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ACARA Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority

Year 10

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English

English Year Description

The English curriculum is built around the three interrelated strands of Language, Literature and Literacy. Teaching and learning programs should balance and integrate all three strands. Together the strands focus on developing students’ knowledge, understanding and skills in listening, reading, viewing, speaking, writing and creating. Learning in English builds on concepts, skills and processes...

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English Content Descriptions

Language

Language variation and change
  1. Understand that Standard Australian English in its spoken and written forms has a history of evolution and change and continues to evolve (ACELA1563)
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/w
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/l
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/s
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/r
Language for interaction
  1. Understand how language use can have inclusive and exclusive social effects, and can empower or disempower people (ACELA1564)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/w
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/l
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/s
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/r
  2. Understand that people’s evaluations of texts are influenced by their value systems, the context and the purpose and mode of communication (ACELA1565)
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/w
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/l
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/s
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/r
Text structure and organisation
  1. Compare the purposes, text structures and language features of traditional and contemporary texts in different media (ACELA1566)
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/w
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/l
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/s
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/r
  2. Understand how paragraphs and images can be arranged for different purposes, audiences, perspectives and stylistic effects (ACELA1567)
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/w
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/r
  3. Understand conventions for citing others, and how to reference these in different ways (ACELA1568)
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/w
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/r
Expressing and developing ideas
  1. Analyse and evaluate the effectiveness of a wide range of sentence and clause structures as authors design and craft texts (ACELA1569)
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/w
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/r
  2. Analyse how higher order concepts are developed in complex texts through language features including nominalisation, clause combinations, technicality and abstraction (ACELA1570)
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/w
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/l
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/s
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/r
  3. Evaluate the impact on audiences of different choices in the representation of still and moving images (ACELA1572)
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/w
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/l
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/s
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/r
  4. Refine vocabulary choices to discriminate between shades of meaning, with deliberate attention to the effect on audiences (ACELA1571)
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/w
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/l
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/s
  5. Understand how to use knowledge of the spelling system to spell unusual and technical words accurately, for example those based on uncommon Greek and Latin roots (ACELA1573)
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/w
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/l
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/s
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/r

Literature

Literature and context
  1. Compare and evaluate a range of representations of individuals and groups in different historical, social and cultural contexts (ACELT1639)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/w
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/l
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/s
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/r
Responding to literature
  1. Reflect on, extend, endorse or refute others’ interpretations of and responses to literature (ACELT1640)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/w
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/l
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/s
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/r
  2. Analyse and explain how text structures, language features and visual features of texts and the context in which texts are experienced may influence audience response (ACELT1641)
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/w
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/l
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/s
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/r
  3. Evaluate the social, moral and ethical positions represented in texts (ACELT1812)
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/w
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/l
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/s
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/r
Examining literature
  1. Identify, explain and discuss how narrative viewpoint, structure, characterisation and devices including analogy and satire shape different interpretations and responses to a text (ACELT1642)
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/l
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/s
  2. Compare and evaluate how ‘voice’ as a literary device can be used in a range of different types of texts such as poetry to evoke particular emotional responses (ACELT1643)
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/w
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/l
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/s
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/r
  3. Analyse and evaluate text structures and language features of literary texts and make relevant thematic and intertextual connections with other texts (ACELT1774)
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/l
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/s
Creating literature
  1. Create literary texts that reflect an emerging sense of personal style and evaluate the effectiveness of these texts (ACELT1814)
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/s
  2. Create literary texts with a sustained ‘voice’, selecting and adapting appropriate text structures, literary devices, language, auditory and visual structures and features for a specific purpose and intended audience (ACELT1815)
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/w
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/l
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/s
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/r
  3. Create imaginative texts that make relevant thematic and intertextual connections with other texts (ACELT1644)
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/s

Literacy

Texts in context
  1. Analyse and evaluate how people, cultures, places, events, objects and concepts are represented in texts, including media texts, through language, structural and/or visual choices (ACELY1749)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/w
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/r
Interacting with others
  1. Identify and explore the purposes and effects of different text structures and language features of spoken texts, and use this knowledge to create purposeful texts that inform, persuade and engage (ACELY1750)
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/w
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/r
  2. Use organisation patterns, voice and language conventions to present a point of view on a subject, speaking clearly, coherently and with effect, using logic, imagery and rhetorical devices to engage audiences (ACELY1813)
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/w
  3. Plan, rehearse and deliver presentations, selecting and sequencing appropriate content and multimodal elements to influence a course of action (ACELY1751)
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/w
Interpreting, analysing, evaluating
  1. Identify and analyse implicit or explicit values, beliefs and assumptions in texts and how these are influenced by purposes and likely audiences (ACELY1752)
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/w
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/l
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/s
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/r
  2. Choose a reading technique and reading path appropriate for the type of text, to retrieve and connect ideas within and between texts (ACELY1753)
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/r
  3. Use comprehension strategies to compare and contrast information within and between texts, identifying and analysing embedded perspectives, and evaluating supporting evidence (ACELY1754)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/w
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/r
Creating texts
  1. Create sustained texts, including texts that combine specific digital or media content, for imaginative, informative, or persuasive purposes that reflect upon challenging and complex issues (ACELY1756)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/s
  2. Review, edit and refine students’ own and others’ texts for control of content, organisation, sentence structure, vocabulary, and/or visual features to achieve particular purposes and effects (ACELY1757)
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/w
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/r
  3. Use a range of software, including word processing programs, confidently, flexibly and imaginatively to create, edit and publish texts, considering the identified purpose and the characteristics of the user (ACELY1776)
    • http://www.acara.edu.au/vocabulary/mode/r

English Achievement Standard

Receptive modes (listening, reading and viewing)

By the end of Year 10, students evaluate how text structures can be used in innovative ways by different authors. They explain how the choice of language features, images and vocabulary contributes to the development of individual style.

They develop and justify their own interpretations of texts. They evaluate other interpretations, analysing the evidence used to support them. They listen for ways features within texts can be manipulated to achieve particular effects.

Productive modes (speaking, writing and creating)

Students show how the selection of language features can achieve precision and stylistic effect. They explain different viewpoints, attitudes and perspectives through the development of cohesive and logical arguments. They develop their own style by experimenting with language features, stylistic devices, text structures and images.

Students create a wide range of texts to articulate complex ideas. They make presentations and contribute actively to class and group discussions, building on others' ideas, solving problems, justifying opinions and developing and expanding arguments. They demonstrate understanding of grammar, vary vocabulary choices for impact, and accurately use spelling and punctuation when creating and editing texts.

