice of language features, images and vocabulary affects meaning.
Students explain issues and ideas from a variety of sources, analysing supporting evidence and implied meaning. They select specific details from texts to develop their own response, recognising that texts reflect different viewpoints. They listen for and explain different perspectives in texts.
Students understand how the selection of a variety of language features can influence an audience. They understand how to draw on personal knowledge, textual analysis and other sources to express or challenge a point of view. They create texts showing how language features and images from other texts can be combined for effect.
Students create structured and coherent texts for a range of purposes and audiences. They make presentations and contribute actively to class and group discussions, using language features to engage the audience. When creating and editing texts they demonstrate understanding of grammar, use a variety of more specialised vocabulary, accurate spelling and punctuation.
Understand the influence and impact that the English language has had on other languages or dialects and how English has been influenced in return (ACELA1540)
Understand how rhetorical devices are used to persuade and how different layers of meaning are developed through the use of metaphor, irony and parody (ACELA1542)
Understand the use of punctuation conventions, including colons, semicolons, dashes and brackets in formal and informal texts (ACELA1544)
Understand how to apply learned knowledge consistently in order to spell accurately and to learn new words including nominalisations (ACELA1549)
Explore the interconnectedness of Country and Place, People, Identity and Culture in texts including those by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander authors (ACELT1806)
Recognise and explain differing viewpoints about the world, cultures, individual people and concerns represented in texts (ACELT1807)
Analyse and explain how language has evolved over time and how technology and the media have influenced language use and forms of communication (ACELY1729)
Plan, rehearse and deliver presentations, selecting and sequencing appropriate content, including multimodal elements, to reflect a diversity of viewpoints (ACELY1731)
By the end of Year 8, students understand how the selection of text structures is influenced by the selection of language mode and how this varies for different purposes and audiences. Students explain how language features, images and vocabulary are used to represent different ideas and issues in texts.
Students interpret texts, questioning the reliability of sources of ideas and information. They select evidence from the text to show how events, situations and people can be represented from different viewpoints. They listen for and identify different emphases in texts, using that understanding to elaborate upon discussions.
Students understand how the selection of language features can be used for particular purposes and effects. They explain the effectiveness of language choices they use to influence the audience. Through combining ideas, images and language features from other texts, students show how ideas can be expressed in new ways.
Students create texts for different purposes, selecting language to influence audience response. They make presentations and contribute actively to class and group discussions, using language patterns for effect. When creating and editing texts to create specific effects, they take into account intended purposes and the needs and interests of audiences. They demonstrate understanding of grammar, select vocabulary for effect and use accurate spelling and punctuation.
Investigate how evaluation can be expressed directly and indirectly using devices, for example allusion, evocative vocabulary and metaphor (ACELA1552)
Understand how spelling is used creatively in texts for particular effects, for example characterisation and humour and to represent accents and styles of speech (ACELA1562)
Interpret and compare how representations of people and culture in literary texts are drawn from different historical, social and cultural contexts (ACELT1633)
Explore and reflect on personal understanding of the world and significant human experience gained from interpreting various representations of life matters in texts (ACELT1635)
Explore and explain the combinations of language and visual choices that authors make to present information, opinions and perspectives in different texts (ACELY1745)
Use a range of software, including word processing programs, flexibly and imaginatively to publish texts (ACELY1748)
By the end of Year 9, students analyse the ways that text structures can be manipulated for effect. They analyse and explain how images, vocabulary choices and language features distinguish the work of individual authors.
They evaluate and integrate ideas and information from texts to form their own interpretations. They select evidence from the text to analyse and explain how language choices and conventions are used to influence an audience. They listen for ways texts position an audience.
Students understand how to use a variety of language features to create different levels of meaning. They understand how interpretations can vary by comparing their responses to texts to the responses of others. In creating texts, students demonstrate how manipulating language features and images can create innovative texts.
Students create texts that respond to issues, interpreting and integrating ideas from other texts. They make presentations and contribute actively to class and group discussions, comparing and evaluating responses to ideas and issues. They edit for effect, selecting vocabulary and grammar that contribute to the precision and persuasiveness of texts and using accurate spelling and punctuation.
Understand conventions for citing others, and how to reference these in different ways (ACELA1568)
Understand how to use knowledge of the spelling system to spell unusual and technical words accurately, for example those based on uncommon Greek and Latin roots (ACELA1573)
Compare and evaluate a range of representations of individuals and groups in different historical, social and cultural contexts (ACELT1639)
Evaluate the social, moral and ethical positions represented in texts (ACELT1812)
Plan, rehearse and deliver presentations, selecting and sequencing appropriate content and multimodal elements to influence a course of action (ACELY1751)
By the end of Year 10, students evaluate how text structures can be used in innovative ways by different authors. They explain how the choice of language features, images and vocabulary contributes to the development of individual style.
They develop and justify their own interpretations of texts. They evaluate other interpretations, analysing the evidence used to support them. They listen for ways features within texts can be manipulated to achieve particular effects.
Students show how the selection of language features can achieve precision and stylistic effect. They explain different viewpoints, attitudes and perspectives through the development of cohesive and logical arguments. They develop their own style by experimenting with language features, stylistic devices, text structures and images.
Students create a wide range of texts to articulate complex ideas. They make presentations and contribute actively to class and group discussions, building on others' ideas, solving problems, justifying opinions and developing and expanding arguments. They demonstrate understanding of grammar, vary vocabulary choices for impact, and accurately use spelling and punctuation when creating and editing texts.