English Work Sample Portfolios

Mathematics

Mathematics Year Description

The proficiency strands Understanding, Fluency, Problem Solving and Reasoning are an integral part of mathematics content across the three content strands: Number and Algebra, Measurement and Geometry, and Statistics and Probability. The proficiencies reinforce the significance of working mathematically within the content and describe how the content is explored or developed. They provide the...

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Mathematics Content Descriptions

Number and Algebra

Money and financial mathematics
  1. Connect the compound interest formula to repeated applications of simple interest using appropriate digital technologies (ACMNA229)
Patterns and algebra
  1. Factorise algebraic expressions by taking out a common algebraic factor (ACMNA230)
  2. Simplify algebraic products and quotients using index laws (ACMNA231)
  3. Apply the four operations to simple algebraic fractions with numerical denominators (ACMNA232)
  4. Expand binomial products and factorise monic quadratic expressions using a variety of strategies (ACMNA233)
  5. Substitute values into formulas to determine an unknown (ACMNA234)
Linear and non-linear relationships
  1. Solve problems involving linear equations, including those derived from formulas (ACMNA235)
  2. Solve linear inequalities and graph their solutions on a number line (ACMNA236)
  3. Solve linear simultaneous equations, using algebraic and graphical techniques including using digital technology (ACMNA237)
  4. Solve problems involving parallel and perpendicular lines (ACMNA238)
  5. Explore the connection between algebraic and graphical representations of relations such as simple quadratics, circles and exponentials using digital technology as appropriate (ACMNA239)
  6. Solve linear equations involving simple algebraic fractions (ACMNA240)
  7. Solve simple quadratic equations using a range of strategies (ACMNA241)

Measurement and Geometry

Using units of measurement
  1. Solve problems involving surface area and volume for a range of prisms, cylinders and composite solids (ACMMG242)
Geometric reasoning
  1. Formulate proofs involving congruent triangles and angle properties (ACMMG243)
  2. Apply logical reasoning, including the use of congruence and similarity, to proofs and numerical exercises involving plane shapes (ACMMG244)
Pythagoras and trigonometry
  1. Solve right-angled triangle problems including those involving direction and angles of elevation and depression (ACMMG245)

Statistics and Probability

Chance
  1. Describe the results of two- and three-step chance experiments, both with and without replacements, assign probabilities to outcomes and determine probabilities of events. Investigate the concept of independence (ACMSP246)
  2. Use the language of ‘if ....then, ‘given’, ‘of’, ‘knowing that’ to investigate conditional statements and identify common mistakes in interpreting such language (ACMSP247)
Data representation and interpretation
  1. Determine quartiles and interquartile range (ACMSP248)
  2. Construct and interpret box plots and use them to compare data sets (ACMSP249)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
  3. Compare shapes of box plots to corresponding histograms and dot plots (ACMSP250)
  4. Use scatter plots to investigate and comment on relationships between two numerical variables (ACMSP251)
  5. Investigate and describe bivariate numerical data where the independent variable is time (ACMSP252)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  6. Evaluate statistical reports in the media and other places by linking claims to displays, statistics and representative data (ACMSP253)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2

Mathematics Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 10, students recognise the connection between simple and compound interest. They solve problems involving linear equations and inequalities. They make the connections between algebraic and graphical representations of relations. Students solve surface area and volume problems relating to composite solids. They recognise the relationships between parallel and perpendicular lines. Students apply deductive reasoning to proofs and numerical exercises involving plane shapes. They compare data sets by referring to the shapes of the various data displays. They describe bivariate data where the independent variable is time. Students describe statistical relationships between two continuous variables. They evaluate statistical reports.

Students expand binomial expressions and factorise monic quadratic expressions. They find unknown values after substitution into formulas. They perform the four operations with simple algebraic fractions. Students solve simple quadratic equations and pairs of simultaneous equations. They use triangle and angle properties to prove congruence and similarity. Students use trigonometry to calculate unknown angles in right-angled triangles. Students list outcomes for multi-step chance experiments and assign probabilities for these experiments. They calculate quartiles and inter-quartile ranges.

Mathematics Work Sample Portfolios

Science

Science Year Description

The Science Inquiry Skills and Science as a Human Endeavour strands are described across a two-year band. In their planning, schools and teachers refer to the expectations outlined in the Achievement Standard and also to the content of the Science Understanding strand for the relevant year level to ensure that these two strands are addressed over the two-year period. The three strands of the...

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Science Content Descriptions

Science Understanding

Biological sciences
  1. The transmission of heritable characteristics from one generation to the next involves DNA and genes (ACSSU184)
  2. The theory of evolution by natural selection explains the diversity of living things and is supported by a range of scientific evidence (ACSSU185)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
Chemical sciences
  1. The atomic structure and properties of elements are used to organise them in the Periodic Table (ACSSU186)
  2. Different types of chemical reactions are used to produce a range of products and can occur at different rates (ACSSU187)
Earth and space sciences
  1. The universe contains features including galaxies, stars and solar systems and the Big Bang theory can be used to explain the origin of the universe (ACSSU188)
  2. Global systems, including the carbon cycle, rely on interactions involving the biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere (ACSSU189)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
Physical sciences
  1. Energy conservation in a system can be explained by describing energy transfers and transformations (ACSSU190)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  2. The motion of objects can be described and predicted using the laws of physics (ACSSU229)

Science as a Human Endeavour

Nature and development of science
  1. Scientific understanding, including models and theories, are contestable and are refined over time through a process of review by the scientific community (ACSHE191)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  2. Advances in scientific understanding often rely on developments in technology and technological advances are often linked to scientific discoveries (ACSHE192)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
Use and influence of science
  1. People can use scientific knowledge to evaluate whether they should accept claims, explanations or predictions (ACSHE194)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  2. Advances in science and emerging sciences and technologies can significantly affect people’s lives, including generating new career opportunities (ACSHE195)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  3. The values and needs of contemporary society can influence the focus of scientific research (ACSHE230)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3

Science Inquiry Skills

Questioning and predicting
  1. Formulate questions or hypotheses that can be investigated scientifically (ACSIS198)
Planning and conducting
  1. Plan, select and use appropriate investigation methods, including field work and laboratory experimentation, to collect reliable data; assess risk and address ethical issues associated with these methods (ACSIS199)
  2. Select and use appropriate equipment, including digital technologies, to systematically and accurately collect and record data (ACSIS200)
Processing and analysing data and information
  1. Analyse patterns and trends in data, including describing relationships between variables and identifying inconsistencies (ACSIS203)
  2. Use knowledge of scientific concepts to draw conclusions that are consistent with evidence (ACSIS204)
Evaluating
  1. Evaluate conclusions, including identifying sources of uncertainty and possible alternative explanations, and describe specific ways to improve the quality of the data (ACSIS205)
  2. Critically analyse the validity of information in secondary sources and evaluate the approaches used to solve problems (ACSIS206)
Communicating
  1. Communicate scientific ideas and information for a particular purpose, including constructing evidence-based arguments and using appropriate scientific language, conventions and representations (ACSIS208)

Science Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 10, students analyse how the periodic table organises elements and use it to make predictions about the properties of elements. They explain how chemical reactions are used to produce particular products and how different factors influence the rate of reactions. They explain the concept of energy conservation and represent energy transfer and transformation within systems. They apply relationships between force, mass and acceleration to predict changes in the motion of objects. Students describe and analyse interactions and cycles within and between Earth’s spheres. They evaluate the evidence for scientific theories that explain the origin of the universe and the diversity of life on Earth. They explain the processes that underpin heredity and evolution. Students analyse how the models and theories they use have developed over time and discuss the factors that prompted their review.

Students develop questions and hypotheses and independently design and improve appropriate methods of investigation, including field work and laboratory experimentation. They explain how they have considered reliability, safety, fairness and ethical actions in their methods and identify where digital technologies can be used to enhance the quality of data. When analysing data, selecting evidence and developing and justifying conclusions, they identify alternative explanations for findings and explain any sources of uncertainty. Students evaluate the validity and reliability of claims made in secondary sources with reference to currently held scientific views, the quality of the methodology and the evidence cited. They construct evidence-based arguments and select appropriate representations and text types to communicate science ideas for specific purposes.

Science Work Sample Portfolios

Geography

Geography Year Description

There are two units of study in the Year 10 curriculum for Geography: Environmental change and management and Geographies of human wellbeing.

Environmental change and management focuses on investigating environmental geography through an in-depth study of a specific environment. The unit begins with an overview of the environmental functions that support all life, the major challenges to their sustainabilit...

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Key inquiry questions

A framework for developing students’ geographical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided through the inclusion of inquiry questions and specific inquiry skills, including the use and interpretation of maps, photographs and other representations of geographical data.

The key inquiry questions for Year 10 are articulated below.

  • How can the spatial variation between places and changes in environments be explained?
  • What management options exist for sustaining human and natural systems into the future?
  • How do worldviews influence decisions on how to manage environmental and social change?

Geography Content Descriptions

Geographical Knowledge and Understanding

Unit 1: Environmental change and management
  1. The human-induced environmental changes that challenge sustainability (ACHGK070)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  2. The environmental worldviews of people and their implications for environmental management (ACHGK071)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  3. The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples’ approaches to custodial responsibility and environmental management in different regions of Australia (ACHGK072)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  4. Select ONE of the following types of environment as the context for study: land, inland water, coast, marine or urban. A comparative study of examples selected from Australia and at least one other country should be included.

  5. The application of human-environment systems thinking to understanding the causes and likely consequences of the environmental change being investigated (ACHGK073)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  6. The application of geographical concepts and methods to the management of the environmental change being investigated (ACHGK074)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  7. The application of environmental economic and social criteria in evaluating management responses to the change (ACHGK075)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
Unit 2: Geographies of human wellbeing
  1. The different ways of measuring and mapping human wellbeing and development, and how these can be applied to measure differences between places (ACHGK076)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
  2. The reasons for spatial variations between countries in selected indicators of human wellbeing (ACHGK077)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  3. The issues affecting the development of places and their impact on human wellbeing, drawing on a study from a developing country or region in Africa, South America or the Pacific Islands (ACHGK078)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  4. The reasons for and consequences of spatial variations in human wellbeing on a regional scale within India or another country of the Asia region (ACHGK079)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  5. The reasons for and consequences of spatial variations in human wellbeing in Australia at the local scale (ACHGK080)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
  6. The role of international and national government and non-government organisations’ initiatives in improving human wellbeing in Australia and other countries (ACHGK081)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2

Geographical Inquiry and Skills

Observing, questioning and planning
  1. Develop geographically significant questions and plan an inquiry that identifies and applies appropriate geographical methodologies and concepts (ACHGS072)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
Collecting, recording, evaluating and representing
  1. Collect, select, record and organise relevant data and geographical information, using ethical protocols, from a range of appropriate primary and secondary sources (ACHGS073)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
  2. Evaluate sources for their reliability, bias and usefulness and represent multi-variable data in a range of appropriate forms, for example, scatter plots, tables, field sketches and annotated diagrams with and without the use of digital and spatial technologies (ACHGS074)
  3. Represent the spatial distribution of geographical phenomena by constructing special purpose maps that conform to cartographic conventions, using spatial technologies as appropriate (ACHGS075)
Interpreting, analysing and concluding
  1. Evaluate multi-variable data and other geographical information using qualitative and quantitative methods and digital and spatial technologies as appropriate to make generalisations and inferences, propose explanations for patterns, trends, relationships and anomalies, and predict outcomes (ACHGS076)
  2. Apply geographical concepts to synthesise information from various sources and draw conclusions based on the analysis of data and information, taking into account alternative points of view (ACHGS077)
  3. Identify how geographical information systems (GIS) might be used to analyse geographical data and make predictions (ACHGS078)
Communicating
  1. Present findings, arguments and explanations in a range of appropriate communication forms selected for their effectiveness and to suit audience and purpose, using relevant geographical terminology and digital technologies as appropriate (ACHGS079)
Reflecting and responding
  1. Reflect on and evaluate the findings of the inquiry to propose individual and collective action in response to a contemporary geographical challenge, taking account of environmental, economic and social considerations; and explain the predicted outcomes and consequences of their proposal (ACHGS080)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3

Geography Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 10, students explain how the interaction between geographical processes at different scales change the characteristics of places. They predict changes in the characteristics of places and environments over time, across space and at different scales and explain the predicted consequences of change. Students identify, analyse and explain significant interconnections between people, places and environments and explain changes that result from these interconnections and their consequences.  They propose explanations for distributions, patterns and spatial variations over time, across space and at different scales, and identify and describe significant associations between distribution patterns. They evaluate alternative views on a geographical challenge and alternative strategies to address this challenge using environmental, social and economic criteria and propose and justify a response.

Students use initial research to develop and modify geographically significant questions to frame an inquiry. They collect and critically evaluate a range of primary and secondary sources and select relevant geographical data and information to answer inquiry questions....

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Geography Work Sample Portfolios

History

History Year Description

The Modern World and Australia

The Year 10 curriculum provides a study of the history of the modern world and Australia from 1918 to the present, with an emphasis on Australia in its global context. The twentieth century...

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Key inquiry questions

  1. How did the nature of global conflict change during the twentieth century?
  2. What were the consequences of World War II? How did these consequences shape the modern world?
  3. How was Australian society affected by other significant global events and changes in this period?

History Content Descriptions

Historical Knowledge and Understanding

Overview of the Modern World and Australia

The following content is taught as part of an overview for the historical period. It is not intended to be taught in depth. An overview will constitute approximately 10% of the total teaching time for the year. Overview content identifies important features of the period (1918 to the present) as part of an expansive chronology that helps students understand broad patterns of historical change. As such, the overview provides the broader context for the teaching of depth study content and can be built into various parts of a teaching and learning program. This means that overview content can be used to give students an introduction to the historical period; to make the links to and between the depth studies, and to consolidate understanding through a review of the period.

Overview content for the Modern World and Australia includes the following:

  1. the inter-war years between World War I and World War II, including the Treaty of Versailles, the Roaring Twenties and the Great Depression (ACOKFH018)
  2. continuing efforts post-World War II to achieve lasting peace and security in the world, including Australia’s involvement in UN peacekeeping (ACOKFH021)
  3. the major movements for rights and freedom in the world and the achievement of independence by former colonies (ACOKFH022)
  4. the nature of the Cold War and Australia’s involvement in Cold War and post-Cold War conflicts (Korea, Vietnam, The Gulf Wars, Afghanistan), including the rising influence of Asian nations since the end of the Cold War (ACOKFH023)
  5. developments in technology, public health, longevity and standard of living during the twentieth century, and concern for the environment and sustainability (ACOKFH024)
Depth studies
There are three depth studies for this historical period. For each depth study, there are up to three electives that focus on a particular society, event, movement or development. It is expected that ONE elective will be studied in detail. A depth study will constitute approximately 30% of the total teaching time for the year. The content in each depth study elective is designed to allow detailed study of specific aspects of this historical period. As part of a teaching and learning program, depth study content can be integrated with overview content and/or integrated with other depth study electives.
1 World War II
Students investigate wartime experiences through a study of World War II in depth. This includes a study of the causes, events, outcome and broader impact of the conflict as an episode in world history, and the nature of Australia’s involvement.
  1. World War II (1939-45)
    1. An overview of the causes and course of World War II (ACDSEH024)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    2. An examination of significant events of World War II, including the Holocaust and use of the atomic bomb (ACDSEH107)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    3. The experiences of Australians during World War II (such as Prisoners of War (POWs), the Battle of Britain, Kokoda, the Fall of Singapore) (ACDSEH108)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    4. The impact of World War II, with a particular emphasis on the Australian home front, including the changing roles of women and use of wartime government controls (conscription, manpower controls, rationing and censorship) (ACDSEH109)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    5. The significance of World War II to Australia’s international relationships in the twentieth century, with particular reference to the United Nations, Britain, the USA and Asia (ACDSEH110)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
2 Rights and freedoms
Students investigate struggles for human rights in depth. This will include how rights and freedoms have been ignored, demanded or achieved in Australia and in the broader world context.
  1. Rights and freedoms (1945 – the present)
    1. The origins and significance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, including Australia’s involvement in the development of the declaration (ACDSEH023)
    2. Background to the struggle of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples for rights and freedoms before 1965, including the 1938 Day of Mourning and the Stolen Generations (ACDSEH104)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    3. The US civil rights movement and its influence on Australia (ACDSEH105)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    4. The significance of the following for the civil rights of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: 1962 right to vote federally; 1967 Referendum; Reconciliation; Mabo decision; Bringing Them Home Report (the Stolen Generations), the Apology (ACDSEH106)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    5. Methods used by civil rights activists to achieve change for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, and the role of ONE individual or group in the struggle (ACDSEH134)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    6. The continuing nature of efforts to secure civil rights and freedoms in Australia and throughout the world, such as the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (2007) (ACDSEH143)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
3 The globalising world
Students investigate one major global influence that has shaped Australian society in depth, including the development of the global influence during the twentieth century. Students study ONE of these electives: Popular culture or The environment movement or Migration experiences.
  1. Popular culture (1945 – present)
    1. The nature of popular culture in Australia at the end of World War II, including music, film and sport (ACDSEH027)
    2. Developments in popular culture in post-war Australia and their impact on society, including the introduction of television and rock ’n’ roll (ACDSEH121)
    3. The changing nature of the music, film and television industry in Australia during the post-war period, including the influence of overseas developments (such as Hollywood, Bollywood and the animation film industry in China and Japan) (ACDSEH122)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    4. Australia’s contribution to international popular culture (music, film, television, sport). (ACDSEH123)
    5. Continuity and change in beliefs and values that have influenced the Australian way of life (ACDSEH149)
  2. Migration experiences (1945 – present)
    1. The waves of post-World War II migration to Australia, including the influence of significant world events (ACDSEH144)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    2. The impact of changing government policies on Australia’s migration patterns, including abolition of the White Australia Policy, ‘Populate or Perish’ (ACDSEH145)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    3. The impact of at least ONE world event or development and its significance for Australia, such as the Vietnam War and Indochinese refugees (ACDSEH146)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    4. The contribution of migration to Australia’s changing identity as a nation and to its international relationships (ACDSEH147)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  3. The environment movement (1960s – present)
    1. The background to environmental awareness, including the nineteenth century National Parks movement in America and Australia (ACDSEH028)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
    2. The intensification of environmental effects in the twentieth century as a result of population increase, urbanisation, increasing industrial production and trade (ACDSEH125)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
    3. The growth and influence of the environment movement within Australia and overseas, and developments in ideas about the environment (notion of ‘Gaia’, ‘limits to growth’, concept of ‘sustainability’, concept of ‘rights of nature’) (ACDSEH126)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
    4. Significant events and campaigns that contributed to popular awareness of environmental issues, such as the campaign to prevent the damming of Australia’s Gordon River, the nuclear accident at Chernobyl and the Jabiluka mine controversy in 1998 (ACDSEH127)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
    5. Responses of governments, including the Australian government, and international organisations to environmental threats since the 1960s (including deforestation and climate change). (ACDSEH128)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3

Historical Skills

Chronology, terms and concepts
  1. Use chronological sequencing to demonstrate the relationship between events and developments in different periods and places (ACHHS182)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
  2. Use historical terms and concepts (ACHHS183)
Historical questions and research
  1. Identify and select different kinds of questions about the past to inform historical inquiry (ACHHS184)
  2. Evaluate and enhance these questions (ACHHS185)
  3. Identify and locate relevant sources, using ICT and other methods (ACHHS186)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
Analysis and use of sources
  1. Identify the origin, purpose and context of primary and secondary sources (ACHHS187)
  2. Process and synthesise information from a range of sources for use as evidence in an historical argument (ACHHS188)
  3. Evaluate the reliability and usefulness of primary and secondary sources (ACHHS189)
Perspectives and interpretations
  1. Identify and analyse the perspectives of people from the past (ACHHS190)
  2. Identify and analyse different historical interpretations (including their own) (ACHHS191)
Explanation and communication
  1. Develop texts, particularly descriptions and discussions that use evidence from a range of sources that are referenced (ACHHS192)
  2. Select and use a range of communication forms (oral, graphic, written) and digital technologies (ACHHS193)

History Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 10, students refer to key events, the actions of individuals and groups, and beliefs and values to explain patterns of change and continuity over time. They analyse the causes and effects of events and developments and explain their relative importance. They explain the context for people’s actions in the past. Students explain the significance of events and developments from a range of perspectives. They explain different interpretations of the past and recognise the evidence used to support these interpretations.

Students sequence events and developments within a chronological framework, and identify relationships between events across different places and periods of time. When researching, students develop, evaluate and modify questions to frame an historical inquiry. They

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History Work Sample Portfolios

Civics and Citizenship

Civics and Citizenship Year Description

The Year 10 curriculum develops student understanding of Australia’s system of government through comparison with another system of government in the Asian region. Students examine Australia’s roles and responsibilities within the international context, such as its involvement with the United Nations. Students also study the purpose and work of the High Court. They investigate the values...

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Key questions

A framework for developing students’ civics and citizenship knowledge, understanding and skills at this year level is provided by the following key questions:

  • How is Australia’s democracy defined and shaped by the global context?
  • How are government policies shaped by Australia’s international legal obligations?
  • What are the features of a resilient democracy?

Civics and Citizenship Content Descriptions

Civics and Citizenship Knowledge and Understanding

Government and democracy
  1. The key features and values of Australia’s system of government compared with ONE other system of government in the Asia region (ACHCK090)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  2. Australia’s roles and responsibilities at a global level, for example provision of foreign aid, peacekeeping, participation in international organisations and the United Nations (ACHCK091)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
Laws and citizens
  1. The role of the High Court, including in interpreting the Constitution (ACHCK092)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
  2. How Australia’s international legal obligations shape Australian law and government policies, including in relation to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (ACHCK093)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
Citizenship, diversity and identity
  1. The challenges to and ways of sustaining a resilient democracy and cohesive society (ACHCK094)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1

Civics and Citizenship Skills

Questioning and research
  1. Develop, select and evaluate a range of questions to investigate Australia's political and legal systems (ACHCS095)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
  2. Identify, gather and sort information and ideas from a range of sources and reference as appropriate (ACHCS096)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
Analysis, synthesis and interpretation
  1. Critically evaluate information and ideas from a range of sources in relation to civics and citizenship topics and issues (ACHCS097)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
  2. Account for different interpretations and points of view (ACHCS098)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
Problem solving and decision making
  1. Recognise and consider multiple perspectives and ambiguities, and use strategies to negotiate and resolve contentious issues (ACHCS099)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
  2. Use democratic processes to reach consensus on a course of action relating to a civics or citizenship issue and plan for that action (ACHCS100)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
Communication and reflection
  1. Present evidence-based civics and citizenship arguments using subject-specific language (ACHCS101)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
  2. Reflect on their role as a citizen in Australian, regional and global contexts (ACHCS102)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7

Civics and Citizenship Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 10, students compare and evaluate the key features and values of systems of government, and analyse Australia’s global roles and responsibilities. They analyse the role of the High Court and explain how Australia’s international legal obligations influence law and government policy. Students evaluate a range of factors that sustain democratic societies.

When researching, students evaluate a range of questions to investigate Australia’s political and legal systems and critically analyse information gathered from different sources for relevance, reliability and omission. They account for and evaluate different interpretations and points of view on civics and citizenship issues. When planning for action, students take account of multiple perspectives and ambiguities, use democratic processes, and negotiate solutions to an issue. Students develop and present evidenced-based arguments incorporating different points of view on civics and citizenship issues. They use appropriate texts and subject-specific language and concepts. They evaluate ways they can be active and informed citizens in different contexts.

Economics and Business

Economics and Business Year Description

In Year 10, students are expected to be taught the content through contemporary issues, events and/or case studies. Teachers will design programs that cover different contexts (personal, local, national, regional, global), and meet the needs and requirements of their students.

The Year 10 curriculum gives students the opportunity to further develop their understanding of economics and

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Key questions

A framework for developing students’ economics and business knowledge, understanding and skills at this year level is provided by the following key questions:

  • How is the performance of an economy measured?
  • Why do variations in economic performance in different economies exist?
  • What strategies do governments use to manage the economy?
  • How do governments, businesses and individuals respond to changing economic conditions?

Economics and Business Content Descriptions

Economics and Business Knowledge and Understanding

  1. Indicators of economic performance and how Australia’s economy is performing (ACHEK050)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  2. The links between economic performance and living standards, the variations that exist within and between economies, and the possible causes (ACHEK051)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
  3. The ways that governments manage the economy to improve economic performance and living standards (ACHEK052)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  4. Factors that influence major consumer and financial decisions and the short- and long-term consequences of these decisions (ACHEK053)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
  5. The ways businesses organise themselves to improve productivity, including the ways they manage their workforce, and how they respond to changing economic conditions (ACHEK054)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7

Economics and Business Skills

Questioning and research
  1. Develop questions and hypotheses about an economic or business issue or event, and plan and conduct an investigation (ACHES055)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
  2. Gather relevant and reliable data and information from a range of digital, online and print sources (ACHES056)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
Interpretation and analysis
  1. Analyse data and information in different formats to explain cause and effect relationships, make predictions and illustrate alternative perspectives (ACHES057)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
Economic reasoning, decision-making and application
  1. Generate a range of viable options in response to an economic or business issue or event, use cost-benefit analysis and appropriate criteria to recommend and justify a course of action and predict the potential consequences of the proposed action (ACHES058)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
  2. Apply economics and business knowledge, skills and concepts in familiar, new and hypothetical situations (ACHES059)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
Communication and reflection
  1. Present reasoned arguments and evidence-based conclusions in a range of appropriate formats using economics and business conventions, language and concepts (ACHES060)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
  2. Reflect on the intended and unintended consequences of economic and business decisions (ACHES061)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7

Economics and Business Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 10, students explain why and how governments manage economic performance to improve living standards. They provide explanations for variations in economic performance and standards of living within and between economies. They analyse factors that influence major consumer and financial decisions and explain the short- and long-term effects of these decisions. They explain how businesses improve productivity and respond to changing economic conditions. Students evaluate the effect of workforce management on business performance.

When researching, students develop questions and formulate hypotheses to frame an investigation of an economic or business issue or event. They gather and analyse reliable data and information from different sources to identify trends, explain relationships and make predictions. Students generate alternative responses to an issue taking into account multiple perspectives. They use cost-benefit analysis and appropriate criteria to propose and justify a course of action. They apply economics and business knowledge, skills and concepts to familiar, unfamiliar and complex hypothetical problems. Students develop and present evidence-based conclusions and reasoned arguments incorporating different points of view. They use appropriate texts and subject-specific language, conventions and concepts. They analyse the intended and unintended effects of economic and business decisions and the potential consequences of alternative actions.

The Arts: Dance

Dance Year Description

In Years 9 and 10, learning in Dance builds on the experience of the previous band. It involves students making and responding to dance, independently and in small groups, and with their teachers and communities. They explore dance as an art form through choreography, performance and appreciation.

Students build on their awareness of the body and how it is used in particular dance...

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Dance Content Descriptions

  • Improvise to find new movement possibilities and explore personal style by combining elements of dance (ACADAM020)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  • Manipulate combinations of the elements of dance and choreographic devices to communicate their choreographic intent (ACADAM021)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  • Practise and refine technical skills to develop proficiency in genre- and style-specific techniques (ACADAM022)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  • Structure dances using movement motifs, choreographic devices and form (ACADAM023)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  • Perform dances using genre- and style-specific techniques and expressive skills to communicate a choreographer’s intent (ACADAM024)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
  • Evaluate their own choreography and performance, and that of others to inform and refine future work (ACADAR025)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  • Analyse a range of dance from contemporary and past times to explore differing viewpoints and enrich their dance making, starting with dance from Australia and including dance of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, and consider dance in international contexts (ACADAR026)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  • Dance Achievement Standard

    By the end of Year 10, students analyse the choreographer’s use of the elements of dance, choreographic devices, form and production elements to communicate choreographic intent in dances they make, perform and view. They evaluate the impact of dance from different cultures, places and times on Australian dance.

    Students choreograph dances by manipulating and combining the elements of dance, choreographic devices, form and production elements to communicate their choreographic intent. They choreograph, rehearse and perform dances, demonstrating technical and expressive skills appropriate to the genre and style.

    The Arts: Drama

    Drama Year Description

    In Years 9 and 10, learning in Drama builds on the experience of the previous band. It involves students making and responding to drama independently and in small groups, and with their teachers and communities. They explore drama as an art form through improvisation, scripted drama, rehearsal and performance.

    Students refine and extend their understanding and use of role, character

    Read full description

    Drama Content Descriptions

  • Improvise with the elements of drama and narrative structure to develop ideas, and explore subtext to shape devised and scripted drama (ACADRM047)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
  • Manipulate combinations of the elements of drama to develop and convey the physical and psychological aspects of roles and characters consistent with intentions in dramatic forms and performance styles (ACADRM048)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  • Practise and refine the expressive capacity of voice and movement to communicate ideas and dramatic action in a range of forms, styles and performance spaces, including exploration of those developed by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander dramatists (ACADRM049)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
  • Structure drama to engage an audience through manipulation of dramatic action, forms and performance styles and by using design elements (ACADRM050)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  • Perform devised and scripted drama making deliberate artistic choices and shaping design elements to unify dramatic meaning for an audience (ACADRM051)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  • Evaluate how the elements of drama, forms and performance styles in devised and scripted drama convey meaning and aesthetic effect (ACADRR052)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  • Analyse a range of drama from contemporary and past times to explore differing viewpoints and enrich their drama making, starting with drama from Australia and including drama of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, and consider drama in international contexts (ACADRR053)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  • Drama Achievement Standard

    By the end of Year 10, students analyse the elements of drama, forms and performance styles and evaluate meaning and aesthetic effect in drama they devise, interpret, perform and view. They use their experiences of drama practices from different cultures, places and times to evaluate drama from different viewpoints.

    Students develop and sustain different roles and characters for given circumstances and intentions. They perform devised and scripted drama in different forms, styles and performance spaces. They collaborate with others to plan, direct, produce, rehearse and refine performances. They select and use the elements of drama, narrative and structure in directing and acting in order to engage audiences. They refine performance and expressive skills in voice and movement to convey dramatic action.

    The Arts: Media Arts

    Media Arts Year Description

    In Years 9 and 10, learning in Media Arts builds on the experience of the previous band. It involves students making and responding to media arts independently and in small groups, and with their teachers and communities. They explore media arts as an art form through representation, manipulation of genre and media conventions and analysis of media artworks.

    Students refine and...

    Read full description

    Media Arts Content Descriptions

  • Experiment with ideas and stories that manipulate media conventions and genres to construct new and alternative points of view through images, sounds and text (ACAMAM073)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  • Manipulate media representations to identify and examine social and cultural values and beliefs, including those of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (ACAMAM074)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  • Develop and refine media production skills to integrate and shape the technical and symbolic elements in images, sounds and text for a specific purpose, meaning and style (ACAMAM075)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  • Plan and design media artworks for a range of purposes that challenge the expectations of specific audiences by particular use of production processes (ACAMAM076)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  • Produce and distribute media artworks for a range of community and institutional contexts and consider social, ethical and regulatory issues (ACAMAM077)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  • Evaluate how technical and symbolic elements are manipulated in media artworks to create and challenge representations framed by media conventions, social beliefs and values for a range of audiences (ACAMAR078)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  • Analyse a range of media artworks from contemporary and past times to explore differing viewpoints and enrich their media arts making, starting with Australian media artworks, including media artworks of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, and international media artworks (ACAMAR079)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  • Media Arts Achievement Standard

    By the end of Year 10, students analyse how social and cultural values and alternative points of view are portrayed in media artworks they make, interact with and distribute. They evaluate how genre and media conventions and technical and symbolic elements are manipulated to make representations and meaning. They evaluate how social, institutional and ethical issues influence the making and use of media artworks.

    Students produce representations that communicate alternative points of view in media artworks for different community and institutional contexts. They manipulate genre and media conventions and integrate and shape the technical and symbolic elements for specific purposes, meaning and style. They collaboratively apply design, production and distribution processes.

    The Arts: Music

    Music Year Description

    In Years 9 and 10, learning in Music builds on the experience of the previous band. It involves students making and responding to music independently and in small groups, and with their teachers and communities. They explore music as an art form through listening, composing and performing.

    Students continue to develop their aural skills as they build on their understanding and use of the

    Read full description

    Music Content Descriptions

  • Improvise and arrange music, using aural recognition of texture, dynamics and expression to manipulate the elements of music to explore personal style in composition and performance (ACAMUM099)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  • Manipulate combinations of the elements of music in a range of styles, using technology and notation (ACAMUM100)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
  • Practise and rehearse to refine a variety of performance repertoire with increasing technical and interpretative skill (ACAMUM101)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  • Plan and organise compositions with an understanding of style and convention, including drawing upon Australian music by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander artists (ACAMUM102)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
  • Perform music applying techniques and expression to interpret the composer’s use of elements of music (ACAMUM103)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  • Evaluate a range of music and compositions to inform and refine their own compositions and performances (ACAMUR104)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  • Analyse a range of music from contemporary and past times to explore differing viewpoints and enrich their music making, starting with Australian music,including music of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, and consider music in international contexts (ACAMUR105)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  • Music Achievement Standard

    By the end of Year 10, students analyse different scores and performances aurally and visually. They evaluate the use of elements of music and defining characteristics from different musical styles. They use their understanding of music making in different cultures, times and places to inform and shape their interpretations, performances and compositions.

    Students interpret, rehearse and perform solo and ensemble repertoire in a range of forms and styles. They interpret and perform music with technical control, expression and stylistic understanding. They use aural skills to recognise elements of music and memorise aspects of music such as pitch and rhythm sequences. They use knowledge of the elements of music, style and notation to compose, document and share their music.

    The Arts: Visual Arts

    Visual Arts Year Description

    In Years 9 and 10, learning in Visual Arts builds on the experience of the previous band. It involves students making and responding to visual arts independently and in small groups, and with their teachers and communities.

    Students build on their awareness of how and why artists, craftspeople and designers realise their ideas through different visual representations, practices,...

    Read full description

    Visual Arts Content Descriptions

  • Conceptualise and develop representations of themes, concepts or subject matter to experiment with their developing personal style, reflecting on the styles of artists, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander artists (ACAVAM125)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  • Manipulate materials, techniques, technologies and processes to develop and represent their own artistic intentions (ACAVAM126)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  • Develop and refine techniques and processes to represent ideas and subject matter (ACAVAM127)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  • Plan and design artworks that represent artistic intention (ACAVAM128)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  • Present ideas for displaying artworks and evaluate displays of artworks (ACAVAM129)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
  • Evaluate how representations communicate artistic intentions in artworks they make and view to inform their future art making (ACAVAR130)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  • Analyse a range of visual artworks from contemporary and past times to explore differing viewpoints and enrich their visual art-making, starting with Australian artworks, including those of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, and consider international artworks (ACAVAR131)
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
  • Visual Arts Achievement Standard

    By the end of Year 10, students evaluate how representations communicate artistic intentions in artworks they make and view. They evaluate artworks and displays from different cultures, times and places. They analyse connections between visual conventions, practices and viewpoints that represent their own and others’ ideas. They identify influences of other artists’ on their own artworks.

    Students manipulate materials, techniques and processes to develop and refine techniques and processes to represent ideas and subject matter in their artworks.

    Design and Technologies

    Design and Technologies Year Description

    Learning in Design and Technologies builds on concepts, skills and processes developed in earlier years, and teachers will revisit, strengthen and extend these as needed.

    By the end of Year 10 students will have had the opportunity to design and produce at least four designed solutions focused on one or more of the five technologies contexts content descriptions. There is one optional content...

    Read full description

    Design and Technologies Content Descriptions

    Design and Technologies knowledge and understanding

    1. Critically analyse factors, including social, ethical and sustainability considerations, that impact on designed solutions for global preferred futures and the complex design and production processes involved (ACTDEK040)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
    2. Explain how products, services and environments evolve with consideration of preferred futures and the impact of emerging technologies on design decisions (ACTDEK041)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
    3. By the end of Year 10 students will have had the opportunity to design and produce designed solutions for one or more of the technologies contexts below. (ACTDEK042)
    4. Investigate and make judgments on how the characteristics and properties of materials are combined with force, motion and energy to create engineered solutions (ACTDEK043)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
    5. Investigate and make judgments on the ethical and sustainable production and marketing of food and fibre (ACTDEK044)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
    6. Investigate and make judgments on how the principles of food safety, preservation, preparation, presentation and sensory perceptions influence the creation of food solutions for healthy eating (ACTDEK045)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
    7. Investigate and make judgments on how the characteristics and properties of materials, systems, components, tools and equipment can be combined to create designed solutions (ACTDEK046)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
    8. Investigate and make judgments, within a range of technologies specialisations, on how technologies can be combined to create designed solutions (ACTDEK047)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3

    Design and Technologies processes and production skills

    1. Critique needs or opportunities to develop design briefs and investigate and select an increasingly sophisticated range of materials, systems, components, tools and equipment to develop design ideas (ACTDEP048)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
    2. Apply design thinking, creativity, innovation and enterprise skills to develop, modify and communicate design ideas of increasing sophistication (ACTDEP049)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
    3. Work flexibly to safely test, select, justify and use appropriate technologies and processes to make designed solutions (ACTDEP050)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
    4. Evaluate design ideas, processes and solutions against comprehensive criteria for success recognising the need for sustainability (ACTDEP051)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/6
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
    5. Develop project plans using digital technologies to plan and manage projects individually and collaboratively taking into consideration time, cost, risk and production processes (ACTDEP052)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/2
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/3
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/4
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7

    Design and Technologies Achievement Standard

    By the end of Year 10 students explain how people working in design and technologies occupations consider factors that impact on design decisions and the technologies used to produce products, services and environments. They identify the changes necessary to designed solutions to realise preferred futures they have described. When producing designed solutions for identified needs or opportunities students evaluate the features of technologies and their appropriateness for purpose for one or more of the technologies contexts.

    Students create designed solutions for one or more of the technologies contexts based on a critical evaluation of needs or opportunities. They establish detailed criteria for success, including sustainability considerations, and use these to evaluate their ideas and designed solutions and processes. They create and connect design ideas and processes of increasing complexity and justify decisions. Students communicate and document projects, including marketing for a range of audiences. They independently and collaboratively apply sequenced production and management plans when producing designed solutions, making adjustments to plans when necessary. They select and use appropriate technologies skilfully and safely to produce high quality designed solutions suitable for the intended purpose.

    Digital Technologies

    Digital Technologies Year Description

    Learning in Digital Technologies focuses on further developing understanding and skills in computational thinking such as precisely and accurately describing problems and the use of modular approaches to solutions. It also focuses on engaging students with specialised learning in preparation for vocational training or learning in the senior secondary years.

    By the end of Year 10, students will...

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    Digital Technologies Content Descriptions

    Digital Technologies knowledge and understanding

    1. Investigate the role of hardware and software in managing, controlling and securing the movement of and access to data in networked digital systems (ACTDIK034)
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    2. Analyse simple compression of data and how content data are separated from presentation (ACTDIK035)
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    Digital Technologies processes and production strand

    1. Develop techniques for acquiring, storing and validating quantitative and qualitative data from a range of sources, considering privacy and security requirements

      (ACTDIP036)
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    2. Analyse and visualise data to create information and address complex problems, and model processes, entities and their relationships using structured data (ACTDIP037)
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    3. Precisely define and decompose real-world problems, taking into account functional and non-functional requirements and including interviewing stakeholders to identify needs (ACTDIP038)
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    4. Design the user experience of a digital system, evaluating alternative designs against criteria including functionality, accessibility, usability, and aesthetics (ACTDIP039)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
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    5. Design algorithms represented diagrammatically and in structured English and validate algorithms and programs through tracing and test cases (ACTDIP040)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
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    6. Implement modular programs, applying selected algorithms and data structures including using an object-oriented programming language (ACTDIP041)
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    7. Critically evaluate how well developed solutions and existing information systems and policies take account of future risks and sustainability and provide opportunities for innovation and enterprise (ACTDIP042)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
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      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/2
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    8. Create interactive solutions for sharing ideas and information online, taking into account social contexts and legal responsibilities (ACTDIP043)
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      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
    9. Plan and manage projects using an iterative and collaborative approach, identifying risks and considering safety and sustainability (ACTDIP044)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
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      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/5
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/7
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3

    Digital Technologies Achievement Standard

    By the end of Year 10, students explain the control and management of networked digital systems and the security implications of the interaction between hardware, software and users. They explain simple data compression, and why content data are separated from presentation.

    Students plan and manage digital projects using an iterative approach. They define and decompose complex problems in terms of functional and non-functional requirements. Students design and evaluate user experiences and algorithms. They design and implement modular programs, including an object-oriented program, using algorithms and data structures involving modular functions that reflect the relationships of real-world data and data entities. They take account of privacy and security requirements when selecting and validating data. Students test and predict results and implement digital solutions. They evaluate information systems and their solutions in terms of risk, sustainability and potential for innovation and enterprise. They share and collaborate online, establishing protocols for the use, transmission and maintenance of data and projects.

    Health and Physical Education

    Health and Physical Education Year Description

    The Year 9 and 10 curriculum supports students to refine and apply strategies for maintaining a positive outlook and evaluating behavioural expectations in different leisure, social, movement and online situations. Students learn to apply health and physical activity information to devise and implement personalised plans for maintaining healthy and active habits. They also experience...

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    Health and Physical Education Content Descriptions

    Personal, social and community health

    Being healthy, safe and active
    1. Evaluate factors that shape identities, and analyse how individuals impact the identities of others (ACPPS089)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
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      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
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    2. Examine the impact of changes and transitions on relationships (ACPPS090)
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    3. Plan, rehearse and evaluate options (including CPR and first aid) for managing situations where their own or others’ health, safety and wellbeing may be at risk (ACPPS091)
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    4. Propose, practise and evaluate responses in situations where external influences may impact on their ability to make healthy and safe choices (ACPPS092)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
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    Communicating and interacting for health and wellbeing
    1. Investigate how empathy and ethical decision making contribute to respectful relationships (ACPPS093)
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    2. Evaluate situations and propose appropriate emotional responses and then reflect on possible outcomes of different responses (ACPPS094)
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    3. Evaluate and apply health information from a range of sources to health decisions and situations (ACPPS095)
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    Contributing to healthy and active communities
    1. Plan, implement and critique strategies to enhance the health, safety and wellbeing of their communities (ACPPS096)
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      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3
    2. Plan and evaluate new and creative interventions that promote their own and others’ connection to community and natural and built environments (ACPPS097)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
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      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
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    3. Critique behaviours and contextual factors that influence the health and wellbeing of their communities (ACPPS098)
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      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/3

    Movement and physical activity

    Moving our body
    1. Perform and refine specialised movement skills in challenging movement situations (ACPMP099)
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    2. Evaluate own and others’ movement compositions, and provide and apply feedback in order to enhance performance situations (ACPMP100)
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    3. Develop, implement and evaluate movement concepts and strategies for successful outcomes (ACPMP101)
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    Understanding movement
    1. Design, implement and evaluate personalised plans for improving or maintaining their own and others’ physical activity and fitness levels (ACPMP102)
      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/generalCapability/1
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    2. Analyse the impact of effort, space, time, objects and people when composing and performing movement sequences (ACPMP103)
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    3. Examine the role physical activity, outdoor recreation and sport play in the lives of Australians and investigate how this has changed over time (ACPMP104)
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      • http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/crossCurriculum/1
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    Learning through movement
    1. Devise, implement and refine strategies demonstrating leadership and collaboration skills when working in groups or teams (ACPMP105)
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    2. Transfer understanding from previous movement experiences to create solutions to movement challenges (ACPMP106)
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    3. Reflect on how fair play and ethical behaviour can influence the outcomes of movement activities (ACPMP107)
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    Health and Physical Education Achievement Standard

    By the end of Year 10, students critically analyse contextual factors that influence their identities, relationships, decisions and behaviours. They analyse the impact attitudes and beliefs about diversity have on community connection and wellbeing. They evaluate the outcomes of emotional responses to different situations. Students access, synthesise and apply health information from credible sources to propose and justify responses to health situations. Students propose and evaluate interventions to improve fitness and physical activity levels in their communities. They examine the role physical activity has played historically in defining cultures and cultural identities.

    Students demonstrate leadership, fair play and cooperation across a range of movement and health contexts. They apply decision-making and problem-solving skills when taking action to enhance their own and others’ health, safety and wellbeing. They apply and transfer movement concepts and strategies to new and challenging movement situations. They apply criteria to make judgments about and refine their own and others’ specialised movement skills and movement performances. They work collaboratively to design and apply solutions to movement challenges.